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28 juillet, 2013

Cardinale Dionisio Laurerio Frate Ordine Servi di Maria che aveva le stesse idee e sentimenti di vita evangelica di Papa Francesco.

Classé dans : Non classé — andreadicaffa02 @ 15:58

 

 

                             

FIORENZO LAURELLI

 

LA PORPORA E L’ARMILLA.

VITA ED OPERE DEL CARDINALE DIONISIO LAURERIO, FRATE SERVITA.

 

 

 

1. Origini familiari e nascita

 

 

        Nel 1497 nasceva a Benevento Dionisio Laurerio, illustre figura di prelato del Rinascimento, nel transito verso la Controriforma.

Egli è personaggio ignoto ai più nel XX secolo, mentre invece è stato autentico protagonista di alcuni degli avvenimenti più importanti del suo tempo; per questo è interessante, anche alla luce di documenti d’archivio da poco accessibili, riesaminare alcuni periodi della sua vita che furono alla base di molti rilevanti accadimenti del primo Cinquecento.

Molti studi biografici esplicitano i dubbi dell’autore soprattutto sul luogo e sulla data della nascita, fatta eccezione per quanto si ricava dalla lettura della lapide tombale, un tempo visibile nella chiesa di S. Marcello al Corso in Roma. E’ questa una delle poche fonti valide, perché atto formale e perché contemporanea, per stabilire con sufficiente certezza entrambe le notizie: Dionisio Laurerio beneventano, morto a Roma il 17 settembre 1542 di anni 45. Si è potuta acquisire ulteriore sicurezza sul luogo natale anche dall’esame della raccolta di atti pubblici relativi all’Ordine dei Serviti denominata Archivum ecclesiae et conventus Sancti Marcelli de Urbe O.S.B.M.V. , conservata, per l’appunto, presso la Casa generalizia dell’Ordine, sita in Roma presso quel convento. In quasi tutti i documenti in cui Dionisio compaia a vario titolo egli è denominato oppure si firma «fra  Dionisio beneventano», a parte le poche occasioni in cui venga utilizzato il cognome.

Volendo attribuire piena ufficialità anche al computo dell’età, quale risulta dalla predetta lastra tombale, ne scaturisce un sicuro anno di nascita di 45 anni precedente la data di morte: fissata questa al 1542, ne ricaviamo l’anno 1497. Lo stesso Gian Vincenzo Ciarlanti nelle sue Memorie storiche [i] annota fedelmente l’epigrafe, così come riportata dal Ms. Chigiano I [ii]  e dagli scritti di tutti i principali biografi.

Il solo Eubel[iii] assegna al Laurerio anche un secondo nome, che non risulta in alcun altra biografia o documento del tempo: Dionysius (Neagrus) de Laurerio, nome al quale non è facile attribuire neppure un preciso significato[iv]. Assolutamente sconosciuta è, inspiegabilmente, la famiglia di origine, quando soprattutto le elevatissime dignità ecclesiastiche rivestite da Dionisio avrebbero lasciato supporre ben altra messe di notizie sugli ignoti familiari del Nostro.

Basti dire che, secondo Giovanni De Nicastro[v] si disquisiva, già nel sec. XVIII, se Laurerio fosse nato in Benevento «non di oscuri natali, siccome scrisse il già citato Giovanni Palazio[vi] ed altresì l’Abate Ughelli[vii] [e come A. Ciaconius[viii]], ma di nobili genitori, siccome vuole il soprallodato Arcidiacono Mario della Vipera (…) nel M.S. Discorso delle Famiglie nobili di Benevento» [ix]. Anche a costo di rendere ancora più complessa l’identificazione della famiglia di origine, citeremo il passo tratto dall’Archivio del Convento della SS. Annunziata di Firenze[x] sotto il giorno 20 dicembre 1539:

 

Ricordo come questo dì venne nuova da Roma come el Rev[erendissi]mo P[riore] Generale M[aestr]o Dionisio da Benevento, per padre et per madre fiorentino, fu assumpto alla dignità del Cardinalato [].

 

            Questa informazione, tratta dalle Ricordanze del convento fiorentino, non è, almeno per quanto concerne la madre, del tutto priva di fondamento. Sul finire del Quattrocento Benevento accoglieva una nutrita colonia di «forastieri», composta da mercanti, finanzieri, funzionari della Curia pontificia[xi]. Ed è proprio in questro gruppo di “naturalizzati” – specie quelli originari dell’Umbria – che va ricercato il ceppo familiare di Dionisio Laurerio. Al pari dei Roscio – ternani d’origine ed attestati a Benevento almeno dal primo Cinquecento[xii]  - anche i Laureri (o meglio Laureli, nella denominazione originaria) provenivano dall’Umbria, precisamente da Amelia nel cui patriziato erano incardinati[xiii].

            Gli amerini costituivano un gruppo sociale forte ed attivo nella diplomazia e nell’ amministrazione dei governi pontifici e laici, come attestano la fortuna di alcune grandi casate amerine[xiv] e, in primis, quella dei Geraldini, che nel XV secolo ritroviamo in posti di assoluto rilievo sia nella corte dei sovrani pontifici che in quelle aragonesi di Spagna e di Napoli[xv]. Assai intensi e documentati i rapporti tra i Geraldini ed i loro conterranei Laureli[xvi]. 

Insomma, nella prima metà del Cinquecento, i Laureri erano sicuramente inseriti nel gruppo di potere benventano. Come peraltro i Roscio, che tracce consistenti indicano loro imparentati[xvii]. Tuttavia, almeno per i primi, il trasferimento da Amelia a Benevento può riferirsi ad una circostanza ben precisa: la preconizzazione di Alessandro Geraldini, nel 1496, a vescovo di Volturara[xviii]. I ripetuti impegni diplomatici del prelato, già cappellano maggiore di Ferdinando il Cattolico presso la corte spagnola, e le ripetute missioni a Londra, a Bruxelles, in Scozia, naturalmente gli impedirono di metter piede nella piccola diocesi, allora suffraganea di Benevento. Alessandro, uniformandosi alla «prassi ormai consolidata di dissociare le rendite ecclesiastiche dalle funzioni religiose cui in origine erano collegate»[xix], necessariamente dovette nominare suo vicario generale un congiunto prossimo, certamente esperto di diritto ecclesiastico: tutti i legami esposti, parentali ed economici, fra il casato dei Geraldini e quello dei Laureli autorizzano a presumere che l’incarico dovette essere affidato proprio ad uno di questi ultimi, evidentemente il padre ovvero lo zio di Dionisio, che a Benevento, o quantomeno nel territorio dell’arcidiocesi, sarebbe nato nel successivo anno 1497[xx].

Le funzioni del vicario vescovile erano imprescindibilmente legate all’esercizio di poteri giuridici: i Laureli d’Amelia erano cultori degli studi e delle professioni legali, come comprovato persino dal ceppo di notai che, in aggiunta a quello amerino, si sarebbe formato nella Calabria Citeriore a partire dal XVI secolo fino al XVIII; in una regione ove i Geraldini avrebbero conservato quasi continuativamente la cattedra episcopale di Catanzaro dal 1467 al 1570[xxi].

Prove ultime della diretta discendenza di Dionisio Laurerio dai Laureli d’Amelia, sono i documenti conservati nell’archivio generalizio dei frati Servi di Maria. Un codice manoscritto settecentesco, pieno di appunti e notizie sulla vita del Nostro, intitolato MSS. SPECTANTIA AD EMIN. CARDINAL. DIONYSYUM LAURERIO ORD. B.M.V.  è illustrato nel saggio di Antonio M. Vicentini Il Card. Dionisio Laurerio di Benevento nelle memorie raccolte dal suo concittadino e correligioso P. Giuseppe Romano servita [xxii]. Fra i molti appunti sulla vita del Nostro, notevole quello costituito da quattro righe, annotate esattamente secondo questo schema:

     

          Pro Card.li Dionisio Laurerio.

Is mihi videtur amplissimus qui sua virtute in

          altiorem locum pervenit.

              Cicero pro Roscio Amerino.

 

E’ una citazione tratta dal passo XXX dell’orazione di Cicerone in difesa di Sesto Roscio, originario di Amelia, ed è legittimo pensare che si ponesse l’analogia con l’antica patria di Dionisio, l’oriundo amerino del XVI secolo al quale la dedica era traslabile in toto.

Quindi, non è affatto inverosimile che la genitrice potesse essere stata una fiorentina; anzi, la stessa scelta operata dalla famiglia sull’ordine religioso in cui inserire il figlio «giovanissimo», ordine decisamente lontano dalle tradizioni più diffuse nell’Italia meridionale, fa riflettere sulle ascendenze familiari: dai secoli passati ad ora furono solo 6 i beneventani professi tra i serviti, e tuttora resta dominante la presenza di religiosi provenienti dalle provincie dell’Italia centrale [xxiii].

Molto illuminanti sono, infine, le pergamene A13 ed A14  conservate presso l’archivio generale servita[xxiv]. Questi documenti, datati rispettivamente 27 marzo e 1° aprile 1533, non hanno mai trovato alcuna spiegazione logica su quale fosse la ragione ultima per la quale fossero depositati tra le carte di quell’archivio, relative soprattutto alla storia dell’Ordine: le pergamene riferiscono, infatti, di conferimenti di benefici sulle chiese di S. Giovanni de Cathello a Pietracatella (nel primo documento), e sulle chiese di S. Urbano a Pietracatella, S. Giusta a Monacilioni, e sulla cappella di S. Antonio di Padova, nella chiesa di S. Salvatore, a Toro (nel secondo documento). Dunque, trattavasi di piccole località del Molise, che però appartenevano ai possedimenti di S. Sofia di Benevento e, quindi, all’enclave costituita da quell’abitato sotto la giurisdizione dello Stato della Chiesa (insieme con S. Giovanni in Galdo e Fragneto l’Abate)[xxv]. Il motivo primo per il quale i documenti furono riposti nell’archivio servita è costituito dal fatto che destinatario dei suddetti benefici era Salvatore de Lauderio, rappresentato nell’atto dal figlio Antonio; e proprio quel cognome costituisce una delle varie forme in cui era denominato lo stesso Dionisio. Infatti, quando non compariva con la formula «fra Dionisio di Benevento», ovvero col cognome Laurerio o, successivamente, da cardinale, col titolo di «San Marcello», egli era chiamato, per l’appunto, «Lauderio» o «de Lauderio»: così nel regesto dei documenti dell’Archivio del Convento di S. Marcello[xxvi], tra i Rotuli dei lettori legisti ecc.[xxvii], nel Repertorio di tutti i professori antichi e moderni della famosa università ecc. di S. Mazzetti, nella procura del 25 novembre 1529 relativa alla dona[FL1] zione del convento di S. Maria del Parto a Mergellina e nel relativo atto pubblico redatto da Domenico de Rocca il 17 giugno 1530 [xxviii]. E troviamo quel cognome tra i documenti del Fondo di S. Sofia che riguardano suoi familiari[xxix]: un beneficio a favore del Magnifico Domino Vincentio de Lauderio v. i. p., sotto la data del 6 aprile 1555, e, nel 1557[xxx], uno strumento a beneficio del medesimo D[omi]no Vincentio de Lauderiis (fra i testimoni Giacomo Roscio).

Al contrario, nell’originale delle istruzioni pontificie con cui si ordinava a fra Dionisio la nunziatura presso il re di Scozia (23 ottobre 1536) il cognome del Nostro appariva scritto come «Laurelio»[xxxi]. Anche il citato vol. 34 del Convento della SS. Annunziata di Firenze[xxxii], questa volta sotto la data del 24 gennaio 1539, evidenzia tra le pagine manoscritte il cognome Laurerii presto corretto, con la stessa mano, in Laurelii (nella «ricordanza» intitolata Ordinationes R[everendissi]mi Prioris Generalis fratris Dionisii ecc.), a testimonianza di quanto gli stessi frati dell’Ordine lo scrivessero ora con l’una ed ora con l’altra denominazione [xxxiii].

Se, poi, consideriamo che i decreti A13 ed A14 vedono nel ruolo di concedente il cardinale Alessandro Farnese, un anno prima che diventi pontefice col nome di Paolo III, alla luce di quella straordinaria familiarità che legava Dionisio all’arcivescovo, e di cui si vedrà diffusamente in tutto lo studio, potremo dedurre che il Salvatore de Lauderio di quelle pergamene è certamente consanguineo del Servita, probabilmente il fratello[xxxiv].

 

 

2. I primi passi nell’Ordine dei Serviti

 

Non possediamo alcuna notizia sui primissimi anni di vita, né sappiamo quanto abbia direttamente inciso sulla sua formazione l’insegnamento certamente impartitogli dai familiari, in particolare da parte del vicario di Volturara; tuttavia, gli studi storici effettuati sulle scuole del tempo ci inducono a ritenere che Dionisio, fino ai nove o dieci anni, dovette essere istruito soprattutto da precettori molto vicini alla famiglia. Sicuramente i primi studi dovettero essere molto efficaci se, secondo A. M. Rossi, «il Laurerio entrò giovanissimo tra i Servi di Maria»[xxxv], ma l’ingegno assolutamente portentoso ed una particolare inclinazione per le scienze fisiche e matematiche presto lo misero in luce, per cui fu tempestivamente inviato negli studi principali dell’Ordine.

L’archivio generale servita evidenzia, negli elenchi del 14 dicembre 1514, 21 febbraio 1515 e 23 marzo del 1515 [xxxvi], che tra i frati impegnati nello studio di Bologna era presente il giovane «fra Dionisio da Benevento» (all’epoca sedicenne). E’ d’uopo ricordare che la città era rinomata per l’importanza della sua Università, già vecchia di cinque secoli, nota soprattutto per le materie giuridiche, ma è notevole rammentare che una scuola, negli anni nei quali il Nostro vi risiedeva da studente, riuscì a risolvere un problema che aveva affascinato i logici dell’antichità: risolvere l’equazione algebrica di terzo grado. Scipione Dal Ferro, «matematico eccellentissimo» di quello Studio, riuscì nel 1515, secondo quanto Girolamo Cardano scrisse nell’Artis magnae [xxxvii] a trovarne la risoluzione. E grande fama a quella scuola bolognese venne anche dalla presenza del più antico osservatorio astronomico d’Europa, meta degli studiosi del continente fra cui Nicola Copernico, padre fondatore del sistema eliocentrico; è noto che egli vi si trattenne dal 1500 al 1512 per familiarizzare «con le dottrine pitagoriche e con altre dottrine greche, comprese le teorie astronomiche»[xxxviii] .

Una tale effervescenza di studi non poteva lasciare indifferente Dionisio: ma quando accadde che la sua mente venisse catturata dallo studio dell’algebra e dell’astronomia, discipline che contribuirono ulteriormente alla celebrità del Servita? Sembrerebbe che egli abbia composto l’opera Plurima ad artem mathematicam pertinentia [xxxix] ed è raffigurato mentre «posa la mano su di un’armilla ed accenna a calcoli»[xl] nel ritratto da generale dell’Ordine conservato nella chiesa dell’Annunziata dei frati serviti di Firenze; tuttavia non è noto se le sue conoscenze scientifiche cominciarono a svilupparsi già negli anni giovanili o, poco dopo, quando sarebbe tornato a Bologna dallo Studio di Perugia per sedere alla cattedra di Metafisica dell’Università. E’ un fatto, comunque, che i Rotuli dei lettori legisti [xli] testimoniano nel vol. II la presenza di «fr. Dionisio Lauderio» nell’anno accademico 1526-27, proprio nel periodo in cui Del Ferro era ancora docente, e nel successivo anno ‘27-28.

Continuando l’esame dei biografi del Nostro sappiamo che egli

 

conseguì la laurea magistrale, e dopo di essa fu applicato alla Santa predicazione della Divina parola, in cui divenne cotanto eccellente, che riuscì di stupore al Papa istesso, e a tutti i Cardinali, massime quando predicò in Roma nella Chiesa di S. Lorenzo in Damaso [xlii].

 

Fu professore di teologia sacra almeno dal 1522, perché tanto ci è confermato nell’Approvatio pro filiatione F. Dionisi Laurerii in conventu S. Marcelli datata al 10 settembre[xliii]. Transitò, dunque, in quell’anno alla cattedra di Perugia e poi a Bologna, ove si trattenne fino al 1529; lì non dovette soltanto approfondire le tematiche delle scienze fisiche bensì vi allacciò rapporti che avrebbero contribuito a proiettarlo verso le più alte vette del governo temporale della Chiesa.

Di quel tempo è anche la grande amicizia che legò Dionisio con Jacopo Sannazaro.

 

E [] questi fu sì caro al detto poeta, ch’egli donò alla Religione de’ Servi la chiesa ed il convento di Mergoglino a di lui contemplazione e col patto ch’egli [il Laurerio] ne fosse protettore e rettor perpetuo, come costa dalla lettera di Girolamo Amadei Generale dell’Ordine negli Annali T. II ad annum 1531 [xliv].

 

3. Le premesse verso il generalato dell’Ordine: penitenziere di Enrico VIII

 

La grande statura di studioso aveva consentito in pochi anni al Servita di fare sfoggio delle sue qualità all’interno ed all’esterno del suo ordine religioso; infatti, fin dal 18 maggio 1527, ancora trentenne, era stato nominato nel Capitolo Generale procuratore generale dell’Ordine dei Servi di Maria[xlv]. Tuttavia quegli anni passarono alla storia perché in Inghilterra si stava preparando il più grave scisma della Chiesa cattolica dell’età moderna, insieme con la Riforma tedesca. Enrico VIII Tudor, già dalla primavera del 1527, muoveva i primi passi per dare attuazione al proposito di divorziare da Caterina d’Aragona[xlvi]; anche questo periodo della storia doveva vedere Dionisio Laurerio fra i protagonisti attivi.

Del tutto infruttuosi si erano dimostrati i primi tentativi del re inglese posti in essere nei confronti del cardinal Wolsey, in quanto legato apostolico, di ottenere il divorzio senza che apparissero le sue mire al matrimonio con Anna Bolena, in considerazione dei pareri negativi espressi da vescovi e giureconsulti. Neppure la prigionia di papa Clemente VII in Castel S. Angelo durante il Sacco ed il conseguente potere di vicario generale pontificio attribuito a Wolsey contribuirono a cambiare le cose secondo il volere di Enrico. Questi riportò completo insuccesso, altresì, dal primo incontro di Orvieto del novembre 1527 tra il pontefice e l’inviato del Tudor, Knight, così come dal successivo del marzo 1528 tra Clemente e Stephen Gardiner, massimo canonista d’Inghilterra, insieme con Edward Fox[xlvii].

Enrico, nella primavera del 1530, decise di inviare a Bologna il padre di Anna Bolena, il conte di Wiltshire. In città si stava svolgendo l’incontro tra Clemente e Carlo V, i quali avrebbero dovuto discutere in primis dell’assetto dell’Italia e della guerra contro i Turchi, ma, di certo, non potevano trascurare i legittimi interessi di Caterina d’Aragona, cugina di Carlo, minacciati dalle pretese del sovrano inglese. Wiltshire, accompagnato dal penitenziere del re, Tommaso Cranmer, non ebbe successo né con l’imperatore né col pontefice, il quale, il 7 marzo, rimandò la causa del matrimonio ad un uditore di Rota, Paolo Capizuchi.

A sorpresa,  il giorno 14, Enrico VIII Tudor scrisse al papa dalla reggia di Londra chiedendogli di voler accettare fra Dionisio Laurerio quale suo penitenziere presso la S. Sede, proprio in sostituzione di Cranmer. La pergamena originale, firmata dal « fidei defensor [] Henricus», conservata dai serviti nell’archivio romano, lo descrive come «vir [] multa probitate ac virtutibus ornatus, et esimius sacrae Theologiae professor, in primisque de nobis bene merendi cupidus []».

La vasta materia relativa all’incarico di penitenziere è così definibile: «tutto ciò che poteva rappresentare un caso di coscienza, un impedimento a conseguire o celebrare un sacramento, un dubbio teologico o giuridico, sempre in materia di fede, e così pure una violazione di canoni o un’offesa di assiomi teologici»[xlviii]. Dunque, il Laurerio veniva direttamente introdotto in un’attività pienamente funzionale al primo problema di Enrico. La sua dottrina teologica e la conseguente considerazione di cui godeva nelle università erano, evidentemente, considerate doti di prim’ordine per giustificare una scelta in un ruolo così tanto impegnativo. Con quello che sarebbe seguito possiamo dire che, nonostante l’insuccesso riportato dal Nostro nel cruento divorzio di Enrico, le battaglie che avrebbe ingaggiato in concistoro, per la vittoria delle sue posizioni dottrinali, insieme con gli incarichi attribuitigli da Paolo III, sono le prove più significative delle elevate conoscenze teologiche e canonistiche possedute. Probabilmente l’incarico per la Corona inglese fu diretto effetto della strategia prescelta dal Cranmer, il quale aveva fatto richiedere dal re, già dall’anno precedente, che le grandi università d’Europa formulassero il proprio parere sulla legittimità del matrimonio: ed un famoso teologo universitario, rappresentante del suo ordine religioso nella Curia romana nelle vesti di procuratore generale, era un valido caposaldo da cui muovere [xlix].

Nel 1531, nonostante i pareri delle università, nulla cambiò: la causa matrimoniale di Enrico continuò a giacere presso la S. Sede, «senza progressi sostanziali»[l], mentre il re forzava il clero inglese a riconoscerlo capo supremo della Chiesa nazionale (gennaio) cacciando Caterina ed assegnando i suoi appartamenti ad Anna Bolena (agosto)[li]. Dionisio Laurerio, nel frattempo docente alla Sapienza di Roma, continuava l’esame dei documenti e dei conflitti canonici sottostanti alla questione matrimoniale: l’ambasciatore a Roma, Benet, stendendo il dispaccio del 30 gennaio, assicurava a Gardiner, l’abile canonista diventato nel frattempo primo segretario del re, di aver ricevuto «3 libri a stampa sulla causa del re, e di averne mostrato uno a fra Dionisio»[lii]. Ma il solco tra corona inglese e Sede Apostolica andava aumentando a dismisura: il 5 gennaio Clemente aveva inviato un monitorio in cui rinnovava al re il divieto di contrarre nuovo matrimonio[liii]. Il breve, comunque, giunse tardi al nunzio in Inghilterra, visto che il 16 gennaio i legali della corona avevano accusato il clero nazionale di praemunire per aver riconosciuta l’autorità legatizia di Wolsey[liv].

Neppure le pressioni su Paolo Capizuchi, l’uditore di Rota che formalmente trattava la causa matrimoniale potevano, ovviamente, arrivare al successo[lv]. Ma se «alla Rota le promesse e i favori di Carlo V avevano impedito ogni affermarsi dell’influenza inglese»[lvi], in concistoro ancora permaneva qualche possibilità: i cardinali Valle e Trani sembravano inclinare a vantaggio del Tudor, come anche Alessandro Farnese (futuro Paolo III) e Giulio Del Monte (futuro Giulio III).  «E’ intieramente dalla parte del re», come scriveva, riferendosi al Farnese, il vescovo di Auxerre[lvii]. Del Monte offrì apertamente ad Enrico VIII il suo appoggio nella corrispondenza del 5 giugno 1532[lviii]. Non è probabilmente una coincidenza se fra Dionisio, il successivo giorno 6, inviò ad Enrico una lettera simile, nella quale ricordava al sovrano tutto il suo continuo lavorio in favore della sua causa, chiedendogli se egli ne fosse a conoscenza tramite l’ambasciatore Benet. «Precipue apud Reverendissimum Dominum De Monte et Reverendum Dominum  …minensem»: egli aveva lavorato in stretto accordo con Del Monte, e con il monsignore di cui appare mutilo il nome nel dispaccio[lix], e supplicava il re affinché facesse uso di lui come meglio poteva, firmandosi «Humilis servus frater Dionisius ordinis servorum beate virginis procurator generalis».

 

4. Tra scienza e magia

 

Se, dunque, il Nostro era solidale compagno di battaglia dei cardinali Del Monte e Farnese, apertamente schierati anche questi, sappiamo a quale periodo è probabilmente da ascriversi la nascita della grande amicizia fra Dionisio ed il Farnese, certamente conseguente alla grande considerazione da questi nutrita per il Servita: vero è che il cardinale era stato arcivescovo di Benevento tra il 1514 ed il 1521, nonché tra 1528 e 1530[lx], tuttavia era improbabile che il giovane Laurerio lo avesse incontrato nella sua città poiché aveva trascorso quegli anni sempre lontano dalla patria; così come Alessandro era vissuto soprattutto a Roma [lxi].

Anche il celebre episodio, narrato da tutti i biografi, che vede i due dialogare sulle matematiche con autentico ardore, è forse di quegli anni. Scrive, infatti, il Ciaconius[lxii] che  essi discorrevano spesso familiarmente di matematica ed astronomia perché queste cose appassionavano il Farnese e fra Dionisio «rerum Mathematicarum stodiosissimi necessitudine et conversatione per subsecivas horas delectatum». Un giorno nel quale i due erano impegnati in queste conversazioni, come narra anche il Ciarlanti,

 

il Laurerio li disse con animo risoluto, ch’egli haveva ad essere sicuramente Papa, s’alzò all’hora il Cardinale ciò udendo, e caramente l’abbracciò, e levandosi da testa la berretta rossa, la pose sopra il capo di quello, con darli speranza di haverlo ad ornare di tale eminente dignità [lxiii].

 

Non sappiamo se la vicenda sia storicamente avvenuta, tuttavia essa è stata ripresa da tutti i primi biografi di Laurerio, e, soprattutto, può essere considerata verosimile dato il curriculum del servita: gli studi bolognesi e la successiva produzione scientifica di Dionisio, di cui si è prima fatto cenno, la docenza nelle università da quasi dieci anni, nonché, fin dall’età di 30 anni, l’investitura della carica di procuratore generale dell’ordine e di penitenziere di Enrico VIII. D’altra parte, il Farnese, prelato capacissimo, in quel tempo sessantenne, rivestito di preminenti incarichi nella Chiesa fin dal 1492 quale tesoriere generale, cardinale dal 1493, colui che presto doveva rivelarsi come uno dei più grandi tra i pontefici del Rinascimento, sicuramente aveva ogni esperienza di introspezione: e, da quelli che saranno i suoi comportamenti verso il Laurerio, di poco successivi, veramente lo avrebbe benvoluto, anche al di là di quanto l’episodio, leggenda o storia, facesse prevedere.

Il comune interesse per le scienze matematiche ed astronomiche può interessarci, invece, per un lato della personalità delle due figure che, per motivi comprensibili, è stato molto trascurato dai biografi: è nota la prossimità di quelle discipline ad uno studio allora vietato, quello della magia. E’ bene chiarire che nel Cinquecento molti oggetti d’indagine della magia naturale sono entrati a far parte delle moderne scienze sperimentali fin dal secolo successivo: dallo studio degli astri ai fenomeni elettrici, dal magnetismo all’alchimia, all’ottica ecc.

 

i programmi universitari non accontentavano neppure le menti più sobrie, quindi nessuna meraviglia se gli spiriti più arditi si convertivano a una forma di conoscenza più promettente, anche se di dubbia liceità. Per gli uomini del Cinquecento la magia naturale sapeva di misticismo e di eterodossia ma appariva utile e degna di essere coltivata e nella stessa personalità potevano convivere e conciliarsi senza troppa difficoltà l’interesse per la magia e quello per la scienza[lxiv].

 

Se «l’uomo universale del Rinascimento è soprattutto colui che ha smarrito i confini dei vari campi del sapere e del fare»[lxv] molti furono gli umanisti che, percorrendo le strade più diverse, pervennero ugualmente a studi pervasi dagli attributi di “magia naturale”. Marsilio Ficino, medico, sostenne la compenetrazione fra filosofo e mago perché «si occupa di scienze della natura e opera sul piano naturale»[lxvi], e così Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, conoscitore e studioso della cabala ebraica, combatté contro l’«astrologia divinatrice» difendendo l’«astrologia matematica», tesa a studiare le leggi sul movimento dei corpi celesti. Leonardo (in Madrid II [lxvii]) scriveva che «tutte le matematiche sieno speculation filosofiche», sicuramente accomunando a quelle tutte le indagini scientifiche sperimentali; eppure, alcuni decenni dopo, Enrico Cornelio Agrippa di Nettesheim, medico e mago, ancora doveva combattere contro «teologastri e sofisti pronti a condannare, solo a sentirne il nome, magia e cabala» [lxviii]. Pressoché coetaneo del Laurerio, Girolamo Cardano spaziava dalla matematica alla medicina, dall’astrologia alla magia, dalla geometria alla musica al gioco d’azzardo, ovunque rivoluzionando il sapere del suo tempo; e Paracelso di Hohenheim, medico ed alchimista, filosofo e mago, estimatore di Ficino (da lui definito Italorum medicorum optimus), incarnò la figura che Ficino stesso aveva definito mago perché «filosofo esperto nelle cose naturali e celesti»[lxix].

Valeva, insomma, una corretta distinzione nell’ambito della magia, ossia quella prescritta da Della Porta, che discriminò fra due tipologie ben differenti:

 

In due specie si usa dividere la magia: infame l’una, e resa nefasta dal commercio con gli spiriti maligni, sfigurata da incantamenti e curiosità malvage, e questa si chiama stregoneria []. L’altra è la magia naturale, che tutti i più saggi con grandi lodi accolgono, coltivano e venerano, talché non vi è scienza più eccellente né più apprezzata di questa dagli uomini dediti alle buone lettere  [lxx].

 

Tuttavia non era semplice per gl’illetterati, o per quelli in mala fede, operare una tale divisione, cosicché allo studioso era agevole, al contrario, incappare in accuse di stregoneria e simili. Sia Alessandro Farnese, persino da pontefice, sia Dionisio Laurerio non furono immuni da addebiti di tal fatta: nel codicetto del P. Romano vi è un appunto di questi ove trovava annotato a mano che

 

il cardinale Angelo Maria Quirini difese Paolo III dalla taccia dello studio della magia nella Diatriba III § 1 contro lo Schelornio ecc.[lxxi] .Vedi questa Diatriba ed anco la lettera di Paolo III pag. 10, dove ho preso questa notizia, e così si parlerà della voce sparsa intorno alla magia del Laurerio.

 

In realtà, la matematica di quel tempo aveva un vasto campo di ricerca: spaziava, infatti, su «aritmetica, geometria, musica, astrologia, goniometria, meteorologia, diottrica, geografia, idrografia, meccanica, architettura, architettura militare, pittura e scultura. I primi quattro argomenti rappresentavano la matematica pura, i rimanenti la matematica applicata»[lxxii]. I comuni discorsi intrattenuti tra il Farnese ed il Servita erano divenuti di pubblico dominio se anche Pasquino e Marforio motteggiavano sugli argomenti di quelle conversazioni[lxxiii] :

 

Marf.  [] Et noster Paulus Frenesius, ho! Farnesius dicere volebam, Pontifex in astrologia et divinatione primas hac tempestate obtinere dicitur.

Pasq.  Neque id falsum est; nam ut suae artis socium haberet, Dionysium Servitam, sui Ordinis principem, Cardinalem fecerat; et ipsemet Pavulus sibi hanc laudem assumit…

 

A causa dei pochi dati certi disponibili non è possibile esprimersi sulla reale portata degli argomenti esoterici trattati dai due prelati; tuttavia, la loro saggezza non sembra lasciare spazio alcuno ad un loro impegno nell’astrologia divinatrice, quella già condannata da Pico nelle pretese di divinazione del futuro. Respinta la magia negromantica, Pico esaltava solo la magia naturale che «marita il mondo», sfruttando le forze della natura; e solo quel modo di razionalizzare può apparire prossimo a due menti impegnate nel quotidiano governo della Chiesa universale.

 

5. Lo scisma d’Inghilterra ed il generalato dell’Ordine dei Serviti

 

Giunti all’agosto del 1532, morto Warham, Thomas Cranmer fu richiamato da Enrico dalla Germania e sostituito al defunto nella carica di arcivescovo di Canterbury e primate d’Inghilterra, ottenendo poi la conferma papale nel concistoro del 21 febbraio seguente[lxxiv]. Il 23 maggio 1533 Cranmer pronunziò la piena nullità del matrimonio di Enrico e Caterina, ed il giorno 28 dichiarava valido il matrimonio con Anna Bolena[lxxv], segretamente celebrato il 25 gennaio[lxxvi]. Clemente VII, in risposta, l’11 luglio decise di annullarlo; pronunciava, altresì, la scomunica maggiore contro il re, assegnandogli, tuttavia, un termine fino al 30 di settembre: una bolla dell’8 agosto notificava sentenza e sanzioni[lxxvii]. In pari data il concistoro arrivava alle stesse decisioni, con le medesime conseguenze.

A Dionisio non rimase che scrivere una lettera di resa, datata 20 agosto: il re «serenissimo» avrebbe saputo cosa egli aveva fatto per la corona dall’ambasciatore Benedict Benet, da Edoardo Karne e dal signor Bonner, agenti di Enrico con i quali aveva lavorato fianco a fianco. «Profundis etenim intimis cordis mei penetralibus defixus inheret quam a me aut ab aliis verbotenus exprimi possit». Solo l’altrui perfidia aveva potuto generare un tale risultato: «nam qum ego infelices labor nostrorum seccussus cogito mox non mee aut tuorum desidie vel ignavie sed hominum huius temporis perfidie procul dubio adscribi debere conspicio». Dispiaciuto grandemente di tutto quello che si è ottenuto, Laurerio si congedava firmandosi «Humilis perpetuusque servulus»[lxxviii]. In realtà quell’appellativo di «perpetuo» non si sarebbe rivelato certo tale, visto che la Storia avrebbe presto visto Dionisio dall’altra parte degli schieramenti: esattamente come per il cardinal Pole e per lo stesso Farnese.

Le note dedicate al Laurerio da G. Moroni riportano di un suo viaggio a Londra per conferire personalmente con Enrico VIII: «Cranmer [] giunto in Londra mise in ottima vista Dionisio al re, alla cui corte d’ordine di Clemente VII dovette poi trasferirsi per urgentissime cause, e per affari di religione»[lxxix]. De Nicastro già aveva esposto quella notizia associata all’incarico di penitenziere, scrivendo che

 

servì in tale carica Dionigi con somma laude, ed al Pontefice, ed al Re Britannico. Ma essendo poscia questi traviato dal dritto sentiere, stimò saggiamente Clemente di trasmetter Dionigi nell’Inghilterra, credendo ch’egli con la sua maravigliosa dottrina, e molto più con la servitù, e corrispondenza passata col medesimo, fosse per ridurlo ad bonam frugem. Ad ogni modo Dionigi per la protervia, e durezza del Rè, non poté riportar veruna cosa di profitto a’ prò della vera Religione.

 

E’ appena il caso di notare come gli autori non abbiano espresso la fonte della notizia, evitando anche di indicare l’anno della missione inglese, che, pertanto, resta nel campo delle notizie non direttamente riscontrabili[lxxx].

Nell’estate del 1534, tutto il clero inglese dovette giurare fedeltà ad Enrico come capo supremo della Chiesa[lxxxi]; Clemente VII morì il 25 settembre di quell’anno, ed il 12 ottobre il conclave elesse a succedergli Alessandro Farnese, con il nome di Paolo III [lxxxii]. E’ ovvio che il primo dei problemi che il nuovo pontefice dovette affrontare fu lo scisma d’Inghilterra, tuttavia la nazione era ormai definitivamente persa per il cattolicesimo: alla morte di Fisher ci fu grande sdegno a Roma, e «dal vecchio arsenale pontificio venne cavata fuori l’arma ormai rugginosa della dipendenza feudale dell’ Inghilterra dalla Santa Sede», ossia la possibilità che il re potesse essere privato del regno per lesa maestà[lxxxiii]. Ai fini del presente studio, ci preme invece sottolineare che uno dei primi atti di Paolo III fu quello di scegliersi i collaboratori più fidati: Dionisio, teologo ormai celeberrimo, a solo tre mesi dall’elezione del Farnese, da questi venne elevato il 22 gennaio 1535 a Vicario Generale Apostolico dell’ordine dei Servi di Maria[lxxxiv], in attesa del conferimento del generalato. Il Nostro, tuttavia, «non volle in alcun modo fare uso del Decreto Pontificio», in attesa del Capitolo Generale da riunirsi a Budrio[lxxxv]. Una volta convenutivi, la formalizzazione dell’elezione vide un Laurerio apparentemente schivo dinanzi a qualunque onore ed onere.

 

Per ben due volte, anche dopo la ripetuta unanime elezione canonica, tornò a rinunziare, finché una terza volta fu dagli elettori preso di peso e portato sulla sedia generalizia. La ripugnanza del Laurerio si spiega anche per il fatto che egli già prevedeva come ben poca della sua attività avrebbe potuto impiegare per l’Ordine, dato che il Papa si serviva continuamente di lui []. Infatti dovette quasi sempre governare [] mediante Vicarii generali [lxxxvi].

 

Suggestiva la narrazione del de Nicastro[lxxxvii]:

 

[] quantunque egli havesse il Breve Pontificio, col quale veniva creato Maestro Generale dell’Ordine, ad ogni modo due fiate rinunciò il Generalato, dicendo le parole del Vangelo Qui non intrat per ostium in ovile ovium, ille fur est, & latro; e due fiate à viva voce di tutti i vocali fù acclamato Generale XXVIII dell’Ordine. Poscia, cantando i Frati il giolivo Inno Te Deum laudamus, fu portato nella Chiesa. Ivi avanti di essi, e del numeroso Popolo concorso, piangendo rinunciò la terza fiata al diploma Pontificio. Mà acclamando concordemente tutti i Padri Vivat Dionysius Generalis, Vivat Dionysius Generalis, gli fù data de essi l’obbedienza, sicome costa dallo strumento della sudetta elezione.

 

Secondo la cronaca riferita da un confratello contemporaneo, fra Sebastiano Vongeschi da Pistoia, il pontefice «con le sue proprie mani li mise in capo la baretta, e dette le S. Costituzioni e sigillo dell’Ordine, e più lo titolo A Domino factum est istud»[lxxxviii]. Da allora in poi il motto, evidentemente tratto dal Salmo CXVII, fu la sottoscrizione solitamente utilizzata dal Laurerio al posto della sua stessa firma. Paolo III lo volle Visitatore della Congregazione dei Servi di Maria[lxxxix], conferendogli i più ampi poteri di visitare e riformare i monasteri dell’ordine, eventualmente facendo uso di censure e dello stesso braccio secolare contro «gli inobbedienti ed i ribelli» ed il Laurerio stesso, da generale dell’Ordine, convocò un Capitolo proprio allo scopo di «studiare e rendere più efficaci i suoi provvedimenti relativi alla riforma, come fu poi disposta dal Concilio di Trento»[xc].

Non abbiamo rintracciato ulteriori documenti d’archivio relativi al 1535, ad eccezione di un atto d’acquisto firmato «fra Dionisio Priore Generale», contenuto nel nominato Archivum S. Marcelli, relativo ad una casa sita in piazza Colonna, comprata dai serviti il 22 dicembre. Certamente l’anno trascorse nell’onorare i nuovi gravosi impegni, collaborando da vicino con il pontefice, stretto fra lo scisma d’Inghilterra e la dilagante eresia luterana, e pressato dalla necessità di un Concilio ecumenico.

 

6. Il Concilio e la nunziatura di Scozia

 

Nel 1536 Paolo inviò i suoi legati apostolici ad annunciare il prossimo Concilio a tutta la Cristianità: «in Polonia, il friulano Panfilo Strassoldo, nell’Impero nei Paesi Bassi e negli Stati scandinavi Peter Van der Vorst»[xci]. A luglio si era deciso che per Giacomo V Stuart, re di Scozia, nunzio straordinario sarebbe stato il lucchese Silvestro Dario, ma per qualche impedimento fu sostituito da Dionisio[xcii]. Sforza Pallavicino scrisse di Laurerio, a proposito della suddetta nunziatura, specificando che il servita fosse di Benevento ed aggiungendo che era stato «impiegato prima da Clemente in gravi affari in Ungheria» [xciii].

La lettera di designazione è del giorno 12 ottobre 1536[xciv], mentre le istruzioni per il Laurerio citate da Ehses[xcv] sono tratte dalla copia coeva contenuta nel cod. Vaticano  lat. 3915 [xcvi], e sono datate 24 ottobre; si dà il caso che esaminando la lettera originale posta nell’Archivio Vaticano[xcvii] si faccia la scoperta, già preannunciata, che Dionisio compaia con il suo cognome originale «Laurelio». Invece Ehses giammai avrebbe potuto leggere «Laurerio» nel Vat. lat. 3915  perché il destinatario delle istruzioni è denominato unicamente «Magister Dionysius Generalis Ord[inis] Servorum»[xcviii].

Esse dispongono che il cardinal Agostino Trivulzio debba ottenere un salvacondotto per Maestro Dionisio per il viaggio verso la Scozia:

 

quarum munimine per Angliam in Scotiam suum iter eundo et redeundo tuto facere possit. Per Angliam iter faciens omni prudentia et modestia utatur, ne iustam alicui de eo conquerendi praebeat occasionem[xcix].

 

Ottimistica speranza del pontefice, secondo la quale sarebbe bastato usare «prudenza e discrezione», senza «offrire pretesti per lamentarsi», affinché il Servita potesse transitare in sicurezza nell’isola britannica: lo stesso Paolo III presto avrebbe preferito evitargli ogni rischio astenendosi dall’inviarlo di lì. Gli ulteriori ordini impongono di presentare copie del breve e della bolla a re Giacomo e di aggiungere, nel caso, quanto il pontefice sia riconoscente che la Scozia continui a preoccuparsi per la Chiesa di Roma; comandano, infine, di consultarsi con l’arcivescovo di St. Andrews (il primate di Scozia James Beaton) e con l’arcivescovo di Glasgow (Gavinus Dunbar).

Illuminante, nell’esame della nunziatura straordinaria di Scozia curata dal Laurerio, è lo studio delle citate Letters and Papers relative al regno di Enrico VIII, nonché le corrispondenze diplomatiche della Sede Apostolica visionate dalla Facoltà di Storia Ecclesiastica della Pontificia Università Gregoriana di Roma e dall’Ecole Française di Roma. La raccolta [c] utilizza le copie dei dispacci diplomatici del Cinquecento e Seicento conservate in Vaticano, le Lettere di Principi, registri nn.10-12-14-14a[ci], nonché i regesti Letters and Papers della British Library[cii]. Infatti, poiché gran parte dei riferimenti storicamente certi, relativi alla cosiddetta nunziatura di Scozia del Laurerio, è conservata proprio negli atti della nunziatura in Francia da quest’ultima trarremo le notizie che ci interessano.

Nunzio apostolico dell’epoca è Rodolfo Pio di Carpi, vescovo di Faenza (così come si firma), il quale aveva già svolto una missione in Francia nel 1530 e poi nel 1533, mentre la nunziatura era in mano a Cesare Trivulzio, vescovo di Como. L’incarico era passato al Carpi nel 1535, con l’inizio della politica del Concilio di Paolo III: Vergerio inviato in Germania, Guidiccione in Spagna; Carpi era giunto a Saint-Germain, allora sede della Corte, il 17 febbraio, e ne sarebbe ripartito nel luglio del 1537[ciii]. La corrispondenza esaminata è sempre indirizzata ad Ambrogio Ricalcato, segretario di Paolo III fino al dicembre 1537 (quando sarà rimosso ed incarcerato in Castel S. Angelo con l’accusa di simonia).

Il Laurerio è da poco partito che, il 18 novembre, un dispaccio di Thomas Cranmer informa Enrico VIII che «father Denis who wrote on the King’s side being now General of the religion goes as Ambassador from the Pope towards the King of Scotts»[civ] : non è stata dimenticato quanto il Laurerio aveva fatto a Roma per l’annullamento del matrimonio di Enrico, ma ora da generale del suo ordine va in Scozia come ambasciatore (presso una nazione acerrima nemica del Tudor). Fonte della notizia relativa a fra Dionisio, che Cranmer dice di ricevere da Roma, è John Bianket, già proprio familiare ed ora al servizio del cardinal Ghinucci, vescovo di Worcester. Le tempestive note di Cranmer informano Enrico che il Farnese sta convocando molti prelati per un prossimo concilio e fra di loro un nuovo avversario della Corona, Reginald Pole: questi era andato a Roma nonostante il divieto di Enrico, ma Cranmer tiene a precisare al re che Paolo III ospita il Pole nel suo palazzo con grandissima considerazione, tanto che voci informate parlano di una prossima porpora cardinalizia; cosa che puntualmente sarebbe seguita a distanza di un solo mese. Dalla curia romana, Dandino scrive al Carpi il giorno 25 informandolo che Sua Santità vuole anche che fra Dionisio parli con Sua Maestà (Francesco I) relativamente al problema costituito dalla disobbedienza dei frati Servi in Francia[cv].

Il Servita giunge il 10 dicembre alla corte francese, come testimonia la lettera del giorno 13 indirizzata a Roma dal nunzio, Rodolfo di Carpi, il ”Vescovo di Faenza” [cvi]. Questi osserva che per ora sarebbe bene ospitare presso di lui il nunzio in Scozia perché, anche se fosse possibile ottenere dai francesi un salvacondotto per l’Inghilterra (cosa di per sé già improbabile per quello che si sente di quella nazione), a motivo della grande volubilità di Enrico e dell’infinita empietà e malvagità dei suoi ministri, egli stesso non si sente di ardire a consigliare la partenza del Laurerio. Ed esplicita:

 

Tutto questo nonostante io reputi Sua Signoria il più disponibile ad incontrare qualunque pericolo ad un cenno di Sua Santità.

 

E’ forse il primo dei giudizi formulati sul Nostro, dai contemporanei, senza che si debba dubitare dell’imparzialità dell’autore: ci stiamo riferendo, infatti, a pareri estratti da corrispondenza diplomatica, quindi privi della necessità di compiacere un qualsivoglia ospite od ascoltatore. Il generale dei serviti ha preso contatto con la corte francese: re Francesco I, il potente Gran Maestro e luogotenente generale Anne de Montmorency, il cardinale du Bellay[cvii], mentre re Giacomo V di Scozia è a Parigi per mettere a punto i festeggiamenti per le sue nozze con  Maddalena, figlia di Francesco I. A corte lo Stuart ha detto che avrebbe gradito la nomina a cardinale per il suo cancelliere, l’abate di Arbroath David Beaton, nipote di James, arcivescovo di St. Andrews e primate di Scozia. Il giovane sovrano, allora di soli 24 anni, orfano del padre quasi dalla nascita, era passato dalla reggenza della madre a quella dei due Beaton, veri artefici di molte importanti decisioni di quel re, comprese le sue nozze (nonché le successive).

Mentre anche l’inviato di Reginald Pole ha problemi per raggiungere l’Inghilterra dalla Piccardia, il Faenza da Parigi scrive preoccupato a Roma che «sia bene che il Rev[erendissi]mo Generale se ne ritorni compito che abbia quanto ha da fare con il Re di Scozia, il che credo non sarà finite le feste che si apparecchiano, le quali non sono perdurare per pochi dì»[cviii]. Nel dispaccio del giorno 28 il vescovo di Faenza informa Roma che «il Rev[erendissi]mo Nunzio al Re di Scozia hoggi è stato lungamente con il cancelliere di Sua Maestà, e l’uno e l’altro è restato ben satisfatto, e domani mattina sarà con la Maestà Sua»[cix].

Il 6 gennaio 1537 Faenza comunica di aver colloquiato con l’ambasciatore inglese in Francia, Wallop, sulla situazione politica del suo paese e su Enrico da poco tornato a Londra in corteo, dopo i disordini, deciso a concedere al popolo un parlamento «per giudicare per giustizia sopra le querele che facevano». Il nunzio in Francia spera, così come il papa, che Enrico torni da solo sulla retta via di obbedienza al pontefice, perciò ancora si astiene dal rendere pubbliche le censure ecclesiastiche contro il Tudor, e decide di «ritardare quì il R[everendissi]mo Nunzio al Re di Scozia», in attesa di andare nell’Isola «accompagnato con il favore del Re»[cx]. Wallop, incontrato dal Faenza alle nozze di Giacomo e Maddalena, non crede che il Laurerio sia andato fino in Francia solo per i problemi del suo Ordine per cui «ha mostrato meco credere che il detto Nunzio vadi più per fare contro Inghilterra, che per altro», visto che considerano il re di Scozia «loro inimicissimo».

 

Il dispaccio del giorno 14[cxi] ci riferisce di un re Giacomo

 

 d’ottima volontà, e tanto osservante di Sua San[ti]tà quanto si possa desiderare [anche per] le continue carezze, e ferme parole che Sua M[aes]tà, e mons[ignor] d’Abbrotto suo cancelliere usano con meco [sic], e con il R[everendissi]mo Nunzio, quale per verità ha guadagnato molta grazia, non solo con quello, ma con Sua M[aes]ta Christianissima Mons[ignor] Gramm[ae]stro, e Regina di Navarra, quale volentieri parla seco, e tutti insieme per quel che me ne dicono lo tengono chiaramente in molta reputazione, et estimazione di dotto, et huomo molto desto al negoziare, e fossi che con questi mezzi, e favori potria dare buon fine alle cose della sua religione quì, con tutto ch’ei habbia difficultà grandissima, alle quali attende aspettando io risolverlo di quello habbia a fare circa il ritorno, o progresso suo, il che sarà, come per l’altra ho scritto, secondo quelche si ritrarrà d’Inghilterra [] [cxii].

 

Anche le corti di Francia ed i reali di Scozia hanno quindi espresso grande stima per il Laurerio; sanno quanto sarebbe importante la sua figura per l’appoggio di cui necessita il giovane re ad Edimburgo, circondato dai molti nemici che Enrico gli mette contro, in patria e fuori. Ma troppo grandi i rischi per il nunzio in Scozia in un eventuale transito lungo l’isola britannica, minacciata dai sicari inglesi: lo stesso re Giacomo manifesta «desiderio grande ch’ il R[everendissi]mo Generale [] ritorni presto a Roma»[cxiii]. Paolo III medesimo avrebbe approvato, secondo quanto scrive l’11 gennaio il cardinale Alessandro Farnese al cardinal Faenza:

 

Che V[ostra] S[ignoria] R[everendissi]ma habbia dissuaso l’andata del R[everen]do nuntio in Scozia, per li pericoli etc., Sua Santità ne ha avuto piacere per non lassarlo andar in sì manifesto pericolo, et non li par più necessaria l’andata sua in quella isola, havendo satisfatto (coma ha) con quel re [] [cxiv].

 

Il dispaccio del giorno 30 [cxv] ci fa sapere che «il R[everendissi]mo Nunzio al Re di Scozia sarà chiamato da Mons[ignor] il Gramm[aest]ro per parlare secondo l’ordine di V[ostra] S[ignoria][di Ricalcato medesimo, e quindi per disposizione del papa, n.d.A.] a Sua M[aes]tà Chr[istianissi]ma toccando la pace»; indubbiamente, secondo Faenza, molto può fare al proposito il Laurerio, visto quello che già in precedenza si era detto,

 

per esser quello in buonissima reputazione appresso tutti, da quali è laudato, dico molto di letteratura, bontà, lingua, e destrezza d’ingegno, il che mi è parso debito mio di far intendere a Sua S[anti]tà, trovando io di bocca di tutti loro essere così [cxvi].

 

Il cardinale non potrebbe essere più esplicito nella sua prosa, asciutta ed efficace: fra Dionisio sta ben spendendo il suo tempo presso la corte di Francia, in quel momento a St. Germain[cxvii]; l’alta considerazione degli importanti personaggi, posti al centro del cuore politico d’Europa, non può che giovare alla riuscita delle molteplici missioni diplomatiche che il Nostro è chiamato ad affrontare: il breve d’intimazione del Concilio, già consegnato nelle mani di Giacomo V, e la visita con l’eventuale riforma dei conventi dell’Ordine in Francia, per cui Francesco I avrebbe potuto interporre anche l’autorità regia (così come Giacomo avrebbe potuto per la visita di riforma in Scozia).

Non dobbiamo dimenticare, inoltre, che, associata a tali incarichi, era spesso unita la corresponsione di pingui doni in denaro e preziosi che gli alti diplomatici portavano seco, per gli usi più consoni al successo della legazione: riferendosi alla nunziatura scozzese condotta da mons. Pietro Lippomano, J. Law scrive espressamente che egli «carried funds for political purposes, to use at his own discretion, to placate or encourage influential Scots»[cxviii]. Lo storico scozzese [cxix] studia nel saggio due missioni di poco posteriori a quella del Laurerio, tra cui quella di Marco Grimani del 1543, delle quali si conosce molto di più, e dove l’autore può meglio soffermarsi sugli episodi. Per Lippomano

 

the money brought by the bishop of Verona was put to wrong uses. Ecclesiastical  patronage and, in particular, the provision to benefices was another area where Paul III could influence Scottish affairs [cxx].

 

E’ molto probabile che Dionisio Laurerio abbia personalmente portato per Giacomo V doni importanti per aiutare lui a tenere il suo Paese unito contro l’Inghilterra e lo scisma, ed a far sì che i nobili del regno lo seguissero:  così sembra pensare anche P. Rebora scrivendo[cxxi] che «Paolo III  inviò doni a Giacomo nel 1537». Del resto, nella corrispondenza del 13 marzo[cxxii], il card. Faenza riferisce che, prima di ritornare, i reali di Scozia hanno parlato di un «certo affare di quello [in riferimento a mons. Arbroath, n.d.A.], di che dovea parlare il P[rio]re Generale de i Servi a Sua San[ti]tà». Dalle considerazioni di Faenza sull’abate «che sia come padre al re di Scozia» e dal successivo suggerimento di compiacere quel prelato, si intuisce che «l’affare» consisteva nel cappello cardinalizio per mons. Beaton, quale giusta ricompensa per i suoi servigi alla Chiesa di Roma, affinché la Scozia le resti fedele: Giacomo lo aveva richiesto, insomma, sia al nunzio in Francia che al nunzio in Scozia, a chiare lettere.

Faenza continua ad essere il tramite tra le aspirazioni di Beaton che «mostra infinita sete di far servitio a Sua San.tà» e le necessità del pontefice di avere sia un nunzio in Scozia che un abile ed ascoltato portavoce presso la corte di Edimburgo, per avvalersi della grande disponibilità di quel re verso la Santa Sede: nel dispaccio che scrive da Amiens il 12 aprile[cxxiii] il nunzio, con la franchezza solita, riferendosi alla nunziatura permamanenet in Scozia, esprime una chiara valutazione sulla necessità, ed opportunità, di utilizzare Dionisio. Perché 

 

quando Sua S[anti]tà mandasse il Generale de i Servi, io per me crederei fosse molto a proposito per conoscere già l’humore, et essere in opinione di quelli  [la coppia reale, n.d.A.], e di buon cuore, e volere nel servitio di Sua San[ti]tà, e potria intrattenere di sorte questo Abbate, quale si può dire il Re medesimo [].

 

Ed aggiunge che non sarebbe fuori luogo creare Arbroath «Cardinale, e Legato in quel Regno»[cxxiv]. Conclude scrivendo che ha soltanto offerto un suo umilissimo parere a Sua Beatitudine, affinché prenda tempo a decidere chi mandare per il difficile incarico in Scozia: certamente sarà «huomo di qualch’ esperienza, e soprattutto ben prudente».

Il successivo giorno 13, alla vigilia della partenza di Arbroath, Faenza spiega all’abate, ancor più apertamente, che l’appoggio di re Giacomo alla causa del papa gli avrebbe certamente fruttato il cappello cardinalizio. Beaton di Arbroath si dichiara pronto a qualunque ordine, anzi chiede al Faenza un codice cifrato per corrispondere con Roma e lo invita ad inviare un nunzio ad Edimburgo.

 

E parlandogli del Generale de i Servi, mi mostra che lo desideraria più ch’ogni altro, onde mi pare veramente che Dio ci apra una gran strada per apportar grand’honore e contento a Sua San[ti]tà, alla quale non dovria esser grave in tal caso far questo Card[ina]le, che sarà sempre membro honorato, e laudato per più conti [cxxv].

 

Con questi schietti e motivati giudizi su Dionisio Laurerio espressi dal cardinale Rodolfo Pio di Carpi, vescovo di Faenza, nunzio in Francia, e da James Beaton, primo cardinale della storia scozzese (1538), arcivescovo di St. Andrews e primate di Scozia, si conclude la presenza del generale dei serviti nei dispacci diplomatici di quella nunziatura.

Una volta di più si dimostra la fondatezza dell’asserire che soltanto le prove documentali, tanto più se di elevata affidabilità, costituiscono buone garanzie alla corretta ricostruzione degli accadimenti storici. Infatti, biografi di Dionisio pur illustri, quale il Ciacconio, scrissero dell’arrivo del Nostro nella reggia di Edimburgo, alla presenza di re Giacomo e dei nobili del regno[cxxvi], perché al Servita sarebbero giunte successivamente le disposizioni del 23 novembre 1536 che ordinavano di riformare i monasteri dell’ordine. Tuttavia nessuna concreta notizia abbiamo del soggiorno scozzese, al fine di poter comprovare l’asserto del Ciacconio; al contrario della successiva legazione di Grimani, del quale abbiamo la corrispondenza ripresa da R. K. Hannay in «Letters of the Papal Legate in Scotland, 1543»[cxxvii]: da questa è ricavabile finanche la residenza occupata dal Grimani nel corso del soggiorno. Certo è che lo stesso Ehses[cxxviii] deve riconoscere che «de rebus per Laurerium coram Iacobo V rege in aula Edinburgensi et postea per Scotiam et Galliam in rebus sui ordinis gestis nonnulla habet» contraddicendo quello che aveva scritto Arcangelo Gianio, curatore degli Annalium dell’ordine servita [cxxix]. Questi, a sua volta, riferiva solo le generiche notizie del Ciacconio sopra riportate, senza che nessuno dei due avesse mai chiarito la fonte originale delle medesime.

Altrettanto avversa all’opinione che il Laurerio abbia visitato la Scozia è la storiografia contemporanea, primo fra tutti proprio Jedin, il quale scrive come il Servita abbia notificato a Giacomo V, allora in Francia, l’annuncio papale, «e lasciò l’incarico di citare i prelati scozzesi al futuro cardinale Beaton favorito del re»[cxxx]; la nota 7 [cxxxi] riferisce, infine, che «la conferma di ricevuta non stampata, che trovasi in Vat. lat. 3915 f.154r, 28 gennaio 1537, non contiene nulla di importante». Secondo il Gianio il Generale, di ritorno dalla nunziatura straordinaria, effettuata «plena facultate Legati de latere»[cxxxii], sarebbe sbarcato a Calais nel 1538 per dare esecuzione alla bolla pontificia sull’obbedienza dei frati servi. Poi, per l’ostinata protervia dei confratelli francesi, sarebbe dovuto ripartire lasciando l’incarico al suo vicario in Francia. Giunto a Roma, nel riferire a Paolo III sulla nunziatura di Scozia, non avrebbe mancato di descrivere l’agitata situazione dell’Ordine in Francia, scatenando l’ira del Farnese. Questi, una volta a Nizza per il convegno con Carlo V, emise il successivo 4 giugno una bolla che, rinnovando quella di Leone X del 1516 In Fratres Apostatas, riconosceva al priore generale dei serviti la facoltà di emettere giudizi e censure verso i confratelli che non osservassero lo regole, soprattutto quelle che proibivano di dimorare al di fuori del convento[cxxxiii].

Quello che personalmente abbiamo costatato, comunque, è il fatto che il Nostro figura presente a Roma, nel citato Archivum Sancti Marcelli, sotto la data dell’11 maggio 1537 per l’atto di locazione del Casale di Marcigliano, posto sulla via Salaria, a Cristoforo de Taxis[cxxxiv] e sotto il 18 luglio per l’affitto al cardinale Alessandro Cesarini del Casale di S. Nicola (oggi Casal Boccone)[cxxxv]; la prossimità di queste date a quelle nelle quali Dionisio era in Francia fa ritenere che non dovrebbe esserci stato alcun viaggio in Scozia.

Al momento null’altro si conosce sulla nunziatura effettuata dal Nostro. Soltanto si può concludere che, qualunque fosse stato il risultato immediato di una eventuale missione del Laurerio, facendo nostre le osservazioni di J. Law sulla politica pontificia un Scozia, Paolo III

 

dimostrò la sua completa dipendenza dalla Francia [cxxxvi]. Alla metà del Cinquecento il papato non possedeva le risorse per esercitare un ruolo decisivo ed indipendente negli affari scozzesi. Dove Paolo III era stato in grado di fornire un contributo, mediante l’invio di un nunzio fornito di denaro ed attraverso l’esercizio del diritto di designazione dei benefici scozzesi, egli determinò il consolidamento della politica francese.

 

             L’uso improprio del denaro portato da Roma ed il fatto che fosse lasciata irrisolta la situazione ecclesiastica, «enfatizzano il ruolo secondario giocato dal papato e dai suoi rappresentati»[cxxxvii], mentre l’Inghilterra continuava a sostenere il protestantesimo scozzese e l’opposizione politica alla Francia ed al partito di Maria di Guisa (sposata da Giacomo V in seconde nozze, vedovo di Maddalena).

 

 

7. Il bisogno di riforme e l’elezione al cardinalato

 

Il ritorno del Laurerio a Roma vede l’inizio di un altro gravoso impegno, fortemente voluto dal Farnese fin dall’elevazione al soglio: una sincera riforma della Chiesa, che, per il precipitare degli eventi, poteva sfociare solo nell’urgente convocazione di un concilio ecumenico.

Probabilmente il Servita, in visita alle nazioni del Nord Europa, doveva essere rimasto profondamente scosso nel costatare quanto grave e colpevole fosse sentita la condotta della S. Sede. Un febbrile lavoro fece sì che nell’autunno del 1537 il Generale desse al pontefice ed al Consilium quator delectorum super reformatione Romanae Ecclesiae (composta dagli illustri cardinali Contarini, Carafa, Simonetta e Ghinucci) una Compositionum defensio: un «coraggioso documento nel quale il Laurerio [] suggerisce quello che era necessario riformare in riguardo al compenso che si richiedeva per ottenere documenti pontificii, cosa che sembrava sapesse di simonia»[cxxxviii].

Le parole del Nostro risuonarono durissime per la Curia romana; indirizzandosi a Paolo III, così si pronunciava: 

 

Ma se anche tu deciderai di ritenere quello che è giusto ed equo, a proposito delle composizioni e perciò giudicherai di non toglierle (del tutto), non tentennare, te ne prego, nell’abolire quei funestissimi abusi che nascono dall’insaziabile avarizia umana e che hanno resa ingrata, anzi odiosa, a tutto il mondo cotesta S. Sede [cxxxix].

 

Parole terribili, per le mentalità e gli usi dell’epoca, che l’autore accompagnava con dotte citazioni di S. Tommaso e numerosi altri antichi maestri. Ehses[cxl] colloca, all’incirca, nel mese di ottobre il periodo in cui la Compositionum vide la luce, mediante l’esame delle numerose copie manoscritte divise tra Roma, Milano, Venezia e Napoli; fra tutte citeremo il cod. Barberini lat. 5362[cxli] che attribuisce al Laurerio la paternità dello scritto [cxlii]. E’ indubitabile che pochi atti più di una vera requisitoria sugli abusi perpetrati nell’amministrazione della Dataria nella Curia Romana possono meglio testimoniare la severa concezione del governo ecclesiastico da parte del Laurerio e la necessità assoluta di procedere ad energiche riforme: tutta la sua attività, dall’incarico di priore generale in poi, sembrano perfettamente finalizzate al raggiungimento di quella meta, sia nell’ambito dell’ordine servita che in quello dell’intera Chiesa.     

Il 1538 vide, invece, l’imposizione delle decime ecclesiastiche imposte dal pontefice, tornato dal convegno di Nizza, il quale «per apparecchiare un’armata navale contra il Turco, a’ suppliche del Generale Laurerio, che gli rappresentò la necessità, e povertà del suo ordine, concedette che dimidia tantum pars decimarum solveretur» , come scrive il de Nicastro[cxliii]: la bolla di papa Paolo è del 16 luglio di quell’anno[cxliv].

Nel 1539 la Commissione per la riforma fu elevata da quattro ad otto membri, in quanto era stato deciso di riformare, oltre la Dataria, anche Rota, Cancelleria, Penitenzeria e Tribunali[cxlv]; in realtà non sembrava agevole eliminare gli abusi in quanto che «equivaleva togliere al papa il suo sostentamento»[cxlvi]. Il cardinale Contarini continuava a sollecitare il Farnese a nominare in Curia persone distinte, «come mezzo migliore per promuovere la riforma»[cxlvii]. E già ad ottobre cominciò a vociferarsi delle future nomine cardinalizie per il prossimo Natale[cxlviii].

Effettivamente gli storici riconoscono che il concistoro del 19 dicembre premiò quasi esclusivamente «persone distinte e tali, da cui il mondo cattolico poteva attendersi il meglio: ciò vale specialmente per il dotto Dionisio Laurerio», «importante teologo», e poi per Guidiccioni, Cervini e Fregoso[cxlix]. Grande festa nell’ordine dei frati serviti, perché per la prima volta dalla fondazione un confratello era creato cardinale, e sommo onore usò il pontefice col loro generale in quanto inviò a lui

 

 a quattro hore di notte la barretta di Cardinale per mano del suo Pier Luigi Farnese Duca di Parma, e di Piacenza, nel che anche ad intender diede quanto affettuosamente l’amasse, e lo creò Cardinal Prete col titolo di S. Marcello[cl].

 

La bolla di nomina indirizzata al Laurerio, sottoscritta dal pontefice e dai cardinali, è conservata in originale presso l’archivio dei serviti. Il decreto reca le firme autografe di alcune tra le più grandi figure della storia della Chiesa di quel tempo, in primis Paolo III Farnese, insieme con insigni membri del Sacro Collegio, Bembo, Sadoleto, Contarini, Giovanni del Monte (futuro pontefice nel 1550 col nome di Giulio III), Marcello Cervini (al Sacro Soglio nel 1555 col nome di Marcello II), Gian Pietro Carafa (papa fino al 1559 come Paolo IV). E quelle firme sono il miglior sigillo ai giudizi che la bolla riporta, ripercorrendo lo straordinario cursus honorum di Dionisio Laurerio e, soprattutto, le particolari qualità di fede, di dottrina e di animo che lo distinguevano: l’impegno a restituire dignità alla vita conventuale corrotta dai costumi dell’epoca, la splendida mente, la sua celebre dottrina, la singolare onestà e saggezza, la generosità in mezzo alle difficoltà, la fermezza nelle decisioni, l’esattezza nel pronunciarsi, ed infine la massima prudenza in tutte le cose,

 

per cui non hai temuto di portare a termine i molti incarichi sopportando affanni e pericoli occorsi da troppo tempo, anche nella stessa Chiesa Romana; sappiamo che sono state riconosciute le difficili imprese, specialmente al tempo delle persecuzioni della giusta fede, funzioni svolte per Noi e per il Pontefice del tempo.

 

Può ben applicarsi a quelle bolla quanto dedica G. Palazio al nostro Dionisio in Fasti Cardinalium ecc.[cli] : «Excelsus est, humilia respicit e alta a longe cognoscit» (Salmo 137); ovverossia: Egli è l’Eccelso, ma gli umili esalta, e i superbi conosce di lontano. L’onesto Sadoleto scrive personalmente al Laurerio da Carpentras il 13 febbraio del 1540 congratulandosi per la sua investitura: la lettera è la prima conosciuta tra le molte che i due si scambieranno, e compare nella raccolta  Jacobi Sadoleti S.R.E. Cardinalis Epistolae ecc.[clii], citata più avanti.

Il 12 febbraio il “San Marcello” aveva ricevuto la preconizzazione per la cattedra episcopale di Urbino, del quale incarico abbiamo, però, pochissime notizie poiché egli governò esclusivamente a mezzo del vicario generale[cliii]. Fa fede della delusione per la mancata investitura di Benevento una avvilita lettera del Laurerio datata 26 giugno, diretta al cardinal di Carpi, «legato dela Marca»; proprio il nuncio Rodolfo Pio, testimone e cronista dell’attività diplomatica svolta dal Nostro presso la corte di Francia. La corrispondenza, indirizzata ad un cardinale della sua stessa corrente filoimperiale[cliv], comincia con un’accorata dichiarazione di impotenza:

 

Ill[ustrissi]mo et Re[verendissi]mo S[igno]r mio

Io mi trovo in gra[n] travaglio sendo privo dela gratia delo Ill[ustrissi]mo et

R[everendissi]mo Farnese []

 

Il cardinal Alessandro Farnese, nipote del pontefice, già da qualche anno protettore di Giovanni Della Casa, è schierato dalla parte di questi, ponendo il veto alla nomina arcivescovile del Laurerio per la prestigiosa sede di Benevento (cosa che invece sembrava scontata per il successivo concistoro)[clv]:

 

[] et questo ha fatto etiam S[ua] Ill[ustrissi]ma et R[everendissi]ma S[ignoria] ha pegliato per inpresa. Di far’ dar’ larcivescovado di Benevento al Mons. Gio[vanni] dela Casa; del etiam non mi curerei po[n]to, se non sene fusse tanto parlato etiam la cosa, e publica, et publico il scorno ne segue, [] heri si dovea proporr’ in co[n]cistorio, se la pieta et bonta di S. Bea[titudi]ne no[n] pigliava delationi, pero credo senza fallo seguiva leffetto []

 

Lo stesso Paolo III si era poi pentito dello scavalcamento operato a danno del fedele amico:

 

[] et li spiaceva al fine che false relationi di huomini senza spirto havermi postposto ad altri []

 

Talmente cocente, tuttavia, la delusione del Servita da fargli dubitare che i meriti acquisiti presso la famiglia Farnese sarebbero un giorno stati equamente ricompensati:

 

 [...] et certo li meriti di S[ua] Bea[titudi]ne, co[n] il cumulo deli ben[e]fitii mi obligano tanto et di tal sorte. Etiam spender’ ogni di la vita p[er] servitio di S[ua] Ill[ustrissi]ma et R[everendissi]ma S[ignoria] et di ciascuno di casa sua, no[n] paghera mai il debito, et co[n] questa fo fine [] etiam mio S[igno]re Idio la conservi et prosperi  Di Roma il dì XXVI di giugno del XXXX.

Di V[ostra] Ill[ustrissi]ma et R[everendissi]ma S[ignoria] Humil[issim]o et devotiss[im]o serv[itore] Il car[dina]le di Sa[n] Marcello [clvi]

 

In effetti, era ben noto che il Della Casa, allora chierico della Camera Apostolica, mirasse alla cattedra beneventana, poiché aveva ottenuto in quell’anno soltanto l’incarico di commissario per le decime (in Romagna, poi ad Ancona, quindi a Firenze)[clvii]. Egli fece di tutto per brigare ai danni del Laurerio il quale, infatti, non ebbe neppure il tempo di riuscirvi. Per il prelato fiorentino, invece, la desiderata nomina a metropolita beneventano si sarebbe avverata nell’aprile 1544, grazie ai cardinali Bembo, Cervini, Del Monte e, soprattutto, al suo protettore il cardinal Farnese; assegnazione a cui, prestissimo, sarebbe seguita anche quella di nunzio apostolico a Venezia. Viceversa, la porpora gli sarebbe stata definitivamente preclusa a causa dei trascorsi di letterato, autore di sconce opere profane, e poco sensibile al voti di castità anche da tonsurato. Proprio la mediocre statura morale del prelato fiorentino costituiva il legittimo motivo dello scoramento di Dionisio verso «huomini senza spirto» che lo hanno danneggiato mediante menzogne e con «publico scorno»; non è stato possibile capire esattamente a cosa si riferissero quelle falsità, considerando che le uniche accuse mosse al Laurerio, di cui si abbia memoria, sono quelle relative alle cosiddette pratiche magiche.

Tuttavia, la stima di Paolo III per il Nostro appare, immutata, anche da quanto scrive A. F. Piermei[clviii]: il papa, dopo aver sempre raccomandato ai suoi cardinali scelti per la riforma della Chiesa di consultarsi col priore generale dei serviti, una volta elevato questi alla porpora, lo nomina nella medesime commissione, ed il 17 agosto del 1540 gli conferisce l’alta dignità di Penitenziere Maggiore. L’autore scrive che tanto è dimostrato dagli Atti Concistoriali di quel giorno; secondo Ehses il giorno 27, venerdì, nel concistoro adunato in S. Marco[clix], Laurerio sarebbe stato nominato nella commissione di riforma «pro poenitentiaria», insieme con Contarini e Carafa, senza però riferire di ulteriori nomine che riguardassero il Servita.

L’ottenimento dell’incarico di penitenziere maggiore sarebbe comprovato anche da una lettera che il card. Pole scrive al Laurerio, cardinale di San Marcello, per ringraziarlo delle parole consolatorie rivoltegli per la morte di sua madre: «[] quam dignam statim persona majoris Poenitentiarii iudicavi, quam R[everendissi]ma Dominatio vestri gerit» [clx]. Allo stesso ufficio alluderebbe anche il cardinale Sadoleto scrivendo al Laurerio nella citata corrispondenza del 13 febbraio 1540: «Ad eam voluptatem, quam acceperam ex amplificatione tua dignitatis accessit litterarum tuarum suavitas»[clxi].

L’epistolario di quel porporato è anche fonte di conoscenza sulla solidità della reciproca stima intercorsa con il cardinale di S. Marcello: così la lettera del 9 maggio[clxii], in risposta a precedente corrispondenza, e quella del 18 aprile dell’anno successivo. Quest’ultima ritrae Sadoleto che scrive all’amico sulla propria composizione  De Aedificatione Catholicae Ecclesiae, supplicando «Dionisy doctissime» affinché esamini lo scritto da cima a fondo, anche correggendo gli errori. «Quid enim est repraehendi, nisi alieno labore fieri meliorem?»[clxiii]. Un’altra lettera testimonia la grande gioia del Sadoleto nel sapere ancora in vita l’amato amico quando, invece, si erano diffuse false voci sulla sua morte durante la legazione in Lucca, nel medesimo anno 1541[clxiv]. Del resto, anche gli epistolari dei cardinali Polo e Contarini manifestano in tutta evidenza quanto il parere e l’amicizia di fra Dionisio fossero ricercati dai più eminenti membri del Collegio.

Il comune impegno, insieme al Sadoleto, alla ricerca di un’intesa coi luterani, fino a giungere alla convocazione della dieta di Ratisbona, sono comprovati anche dagli scritti indirizzati al Laurerio, al Carafa ed al Fregoso, «ut trium sapientissimorum Cardinalium [] judicio subiiceret»[clxv]. Alvise Priuli, incaricato di trasmettere i pareri dei tre porporati, una volta riferiti quelli del card. Carafa e del card. Fregoso, riportava anche il pensiero del San Marcello. Questi avrebbe direttamente corrisposto con il legato, tuttavia al Servita sembrava che, nell’accordo coi protestanti, il Contarini avesse, sì,

 

fatto guadagno: ma che era ben d’avvertire, che guadagnando con quei di lì non si perdesse con questi di qui[clxvi].

 

I notevoli ostacoli frapposti alla riforma dei dicasteri della Curia trovavano ulteriore intralcio proprio nell’abbandono di Contarini, partito nel gennaio 1541 per Ratisbona, e nella morte di Ghinucci e Fregoso a luglio. Anche la questione relativa alla limitazione delle commende sui monasteri e sui meriti dei candidati nella collazione dei vescovadi videro un rigido Laurerio, così come nell’attacco al legato per le sue opinioni accomodatizie[clxvii]. Purtroppo, l’estrema lentezza nella ricerca della soluzione di tutte le gravi questioni inerenti il governo della Chiesa, con l’ulteriore rapido ingigantirsi del problema luterano, si assommavano alla prima tra le preoccupazioni: la cristianità, già divisa dallo scisma inglese, era tuttora minacciata dal perenne contrasto, bellico e politico, tra le grandi potenze del tempo, Francia e Spagna.

Laurerio, filoimperiale, fu tra i convitati del convegno di Lucca tra Paolo III e Carlo V, il quale vi giunse il 12 agosto secondo la cronaca trascritta nel codicetto del padre Romano[clxviii]. In verità l’estensore dell’appunto erra nell’indicare l’anno, riportando il 1540 anziché il corretto 1541, comunque annota scrupolosamente l’arrivo del priore generale nel convento servita di Pistoia «con 25 cavalcature la Domenica e stette la Domenica e Lunedì» (il calendario ci può dire solo che poteva trattarsi del 14 ovvero il 21 oppure il 28 agosto). Il manoscritto di N. Tucci[clxix] data il convegno all’8 settembre; secondo Jedin[clxx] Carlo V  «si incontrò a Lucca col Papa dal 12 al 18 settembre per discutere con lui la situazione politica generale, e i progetti ad essa strettamente collegati del Concilio e della riforma della Chiesa in Germania». A noi preme sottolineare che il Laurerio vi giunse «amalato in lettica», come scrive il predetto cronista, aggiungendo che  «il convento li fece grande onore», come ci si poteva aspettare, e «poi [fra Dionisio] andò a Prato e Firenze»[clxxi]. L’aperto schieramento di Dionisio nelle file dei partigiani dell’imperatore gli meritò, come sempre, la dovuta attenzione di Carlo V, così come riportato dal de Nicastro; del resto, la sua figura di porporato, tra i consiglieri più ascoltati dal Farnese, necessariamente richiedeva la sua presenza nel vertice in un posto di rilievo e, quindi, nella scelta delle conseguenti decisioni politiche.

Il de Nicastro annota che il cardinale, da Lucca, era stato inviato a Firenze in nome del pontefice

 

e di Cesare []. Il motivo di questa trasmessione fù per esortare il Duca Cosimo al Concilio. Giunto il Cardinale in Firenze fù ricevuto onorevolissimamente, siccome era dovuto, dal Duca. Ciò però non ostante volle egli dimorar nel suo Convento dell’Annunziata[clxxii].

 

Forse per l’aggravarsi delle condizioni di salute, ovvero a causa dei tempi necessari a terminare l’ambasciata, il generale fu tuttavia costretto a trattenersi ininterrottamente a Firenze per tre mesi, come scrive il Ciaconius[clxxiii]. Nell’estate del ’42 , certamente non ristabilito, si recò al convento servita di Monte Senario, sulle colline di Firenze, e poi sul Monte Amiata, ai Bagni di San Filippo, per i quali si era adoperato con il granduca affinché sollecitasse un pronto restauro.

 

Onde il pio, e generoso Principe, in poco tempo fece adempier tutto quel che saggiamente gli haveva insinuato il Cardinale; e successivamente gl’infermi cominciarono a frequentare i suddetti bagni [clxxiv].

 

Doveva essere ben avanzata la malattia del Laurerio se, morto il cardinale Aleandro il 1° febbraio, il Serristori, ambasciatore fiorentino, già relazionava in patria il giorno successivo con queste parole: gli imperiali «resteranno con pochi cardinali se di nuovo non ne sono provisti perché credo che ci sarà per pocho tempo del rev. Cesarino et S. Marcello»[clxxv].

Il Nostro, con lettera del 24 marzo 1542, aveva convocato il Capitolo Generale in Faenza per il successivo 27 maggio, dichiarandosi indisposto alla proroga del mandato di priore generale dell’Ordine[clxxvi]; dimissioni accettate da Paolo III con breve del 3 maggio[clxxvii]. Nel Capitolo

 

fu eletto Maestro Generale il Padre Agostino Bonuccio di Arezzo, degno allievo dello stesso Cardinale. Giusta le Costituzioni dell’Ordine, e gli ordini di detto Cardinale, furono rigittati tutti i voti degli assenti trasmessi per iscritto; e solamente furono ammessi i voti secreti de’presenti [clxxviii].

 

Non sapremmo dire per quale motivo la nomina di Laurerio, tanto debilitato nel fisico, a Legato in Campania (o Campagna) e Benevento, registrata l’11 agosto[clxxix]; forse solo il tardo benestare papale per esaudire il desiderio del fedele prelato: poter tornare nella sua terra da massimo rappresentante dell’autorità pontificia. L’affetto verso i suoi concittadini, invece, mai era venuto meno: né aveva rinunciato alla carica di arcidiacono della cattedrale, né smesso di accogliere le richieste che gli giungevano dalla città; per tutte vedasi, a tal proposito, presso l’Archivio Capitolare di Benevento, la supplica rivoltagli dal Capitolo per essere difeso da alcune pretese dell’abate di S. Modesto[clxxx].

Gli ultimi mesi di vita vedono il Laurerio impegnato allo spasimo nella battaglia delle diplomazie tra Francesco I e Carlo V: il Nostro, dopo le minacce del re francese di apostatare, intollerabile per il pontefice e per l’imperatore, ebbe un terribile intervento in concistoro, chiedendo con veemenza che fosse tolto a Francesco l’appellativo di “Re Cristianissimo”. Solo la reprimenda del cardinal De Cupis, decano del Sacro Collegio, lo riportò alla disciplina, e comunque non mancarono le voci di chi «quare ab illis verus Servita dictus est, cum plusquam servili adulatione erga Carolum laboraverit». Così il Ciaconius [clxxxi].

A sentire il de Nicastro[clxxxii], il Laurerio «fu sommamente stimato dal già detto Carlo V, ed egli fu sempre verso di Cesare affezzionatissimo [sic]»; prosegue narrando l’episodio sopra riportato, e conclude affermando che le definizioni di «vero servo» attribuitegli dal Giovio «sono le insulse, e fredde parole già dette in quel tempo da alcuni ciarloni, e momi».

 

 

11. Creazione della Santa Romana Inquisizione e morte del Laurerio

 

Il mese di luglio del 1542 vide anche uno dei passi decisivi che metteranno fine al Rinascimento ed avvieranno l’Europa verso la Controriforma: l’estendersi dell’eresia a molte città, fra le quali Modena e Lucca, determinò il pontefice, dietro pressione del Carafa, Juan de Toledo ed Ignazio di Loyola, a nominare sei cardinali in qualità di inquisitori generali. Sernini informa il duca di Mantova, il giorno 8, di aver saputo dal cardinale Accolti il numero dei cardinali designati; Serristori, il successivo 10 luglio, comunica i primi nomi:

 

S[ua] S[anti]ta [] ha fatto 4 [sic] inquisitori sopra questa heresia scopertasi nuovamente in Lucca, i quali sono questi rev[erendissi]mi cioè il Guidiccione, S. Marcello, S. Croce et un altro per levare via tale infectione di quella città, essendo cosa di malissima digestione [clxxxiii].

 

La costituzione Licet ab initio del 21 luglio «dava nuova forma a tutta l’Inquisizione e creava in Roma un’autorità centrale per tutti i paesi, la cui prima attività era diretta a soffocare l’eresia in Lucca» [clxxxiv]. La commissione decisa dal Farnese comprendeva «cardinali di fede, dottrina e virtù provate»[clxxxv]: Carafa, Morone, Parisio, Guidiccioni, Laurerio e Badia; «nella geografia curiale, la composizione è leggibile come un compromesso tra la tendenza conciliatrice e aperta capeggiata da Gaspare Contarini (Morone, Badia) e quella tradizionalista e curiale (Guidiccioni)»[clxxxvi]. La sfera d’azione «doveva estendersi a tutta la cristianità tanto al di qua quanto al di là dei monti, a tutta l’Italia ed eziandio alla Curia romana».  Il Pastor, che non ha mai potuto accedere agli atti conservati nell’Archivio dell’Inquisizione Romana, osserva tuttavia che «da principio questo tribunale fu temperato e mite, in corrispondenza della natura di Paolo III; (…) ma in seguito all’inumano rigore del Carafa, esso guadagnò tale importanza, che ritenevasi non darsi in tutto il mondo giudizi più spaventosi e da temersi»[clxxxvii]. Così anche M. Niccoli, che osserva come poco si conosca dei documenti direttamente prodotti dal Tribunale, perché tuttora conservati in gran segreto; però «tutto lascia credere che sotto Paolo III si procedesse con grande mitezza»[clxxxviii].

Lo stesso cardinal Contarini, tornato a Roma da Ratisbona, fu sospettato di vicinanza ai luterani, ed i suoi scritti furono esaminati dall’Inquisizione, poco prima della morte avvenuta nell’agosto del 1542. Del resto, secondo Jedin, egli era stato «il capo riconosciuto di circoli religiosi vicini all’Evangelismo raggruppati intorno a Pole, Gonzaga e Giberti. In Germania era considerato, con Pole, Sadoleto e Fregoso come sincero amico di intesa con i protestanti»[clxxxix].

E’ probabilmente poco significativo il diretto contributo del Laurerio alla nascente Inquisizione Romana, visto che la creazione di questa avveniva in una fase avanzatissima della sua malattia; né possiamo stabilire quanto egli abbia potuto incidere sulla rapida metamorfosi del nuovo organismo verso la inarrestabile macchina guidata dal Carafa, né quanto avrebbe potuto indirizzare, da celebrato teologo, il nascente Concilio di Trento. Certo, gli stessi prestigiosi incarichi attribuitigli da Paolo III, alla vigilia conciliare, dimostrano quanto confidasse il pontefice sulla diretta collaborazione del Servita[cxc]. Il 18 settembre il papa aveva nominato Gian Matteo Giberti, vescovo di Verona, e Giantomaso Sanfelice, vescovo di Cava, a commissari per la direzione organizzativa conciliare, ed il 16 ottobre aveva deciso per la nomina dei cardinali Parisio, Morone e Pole quali legati conciliari; tuttavia il 17 settembre aveva già visto la dipartita di Dionisio Laurerio, impegnato nella sua legazione in Campania.

 Rossi scrive che la morte lo colse a Frosinone, ma certamente non a Roma[cxci]; qualcun altro aveva scritto a Frosolone[cxcii], citando a sua volta lo Specimen eorum, quae in texenda Synopsi Priorum Generalium O. S. M. ecc. del Padre G. M. Bergantini. La missione pare comprovata dal Liber mandatorum di Benevento che registra per il giorno 10 settembre[cxciii] la presenza in città del «locotenente del reverendissimo cardinale di S. Marcello» al quale i consoli donarono robbe per otto ducati e disposero che cento ducati fossero spesi per «un bacile e altro»[cxciv] da offrire al cardinale in occasione della sua venuta.

La salma era poi stata portata a Roma e tumulata in San Marcello. Secondo il de Nicastro[cxcv]

 

nelle solenni esequie celebrate al medesimo nella Chiesa di S. Marcello, il Padre Baccelliere Frà Domenico di Verona recitò una nobilissima Orazione funebre, in cui intessé le laudi del defunto Cardinale. Ad ogni modo ognun credette, che facondo Panegirista delle di lui glorie fossero le sue eroiche virtù, e le copiose lacrime che tutto il Cristianesimo addolorato per la immatura sua morte []. Ed in vero non altro che Roma potea dare pari sepolcro ad un tanto Campione; ne in altra Chiesa, che in quella di S. Marcello del suo Ordine, e titolo un Religioso Cardinale, così osservante, poteva dopo morte havere il suo Campidoglio.

 

Certamente fu pianto da molti fedeli amici, tra i primi i confratelli del suo ordine: l’Annunziata di Firenze annota al giorno 5 ottobre «Ricordo come questo dì venne diretta da Roma […] come el R[everendissi]mo di S. Marcello nostro cardinale era morto in legazione di Campagnia [sic] […] Così Iddio per sua pietà e misericordia gli dia il paradiso»[cxcvi]. Dispiacque grandemente al Sadoleto, che, dopo aver saputo della morte del Contarini, avvenuta il 24 agosto, scriveva il 22 ottobre a Carlo Gualterucci: «Non so qual mia disgrazia sia di perdere così a coppie gli amici miei cari»[cxcvii].

 

12. Laurerio nella memoria storica

 

La morte di Dionisio Laurerio, come spesso capita per personaggi che abbiano avuto rilevanza sulla ribalta della Storia, anziché porre termine alle incognite che hanno accompagnato in vita quelle figure, determina la nascita di nuovi enigmi che non trovano immediata soluzione. Infatti, gli studiosi hanno attribuito solo pochissime opere a stampa al Nostro, addirittura nessuna secondo de Nicastro:

 

Questo gran letterato non dette alla luce veruno parto del suo ingegno, e specialmente di Prediche, e Panegirici, o’ perché la molte lo tolse immaturo, o’ perché le legazioni sostenute, e le occupazioni di Cardinale, e di Vescovo non glielo permisero, o’ pure perché la sua eroica modestia sui nominis celebritatem invidit. Ad ogno modo sarà egli sempre applaudito dalla fama coll’encomio, che fuit Vir adhuc suo nomine maior; & in quo docendi, ac dicendi facultas cum heroica virtute decertavit[cxcviii].

 

Tutto ciò rende problematica la ricerca di ulteriori rilevanti notizie. Al contrario, egli dovrebbe aver scritto almeno le opere seguenti:

a)   Plurima ad artem mathematicam pertinentia, già ricordata a proposito degli studi scientifici del Servita; ma il Bergantini sospettava dubbia la cosa;

b)  Selectae quaestiones theologicae;

c)   Orationes ad Carolum V, Henricum VIII Angliae regem, Cosmum Ducem Hetruriae;

d)  De reformatione Curiae Romanae;

e)   Epistolae multae[cxcix].

Tuttavia, a causa degli incarichi ricoperti dal Laurerio, per essere stato il primo porporato del suo ordine, per la celebrità di cui aveva goduto nel suo tempo, nonché per il sicuro prestigio acquisito dai frati serviti per suo personale merito, tutto ciò avrebbe dovuto determinare un sicuro proliferare di studi sulle sue opere. La sua stessa vita, che, come meteora, in soli 12 anni di presenza sulla scena di tanti grandi accadimenti dell’epoca, lo aveva visto godere del favore dei potenti, faceva dire al citato padre Bergantini:

 

Io lo stimo quanto ogn’altro ( se non forse più) de’ più cospicui Cardinali di Paolo III, e ne sono di tal maniera innamorato, che se fosse in Roma, moverei come si suol dire ogni pietra per trovare qualcosa di suo, o nella Vaticana, o in Castel S. Angelo, o negli altri più secreti archivj [cc].

 

Ebbene, sembra che tutta la grandezza delle sue attività abbia solo determinato, per quattrocento anni, un gran desiderio di studiarle, salvo arrestarsi subito dopo; la lapide riportante l’iscrizione funebre, citata in apertura del saggio[cci], fu apposta su un sepolcro che non è più rintracciabile da secoli. Vero è che San Marcello fu una chiesa impegnata fin dal secolo XVI in ripetuti restauri, ma è forse agevole immaginare che vi sia scomparso finanche il ricordo della dislocazione[ccii] ? E la stessa Benevento, ove pure un Vincenzo Laurerio, Magnifico Domino [cciii], continuava a vivere quindici anni dopo la morte del cardinale, ha serbato solo le lettere presso la famiglia Roscio ed il ritratto presso la Pedicini[cciv]? E’ possibile che nulla resti a Toro? Nulla al di fuori della tradizione orale, che tuttora riferisce di cospicue eredità con le quali i Laureli stipularono vantaggiosi contratti matrimoniali? 

Un discorso a parte merita l’oblio totale in cui caddero i rapporti, se ve ne furono, tra le parentele di Amelia ed il celebre prelato: non si può accettare di ritenere che una piccola comunità, così vicina agli ambienti curiali vaticani, potesse considerare con indifferenza il legame di sangue che univa la famiglia di origine con il cardinale. Viene, dunque, da ripensare a quanto scritto sul padre di Dionisio nell’ambito della famiglia Laurerio: se é vero che i suoi vennero a Benevento perché anello più debole della stirpe, è probabile che i grandi inevitabili disagi che accompagnano da sempre l’errare di un “espatriato”, seppure colto e socialmente inserito, avranno pesato non poco negli anni di ambientamento nella nuova terra; ove tutte le amicizie e frequentazioni dovettero essere daccapo ricreate. Cosicché, una volta diventato celebre «sua virtute», favori e benefici dovettero essere stretto appannaggio dei soli familiari prossimi del Nostro.

L’intera ricerca svolta per esaminare tutto quanto fosse ricostruibile sulla vita del Laurerio ha trovato un solo punto che possa giustificare quella che, nei fatti, è l’incomprensibile perdita della memoria storica, al di là delle scarne note che i vari biografi ebbero a tracciare (per lo più, citando ogni storico gli immediati predecessori).

I  giorni che videro la morte del Servita assistettero al dilagare del luteranesimo in molte parti d’Italia; addirittura nella stessa Urbe, se, nonostante l’Inquisizione, finanche nel 1545 e nel 1547 alcune relazioni citate dal Pastor descrivono Roma  frequentata da numerosi luterani[ccv]. Conservato nel Record Office di Londra [ccvi], un dispaccio del 10 ottobre 1542 indirizzato da Paget ad Enrico VIII spicca per la notizia della morte del cardinal Dionisio Laurerio, ma soprattutto riferisce della fuga in Germania di suo fratello, fra Bernardino,

 

a cordelier, esteemed above all in Rome for learning, virtue and preaching, is fled to Germany and professes himself  ‘one of theirs’ .

 

Dunque, «un frate, stimato sopra tutti in Roma per la cultura, la virtù e la preghiera», ma che ora «si professa uno di loro»[ccvii]. Infatti, molti prelati sinceramente desiderosi di una reale, efficace riforma dei vertici della Chiesa universale (Sadoleto, Contarini, Fregoso, Morone, ecc.) erano stati indistintamente confusi con gli esponenti più radicali della Riforma protestante. Da tutto questo la fuga di Bernardino, fratello carnale di uno dei sei Inquisitori Generali, evidentemente nei giorni immediatamente successivi alla morte di fra Dionisio; così come quelle di Bernardino Ochino, celebre predicatore generale dei cappuccini, amato da Pietro Bembo, dal Pole e da Vittoria Colonna, e del canonico lateranense Pietro Martire Vermigli, con il minorita Camillo Renato.

 

Richiesti o costretti a dare spiegazioni circa le loro dottrine, essi fuggirono all’estero; dando così inizio a un esodo di dissidenti religiosi, o almeno di parecchie decine di loro, che spostò la sede delle controversie teologiche italiane intellettualmente più impegnate dall’Italia a Ginevra, Basilea, Zurigo, Cracovia, Alba Iulia e soprattutto nei Grigioni, prima tappa della maggior parte di essi e tappa finale per molti [ccviii].

 

I tentativi di riforma di Paolo III erano consistiti soprattutto nella elevazione alla porpora di alcune delle più elevate figure dell’epoca, e nel rimaneggiamento del personale della Dataria, l’ufficio che amministrava l’assegnazione dei benefici; la precoce morte di Marcello Cervini, vero antinepotista, pontefice per soli 20 giorni, aveva impedito una volta di più il compimento di quel bisogno di autentico rinnovamento chiesto a gran voce dai tanti che, assieme al cardinal Seripando, volevano «togliere dall’avvilimento in cui erano cadute le belle parole; Chiesa, Concilio, Riforma». Gli anni a metà del secolo, testimoni del trionfo della Controriforma e del disfacimento di ogni tentativo di fermare Paolo IV Carafa dall’ «innalzare l’Ufficio dell’Inquisizione al vertice della gerarchia curiale»[ccix], calarono una spessa cortina sulla vita di Dionisio Laurerio, quando probabilmente si osservò con nuovo sospetto la reale portata della Compositionum defensio, evidentemente trasformata in un ingiustificabile attacco alle prerogative del pontefice e della curia. Neppure la morte del Carafa (1559), con le conseguenti distruzioni del palazzo dell’Inquisizione e della statua del pontefice in Campidoglio, e con la riabilitazione dei prelati perseguitati, servirono a liberare la figura del Laurerio da connotazioni negative: il successore di Paolo IV, Pio IV, chiuse il Concilio di Trento il 4 dicembre 1563 con il riconoscimento della superiorità papale all’assemblea conciliare, senza altre possibilità d’apertura ai protestanti, con tutto quello che ne sarebbe seguito nei secoli a venire.

Se, dunque, venti anni dopo la morte del Laurerio neppure il suo ordine religioso tentò di “riabilitarne” la memoria mediante lo studio del pensiero, così come non fu fatto a Benevento, lacerata da una continua lotta intestina che da tempo insanguinava la vita cittadina, inevitabile fu la perdita di qualsivoglia interesse ad esaminarne la figura con un’approfondita indagine storica: soprattutto allorquando la riforma della Chiesa era sfociata nella radicale, inconciliabile contrapposizione tra Riforma Protestante e Controriforma. E la più importante produzione storiografica italiana stava nascendo soltanto in quel XVI secolo, grazie alla forza di grandi studiosi del pensiero politico.

La memoria di Dioniso Laurerio, nonostante l’importanza e l’originalità delle idee e delle opere, rivolte alla rivalutazione di un’autentica spiritualità ed esplicata in pochissimi anni di azione, rimase dunque così confinata piuttosto alle rare carte d’archivio che alle rapide cronache di cui fu oggetto. Solo la fruttuosa ricerca di ulteriori testimonianze contemporanee, in primis sui rapporti con le istanze di riforma, potrà aggiungere informazioni significative, valide per l’approfondimento della storia personale del Servita e della travagliata Chiesa del suo tempo.

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ã F. LAURELLI 1997

©  RIVISTA STORICA DEL SANNIO 1997

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LEGENDA

 

ACAm     ARCHIVIO COMUNALE DI AMELIA

ASFI       ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI FIRENZE

ASNA     ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI NAPOLI

ASRM    ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI ROMA

ASS        ARCHIVIO STORICO DEL SANNIO , BENEVENTO

ASV       ARCHIVIO SEGRETO VATICANO

ASBN    ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI BENEVENTO

ASCB    ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI CAMPOBASSO

ASCS    ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI COSENZA

ASLU    ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI LUCCA

ASMN   ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI MANTOVA

ASTR    ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI TERNI

BAV     BIBLIOTECA APOSTOLICA VATICANA

BNN     BIBLIOTECA NAZIONALE DI NAPOLI

BNF      BIBLIOTECA NAZIONALE DI FIRENZE  

RSS      RIVISTA STORICA DEL SANNIO

 

 

 

 

  

NOTE   


[i]G. V. CIARLANTI, Memorie Storiche del Sannio, Isernia 1644, p. 475.

[ii] Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana [d’ora in poi BAV], v. 167, f. 326.

[iii] C. EUBEL, Hierarchia Catholica Medii et Recentioris Aevi, Münster 1913, vol. III, p. 27.

[iv] Nel Totius Latinitatis Onomasticon opera et studio doct. Vincentii De-Vit (Prati 1859-1867, t. VII, p. 179) è offerto solo l’esempio del nome Agrius, definito «nomen virile, græcum; Agriwz , quod silvestrem ac ferum significat». La possibile corruzione dal greco Nearchus  (Nearcwz , che significa «comandante delle navi»), rappresenta una seconda alternativa per la spiegazione al Neagrus di Laurerio, che portava già nel primo nome una denominazione altrettanto ispirata ai miti della Grecia antica.

[v] G. DE NICASTRO, Memorie intorno alla patria, ed alla vita del Cardinale Dionisio Laurerio Servita; una copia manoscritta del 1719 è conservata nella Biblioteca Arcivescovile di Benevento ed un’altra nell’Archivio Generale dell’Ordine dei Servi di Maria (Annalistica, filza  Q3QQqq.III.16). Anche nella Beneventana Pinacotheca (Benevento 1720, p. 93) il de Nicastro scriveva di «nobilibus ortus parentibus».

[vi] G. PALAZIO, Fasti Cardinalium omnium S.R.E. ecc., Venezia 1703.

[vii] F. UGHELLI, Italia Sacra, Venezia 1717, t. III, col. 798.

[viii] A. CIACONIUS, Vitae et res gestae Pontificum Romanorum et S. R. E. Cardinalium ecc., Roma 1677, col. 672.

[ix] «Ms. edito da M. CHIVASSA, col titolo La Nobiltà in Benevento ecc. » (A. ZAZO, Dizionario Bio-Bibliografico del Sannio, Napoli 1973, p. 140).

[x] ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI FIRENZE [d’ora in poi ASFI], Congregazioni soppresse dal governo francese, 119, vol. 34, f. 21v.

[xi] Un quadro rappresentato da A. Musi nella Storia del Mezzogiorno diretta da G. Galasso e R. Romeo (Napoli 1986, vol. VI, pp. 281-302); cfr. G. INTORCIA, La comunità beneventana nei secoli XII-XVIII. Aspetti istituzionali Controversie giurisdizionali, Napoli 1996. Cfr. anche A. ZAZO, Professioni, arti e mestieri in Benevento nei secc. XII-XIV, in «Samnium», lug.- dic. 1959, nn.3-4, pp. 121-177.  

[xii] V. SPRETI nell’ Enciclopedia storico – nobiliare italiana, p. 795, scriveva che fosse famiglia beneventana da tempi antichi. Tuttavia UGHELLI (cit., vol. VIII, col. 210) riferisce certamente nativo di Terni mons. Angelo Roscio, che fu vescovo di Alife; così anche EUBEL (cit., III, 117). Angelo è chiamato Rossi da D. B. MARROCCO ne Il Vescovato Alifano nel Medio Volturno (Piedimonte Matese, 1979, p. 35); comunque l’autore stesso lo definisce «prete di Terni e utriusque iuris doctor, nominato il 31.1.1567», aggiungendo la descrizione di una lapide apposta a Prata Sannita, ove il prelato morì, nella quale è scritto «ANGELO ROSCIO INT/ERAMNATI NAHAR/TI MARIANGELI FRATI GALEACII (?) EPISCOPI ASISINO ecc.». UGHELLI (ibid., col. 484) scriveva, poi, di Galeazzo Roscio, ugualmente ternano, vescovo di Assisi nel 1554, nonché di Gerardo Roscio, ovvero Rubeus, di Amelia vescovo della sua città nel 1363 (ibid., col. 300). A Terni tuttora esiste il palazzo Roscio ed almeno due sono le lapidi che nel duomo riguardano quella famiglia (proprio nelle persone dei monsignori Angelo e Galeazzo).

[xiii] La grande mole di documenti che l’ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI TERNI [d’ora in poi ASTR] custodisce sulle più importanti famiglie di Amelia è riepilogata innanzitutto dal fondo Cansacchi, recentemente acquisito, formato da accurati studi eseguiti nei secc. XVIII e XIX sui documenti comunali e notarili. Per i Laureli (o Mattiacci, nella denominazione più antica del casato), si aggiungono gli estesi protocolli rogati da Lisia Laurelio, notaio ad Amelia nel primo Cinquecento, nonché gli strumenti che riguardano la famiglia, conservati fra i protocolli di Fazio Piccioli, Paolo di Vico, Luca Petruccioli, Arcangelo de’ Carlenis, Ugolino di Nicolò. Le Riformanze del Comune di Amelia (conservate nell’Archivio Comunale, d’ora in poi ACAm) contribuiscono a tracciare l’evoluzione della famiglia Laurelio, fra Trecento e Cinquecento, nei numerosissimi atti pubblici firmati dai componenti investiti da cariche riservate al patriziato cittadino. Numeroso altro materiale è reperibile nei codici della BAV e dell’ARCHIVIO SEGRETO VATICANO [ASV] relativo a due notai apostolici (Anselmo e Laurelio), nonché a quei familiari che scrissero celebri versi ed epigrammi nella Roma di Leone X (Pier Francesco, Girolamo, Silvio); molto è anche disponibile tra le carte dell’ARCHIVIO DI STATO DI ROMA [ASRM], dell’ ARCHIVIO DEL VICARIATO DI ROMA e dell’ARCHIVIO DEL SACRO CONVENTO DI ASSISI. Anselmo è altresì riportato in F. CARBONI (Incipitario della lirica italiana, secc. XV-XX , Città del Vaticano 1982, vol. I) per un suo componimento, mentre in un’altra famosa collezione di epigrammi, Coryciana (stampata a Roma nel 1524 a cura di B. PALLADIO), numerose liriche sono firmate da Silvio e Girolamo Laurelio.

[xiv] Sulla pletora di amerini che ricoprirono cariche nelle amministrazioni ecclesiastiche e laiche (cardinali, vescovi, governatori, podestà, giuristi, avvocati rotali, vicari vescovili, ecc.), cfr. i vari personaggi delle famiglie Cansacchi, Delfini, Farrattini, Geraldini, Mandosi, Moriconi, Petrignani, Racani, Venturelli, Zuccanti ecc., citati nei seguenti studi: C. ORLANDI, Delle Città d’Italia ecc. (Perugia 1772, pp. 8-18); B. KATTERBACH, Referendarii Utriusque Signaturae ecc. (BAV 1931); A. DI TOMMASO, Guida di Amelia (Terni 1931, pp. 59 ss.); L. BOLLI, La Famiglia Petrignani di Amelia (Amelia 1920). Limitandoci a citare i soli Farrattini, diremo che essi si trasmisero l’incarico di prefetti della Fabbrica di S. Pietro per l’intero Cinquecento, e pertanto furono i diretti interlocutori degli architetti sovrintendenti all’erezione della nuova basilica, tra 1506 e 1614: da Bramante a Raffaello, da Baldassarre Peruzzi ad Antonio da Sangallo, da Michelangelo al Vignola, Pirro Ligorio, Giacomo Della Porta, Domenico Fontana, fino a Carlo Maderno. Il grande palazzo romano che Bartolomeo III Farrattini (reggente della Cancelleria, prefetto della Segnatura di Giustizia, poi governatore di Roma e cardinale nel 1605) edificò nel 1586 attribuì il nome alla dirimpettaia via Frattina, fu donato nel 1626 alla Congregazione di Propaganda Fidae e dal 1633 ne divenne la sede.

[xv]Volendo riassumere in una sola nota alcune notizie storiche sulla famiglia Geraldini, che fornì prelati alla S. Sede dal Quattrocento allo scorso secolo, e sulla quale molti libri sono stati scritti in Italia ed all’estero, potremo solo riferire di quattro grandi personaggi nati nel suo seno: mons. Angelo, mons. Antonio, mons. Agapito e mons. Alessandro, il quale soprattutto interessa al nostro saggio. Angelo, figlio di Matteo, giurista e podestà d’Ancona, e fratello di Bernardino, presidente della Camera della Vicaria alla corte degli Aragona di Napoli, fu per papa Nicolò V archivista e catalogatore della futura Biblioteca Vaticana, e per l’imperatore Federico III d’Asburgo ambasciatore presso la Sede Apostolica e conte palatino. Fu segretario del successivo pontefice, Callisto III Borgia, nonché ambasciatore presso Jacopo Piccinino e Francesco Sforza; nel 1463 fu preconizzato da Pio II Piccolomini a vescovo di Sessa Aurunca e Datario, nel 1469 inviato da Ferdinando il Cattolico in Spagna presso il padre Giovanni II d’Aragona. Vi divenne consigliere e ministro, e subito inviato in Italia per sollecitare l’invio della flotta napoletana, oltre che per ottenere la dispensa papale alle nozze di Isabella di Castiglia con Ferdinando; altre missioni lo videro in Firenze, Milano, Venezia, in Belgio e Francia. Angelo morì a Vejo nel 1486, ormai prossimo al cardinalato. Per le notizie sulla vita di Angelo, cfr.: E. GAMURRINI, Istoria genealogica delle famiglie nobili di Toscana et Umbria (Firenze 1673, t. III, p. 170); F. UGHELLI, cit.(tomo VI, col. 541); A. GERALDINI, Vita di mons. Angelo Geraldini (Perugia 1895, in «Bollettino della Deputazione di Storia Patria per l’Umbria», 2 ,1896); J. PETERSOHN, Ein Diplomat des Quattrocento Angelo Geraldini (1422-1486), Tubingen 1985. Cfr. KATTERBACH, cit. (p. 52, n. 59). Sulle genealogie della famiglia, cfr. anche il cod. Barberini lat. 2312 intitolato De Geraldina Familia Episcopi aliique viri illustres (in BAV). Al seguito dello zio, il nipote Antonio Geraldini fu nunzio apostolico in Spagna, e soprattutto grande amico e protettore di Cristoforo Colombo, quando questi cercava finanziatori per l’impresa americana. Scomparso Antonio nel 1489, il fratello Alessandro fu presso quella corte cappellano maggiore, educatore delle principesse reali e nuovo sostenitore di Colombo; fu, infine, vescovo di Santo Domingo, ove tuttora riposa nella cattedrale che fece erigere, accanto al sepolcro del Navigatore (cfr. A. GERALDINI, Itinerarivm ad Regiones sub Aeqvinoctiali Plaga Constitvtas ecc., a cura di O. Geraldini, Roma 1631, nell’edizione Nuova Eri curata da A. Geraldini, Roma 1991). Agapito Geraldini fu primo segretario di Cesare Borgia, il duca Valentino: sul grande potere esercitato alla corte del celebre condottiero, si rimanda alle pagine dedicate ad Agapito da Niccolò Machiavelli nelle corrispondenze diplomatiche (cfr. N. MACHIAVELLI, Legazioni e Commissarie, a cura di S. Bertelli, Milano 1964; C. CANSACCHI, Agapito Geraldini primo segretario di Cesare Borgia 1450-1515, in «Bollettino della Deputazione di Storia Patria per l’Umbria», vol. LVIII, 1961; sull’ENCICLOPEDIA TRECCANI, alla voce Leonardo, è riprodotta la firma Agapitus sul salvacondotto rilasciato a Leonardo da Vinci incaricato per le fortificazioni del duca).

[xvi] Sono parentele documentate almeno dal 1416, allorché ser Arcangelo di Lello (Geraldini) concedeva in sposa la figlia Agnese a Pietro di Paolo Mattiacci («Macthiaccii» era l’alias dei Laureli). Arcangelo di Lello Geraldini era doppiamente legato coi Laureli perché contemporaneamente cognato di Giovanni Mattiacci, così come Arcangelo di Cello Geraldini (cfr. numerosi rogiti tra i protocolli notarili di Paulus Vici e di Luca Petruccioli, in ASTR). Alla fine del Quattrocento, poi, Angelo Antonio Geraldini, zio di primo grado di mons. Alessandro,  sposava Medea Laurelio (cfr. sponsalia in ASTR, Cansacchi, volume di G. Venturelli in attesa di inventariazione). Ancora, i protocolli notarili riferiscono, alla fine del secolo, del deposito di 100 ducati che Laurelio Laureli, fratello di Medea, effettua in favore di Angelo Antonio, in relazione ad alcuni rapporti di affari con la città di Orte (ASTR, Notai, Arcangelo de’ Carlenis, prot. 46, 14 ottobre 1490, cc. 158v). Inoltre, il 6 aprile 1491 è sempre Angelo Antonio di Bartolomeo Geraldini a dare quietanza di 100 ducati d’oro in favore di Battista di Andrea di Pietro Mattiacci, al fine di costituire una società dedita all’esercizio dell’arte della lana (ASTR, Notai, Ugolino di Nicolò, prot. 82, c. 81r); lo stesso giorno, poi, Pier Francesco ed Anselmo Laureli (Ibid., c. 81v: ove il primo è priore del duomo di Amelia ed il secondo notaio apostolico) dichiarano di avere un debito di 200 ducati papali larghi nei confronti di Angelo Antonio. Per chiarezza, si osservi che Pier Francesco ed Anselmo sono fratelli di Medea, quindi cognati del suddetto Geraldini, mentre Battista Laureli è cugino in primo grado della medesima. Le Riformanze del comune di Amelia riportano, in aggiunta, il 20 novembre 1493, di Eliseo Laurelio che fa ritorno in patria da una legazione svolta presso il Legato pontificio, in nome e per conto del governo comunale (Amelia, ACAm, Riformanze, aa.1491-1493, c. 88r). Ad accoglierlo nel Consiglio dei Dieci trova proprio il potente amico Bernardino dei Geraldini, l’illustre giurista, già famoso a Napoli presso la corte d’Aragona; il Geraldini prende la parola in pubblica adunanza e saluta Eliseo lodandone l’operato.

[xvii]Per ammissione dei più antichi esponenti dei Roscio, in Benevento, si è sempre insistito sulla parentela con il nostro: DE NICASTRO (cit.) riferisce a tal proposito che quella famiglia «serba ella lettere [di  Dionisio, n.d.A.] scritte a Tommaso Roscio, in cui si soscrive parente. Io 40 anni addietro n’hebbi sotto l’occhio una, mostratami dal fù D. Francesco Roscio».

[xviii] Per la nomina di Alessandro a vescovo di Volturara (Appula) e Montecorvino cfr. UGHELLI (cit., col. 392).

[xix] M. FIRPO, Il cardinale, in AA. VV., L’uomo del Rinascimento, a cura di E. GARIN, Bari 1995, p. 89.

[xx] Ad ulteriore sigillo degli intimi legami intercorsi tra Laureli e Geraldini esistono gli epigrammi di Pier Francesco e Publio Laurelio riportati da P. O. KRISTELLER (Iter italicum: a list of uncatalogued or incompletely catalogued humanistic manuscripts of the Renaissance in italian and other Libraries, vol. II, London-Leiden 1967, pp. 382 ss.). Sul «Bollettino della Società Umbra di Storia Patria» (anno 1896, vol. II, in Vita di Angelo Geraldini Vescovo di Sessa) viene infine attribuito a Pier Francesco Laurelio, già compagno di studi di Alessandro Geraldini, un epitaffio per la tomba di mons. Angelo. Quanto allo stabilire con attendibilità il ramo dei Laureli d’Amelia da cui si originò Dionisio, si può solo ipotizzare che possa essere stato quello disceso dai figli di Giovanni, quindi da Francesco oppure Cristofano (i cugini della sunnominata Medea Laurelio). Tutto questo perché, dalle Riformanze del 1452 (in ACAm) e dai protocolli di Nicola di Narduccio del 1465 (in ASTR), sappiamo che già da tempo essi erano in difficoltà economiche, tanto da essere costretti a vendere la rocca di Totano che detenevano in Amelia (prima da vicari dei castelli e poi da proprietari). L’aumentare delle traversie in epoca successiva e la morte in giovane età di Cristofano costrinsero forse gli elementi meno favoriti del clan a muovere da un piccolo centro umbro, che all’epoca contava oltre venti notai, alla volta di un vescovado del regno meridionale, al seguito del vicario designato per Volturara. In aggiunta, si è ritenuto di riferirsi al ramo dei figli di Francesco Laureli perché delle generazioni successive non troviamo più traccia nei protocolli dei notai amerini e neppure nelle Riformanze cittadine; al contrario dei discendenti del notaio apostolico Anselmo Laureli, del ramo del quale compaiono in Amelia i diretti pronipoti fino alla fine del secolo XVII, sempre presenti nel nobile Consiglio dei Dieci. L’agiatezza del casato è attestata dagli sponsali di Claudia, figlia del notaio Gerolamo, quando i familiari si permettono di stanziare per la sua dote una somma talmente elevata, 500 ducati, che essa supera il consentito dagli statuti di Amelia; il nonno, Laurelio, è allora costretto a produrre la dispensa del pontefice: Paolo III Farnese il 29 ottobre del 1539 firma la concessione (riportata in AST, prot. F. Fariselli, cc. 323ss., sotto la data del 7 novembre 1540).

[xxi] Per i Lorellus e Laurellus notai ad Aiello Calabro, cfr. l’Inventario dell’Archivio Tocco redatto da A. ALLOCATI (Pubblicazioni degli Archivi di Stato, Roma 1978, pp. 187-188) in riferimento alla busta 55, nn. 29-2 e 29-3. Il casato dei notai compare a volte come « Laurello» (cfr. notar Francesco, n. 29-2, f. 106, 8 dicembre 1603), a volte come «Lorello». Per i Geraldini arcivescovi, cfr. M. SENSI, La famiglia Geraldini di Amelia, in AA. VV., Alessandro Geraldini e il suo tempo (a cura di E. Menestò, Amelia, novembre 1992, edito dal Centro Italiano di Studi sull’Alto Medioevo, Spoleto 1993, p. 66 con appendici D, E, F).

[xxii] Pubblicato in «Atti della Società Storica del Sannio», anno III, fasc. I, gennaio-aprile 1925.

[xxiii] VICENTINI, cit., nella n. 1 a pg. 6, enumera i soli beneventani che furono nell’Ordine, oltre al Laurerio: uno soltanto prima di lui, nel 1402, e 6 confratelli dall’anno di fondazione (1233) fino al 1807.

[xxiv] ARCHIVIO GENERALE DEI SERVI DI MARIA, Schedario Albarelli.

[xxv] Cfr. per tutti, G. A. GRECO – C. CITO, Difesa di S. Giovanni in Galdo, Toro, e Fragneto, Feudi della Badia di S. Sofia, stamp. Napoli 22 novembre 1722.

[xxvi] Si fa riferimento all’Archivum ecclesiae citato nel par. 1.

[xxvii] Rotuli del lettori legisti e artisti dello Studio Bolognese, a cura di U. Dallari, Bologna 1889.

[xxviii] BNN, Conventi Soppressi, S. Maria del Parto.

[xxix] ASS, S. Sofia, indice delle Concessiones Hortorum, vol. XXIII, n. 13.

[xxx] Ibid., indice delle Concessiones Vinearum, vol. XXVII.

[xxxi] ASV, Arm. XLI, vol. 4, f. 156r.

[xxxii] ASFI, Corp. Rel. Soppr., 119, f. 22v.

[xxxiii] Dionisio compare, invece, più solitamente con il cognome «Laureri(o)», come è poi passato alla Storia, mentre è di tutta evidenza l’approssimazione con cui i cognomi venivano riportati in quell’epoca, finanche negli atti pubblici, l’incredibile denominazione di «Maestro Dionisio Laudano» che balza agli occhi nello strumento redatto a Napoli da notar Domenico De Rocca, il giorno 24 dicembre 1529 (BNN, Conv. Soppr.), ancora in riferimento alla donazione di S. Maria del Parto che Jacopo Sannazzaro fece ai serviti. Addirittura, in una compravendita redatta dal notaio Francesco Prunauro, di Toro, il 7 febbraio 1573 (ff. 158 ss., nell’ASCB) abbiamo che, nello stesso rogito, la medesima persona è chiamata prima «Salvatore de Laurello» e successivamente «de Laudiello».

[xxxiv]Del resto, è certo che nella metà del Cinquecento a Toro la famiglia Laureli fosse presente fra le maggiorenti nella persona di don Paolo: vedasi, ad esempio, D. CIACCIA, Toro, in «Molise Oggi» (anno 9°, n.25, p. 20), che trae la fonte dai catasti comunali dell’anno 1600.

[xxxv] Serie cronologica, cit., p. 42.

[xxxvi] Schedario Albarelli.

[xxxvii] G. CARDANO, Artis magnae sive de reguli algebraicis (Norimberga 1545, p. 29v). Dal Ferro non pubblicò la scoperta, confidata ai soli familiari, perciò essa fu reclamata nel 1535 da N. Tartaglia. Cfr. M. KLINE, Storia del pensiero matematico (Torino 1962, p. 307); S. MARACCHIA, Da Cardano a Galois (Feltrinelli 1979, p. 22).

[xxxviii] KLINE, cit., p. 283.

[xxxix] Cfr. VICENTINI, cit., p. 9.

[xl] ROSSI, Manuale di storia dell’Ordine dei Servi di Maria, Roma 1956, p. 556.

[xli] Rotuli dei lettori legisti, cit.

[xlii] P. M. BONFRIZIERI, Diario sagro dell’Ordine dei Servi di Maria Vergine ecc., Venezia 1723, p. 439. Cfr. G. MORONI, Dizionario di Erudizione Storico-Ecclesiastica, Venezia 1848, vol. LV, p. 71, il quale nella voce Predicatore pone Dionisio fra nove cardinali che furono grandi oratori sacri nella storia della Chiesa: «tra’ cardinali predicatori si distinsero, Ruffini, Canisio, Laurerio, Bertrano, Petow, Baronio, Toledo, Bellarmino, Micara».

[xliii] VICENTINI, cit., p. 26, descrivendo il codice manoscritto sul Laurerio, incontra frequentemenete un Tomo Bullarum distinto con lettere e numeri progressivi; la predetta approvatio è codificata A40.

[xliv] Ivi, p.12. Gli estremi delle scritture notarili relative alla donazione sono state riportate nel paragrafo precedente.

[xlv] ROSSI, Serie cronologica ecc., p. 42.

[xlvi] L. VON PASTOR, Storia dei Papi, a cura di A. Mercati, Roma 1914, vol. IV, p. 456.

[xlvii]Era perfettamente inutile, infatti, la bolla del 13 aprile  che conferiva ai cardinali Wolsey e Campeggio il potere di dirimere la questione del divorzio con Caterina; il decreto si sarebbe rivelato un mero espediente per rimandare sine die la decisione del pontefice, magari riconciliando re e regina (PASTOR, cit., p. 468). Terminato il lentissimo infruttuoso negoziato fra i due cardinali, presto si arrivò all’autunno del 1529 con la caduta politica del Wolsey, incapace di offrire la vittoria al re.

[xlviii]P. PECCHIAI, Roma nel Cinquecento (Istituto di Studi Romani, Bologna 1948, p. 178).

[xlix]Padova, Pavia, Ferrara e Tolosa votarono favorevolmente alle tesi di Enrico, ma di molto più importanti i responsi, ugualmente positivi, delle università di Parigi e Bologna (C. FATTA, Il Regno di Enrico VIII d’Inghilterra secondo i documenti dei contemporanei, Firenze 1938, pp.600 ss.). Nonostante le grandi pressioni esercitate dal vice-legato papale per la Romagna, Bologna si espresse secondo i desideri della diplomazia inglese, così come quest’ultima, allora sotto la guida di Reginald Pole, riuscì anche con l’università della Sorbona «considerata come la più illustre della cristianità » (ivi, p. 591). Trattative e promesse di ogni tipo cercavano di ottenere, dalle rispettive parti in causa, il parere voluto, naturalmente con grande dispendio di energie e profusione di denaro, cose alle quali il papa cercò di opporsi con i brevi del 21 maggio e del 4 agosto 1530, che comminavano gravi pene alle persone coinvolte nel giudizio che fossero influenzate «da lucro, timore e passione» (ivi, p. 599).

[l] Ivi, p. 478.

[li] Ivi, p. 479.

[lii] BRITISH LIBRARY- RECORD OFFICE, State Papers of the Reign of Henry VIII, Londra 1862-1921, vol. VII, n.279 [la raccolta è citata in seguito con la sigla  S.P.]

[liii] Cfr. N. POCOCK, Records of the Reformation, the Divorce, Oxford 1870, vol. II, 236; S. EHSES, Römische Dokumente zur Geschichte de Ehescheidung Heinrich VIII von England, 1893, n. 98.

[liv] H. HALL, Enrico VIII, Londra 1904, II, p.183.

[lv] FATTA, cit., II, pp. 24 ss.

[lvi] Ivi, p. 35.

[lvii] Letters and Papers, foreign and domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, ecc., a c. di J. GAIRDNER, London 1880, vol. V, 782 [raccolta d’ora in poi citata con la sigla L.P.].

[lviii] S.P., vol. VII, 324; POCOCK, cit., II, 258.

[lix] BRITISH LIBRARY, ms. Cotton Vitellius B XIII, f. 190, citato in L.P., vol.VI, n.1005.

[lx] Cfr. UGHELLI, cit., col. 167.

[lxi] Tra i biografi che inducono a riferire l’episodio agli anni più giovanili il CIARLANTI (cit., pp. 474-75), che riporta come il Farnese «Arcivescovo della sua Patria [] vedendo, e di giorno in giorno isperimentando le sue eminenti virtù, e meriti, se li affettionò in maniera, ch’assai alla domestica se la fè poscia con lui».

[lxii] CIACONIUS, cit., col. 672.

[lxiii] CIARLANTI, cit., p. 475; cfr. anche Annalium Sacri Ordinis Fratrum Servorum B. Mariae Virginis ecc., Lucca 1721, p. 111.

[lxiv] M. B. HALL, La scienza, in Storia del Mondo Moderno, Milano 1968, vol. III, p. 613  (ed. originale The New Cambridge Modern History, Cambridge University Press, 1962, vol. III).

[lxv] E. GARIN in Il filosofo e il mago, in AA. VV., L’uomo del Rinascimento, cit., p. 182.

[lxvi] Ivi, p. 186.

[lxvii] E’ la sigla con cui è convenzionalmente conosciuto il cod. Madrid 8936, presso la BIBLIOTECA NACIONAL di Madrid. Il riferimento della citazione è al  f. 107r.

[lxviii] GARIN, cit., p. 195. E quelli «quando c’è qualcosa che non gli piace, o che non capiscono [andavano sparlando] di eresie, di scandali, di intoppi, di superstizioni, di malefici, condannando come perfidia pagana tutta la filosofia classica, fatta eccezione per il loro pestilenziale Aristotele» (ibid.).

[lxix] Ivi, p. 196. L’autore prosegue citando Paracelso per il quale la medicina è fondata sulla filosofia perché essa è basata sulla natura.

[lxx] G. DELLA PORTA, Magiae naturalis libri viginti, Francofurti 1591, p. 2. Gli stessi confini tra le più acute discipline erano, poi, molto permeabili: il Rinascimento vide la ripresa degli studi di matematica e geometria, fermi ad Euclide, e quelli di algebra, coltivata nel Medioevo dai soli Arabi. Si approfondì molto lo studio della sezione aurea che, appunto, implicava, fin da Pitagora, significati esoterici prossimi alla magia ed all’alchimia (cfr. gli studi sul segmento e sulla sezione aurea di L. Pacioli e di G. Keplero).

[lxxi] Forse J. G. SCHELHORN in De Consilio de Emendanda Ecclesia jussu Pauli III ecc., Heidegger 1748.

[lxxii] KLINE, cit., p. 261.

[lxxiii] Riportato da VICENTINI, cit., p. 25.

[lxxiv] S. EHSES, Acta Consistoralia, p. 214.

[lxxv] PASTOR, cit., p. 480.

[lxxvi] L.P., vol. VI, n. 661.

[lxxvii] Ivi, 953.

[lxxviii]BRITISH LIBRARY, Ms. Harley 6989,  f. 20, riportato in L.P., vol. VI, n.1005.

[lxxix] MORONI, cit., vol. XXVII, p. 182.

[lxxx]L’anno 1533 coincise con l’affermarsi di Thomas Cromwell e, con questi cancelliere dello Scacchiere, il trionfo del partito ostile ad un accordo con la Sede Apostolica (FATTA, II, pp. 88 ss.). Infatti ad agosto gli ambasciatori inglesi furono richiamati dalla curia pontificia, ed a gennaio del 1534 Enrico fece abolire i pagamenti delle annualità destinate a Roma, mentre Clemente dichiarava valido il matrimonio con Caterina e dava obbligo al re di riprenderla con sé (concistoro segreto del 24 marzo, cfr. EHSES, Acta Cons., cit., pp. 215 ss.; POCOCK, cit., II, pp. 532 ss.).

[lxxxi] PASTOR, cit., pp. 482 ss.

[lxxxii]Troppo tardi un «filo-inglese» era asceso al papato: aver promosso a cardinale il vescovo John Fisher, nel concistoro del 20 maggio 1535, suonò addirittura come una sfida ad Enrico, che già lo aveva fatto rinchiudere nella Torre con l’accusa di tradimento alla Corona. Il 22 giugno il Fisher venne decapitato e con la successiva esecuzione di Tommaso Moro, il 6 luglio, «si chiudeva addirittura un’era, ossia il medioevo inglese» (secondo FATTA, cit., II, p. 130).

[lxxxiii] FATTA, cit., II, p. 154.

[lxxxiv] Cfr. Annalium OSM, cit., t. II, pp. 113 ss.

[lxxxv] ROSSI, I Servi di Maria, in AA. VV., Il contributo degli ordini religiosi al Concilio di Trento, a c. di P. Cherubelli, Firenze, p. 68.

[lxxxvi] Ivi, p. 68, n. 2; cfr. CIACONIUS, cit., vol. III, col. 672, che descrive Laurerio finanche «reluctans et plorans».

[lxxxvii] DE NICASTRO, cit.

[lxxxviii] In VICENTINI, cit., p. 13.

[lxxxix] Lettera apostolica del 17 agosto 1535.

[xc] ROSSI, I Servi di Maria ecc., cit., p. 69, n. 3; cfr. Annalium OSM, cit., t. II, pp. 120 ss.

[xci] H. JEDIN, Storia del Concilio di Trento, Brescia 1949, vol. I, p. 266.

[xcii] S. EHSES, Concilii Tridentini Actorum, Friburgo 1904, p. 43, n. 3.

[xciii] S. PALLAVICINO, Istoria del Concilio di Trento scritta dal Padre Sforza Pallavicino della Compagnia di Gesù ecc., Roma 1664, libro IV, capo I, p. 363; ed  apporta come fonti «il Gianio, nell’Istoria de’ Servi, il Gariberto, e l’Ughelli».

[xciv] Cfr. Annalium OSM, cit., p. 117.

[xcv] Conc. Trid., cit., p. 43.

[xcvi] Cod. Vat. lat. 3915, ff. 77 e 78.

[xcvii] Arm. 41, vol. 4, f. 156r, n.147.

[xcviii] Comunque, abbiamo già chiarito che in quei secoli i cognomi erano scritti con continue modifiche, e che anche per la famiglia del Nostro, a Benevento e Toro, come ad Amelia e poi ad Isernia, si avrà il ritramutamento definitivo verso la forma più vecchia «Laurello/i», superando il “rotacismo intervocalico” intervenuto tra le consonanti “l” ed “r” del cognome. In questo senso abbiamo parlato di cognome “originale”, in quanto relativo alla famiglia d’origine: i «Laureli(o)» di Amelia.

[xcix] V. nota 95.

[c] E’ denominata Acta Nuntiaturae Gallicae; il volume che ci riguarda ha per titolo Correspondance des nonces en France Carpi et Ferrerio 1535-1540, a cura di J. LESTOCQUOY, Roma-Parigi 1961.

[ci] Lettere di Principi, Venezia 1570-77.

[cii] BRITISH LIBRARY, Add. Ms. 8715.

[ciii] Correspondance, cit., pp. XXXIII ss.

[civ]In L. P., vol. XI, n. 1100, p. 442 è scritto”goes as nuncio to Scotland”, ma si è preferito citare il ms. Harley 787, f. 18 (BRITISH LIBRARY) nella versione autentica del tempo.

[cv] Correspondance, cit., pp. 204-5.

[cvi] L. P., n. 1297, pp. 525 ss.

[cvii] Cfr. Correspondance, cit., p. 220, Carpi a Ricalcato, da Melun il 15 dicembre.

[cviii] L. P., n. 1379, p. 549, 27 dicembre, citando Add. Ms. 8715, f. 318v.

[cix] Ivi, f. 319.  Il Faenza approfitta del corriere per scrivere a mons. Ricalcato che «a Vs. Signoria mi raccomando quanto più posso, pregando Dio le doni quanto desidera, et a me quanto V.S. mi augura, et afferma» (ibid.). Il nunzio ha fretta di ricevere notizie da Roma che gli confermino quanto era prevedibile e vociferato: la sua elevazione al cardinalato, in quanto impegnato in una nunziatura presso una corte di primo piano. In realtà, sappiamo che la nomina era già avvenuta nel concistoro del giorno 12, quando la porpora era stata attribuita, fra gli altri, a Pole, Carafa, Sadoleto, Del Monte ed all’Aleandro. La conferma non dovette tardare ad arrivare al Faenza se il 4 gennaio avrebbe scritto al pontefice per ringraziarlo profondamente e dichiararsi «senza eccezione alcuna prontissimo a’ entrare nel fuoco con lei, e per lei» (ivi, f. 319v).

[cx] Ivi, da Parigi, ff. 320v-321.

[cxi] Add. Ms. 8715, f. 324, da Parigi.

[cxii] Ivi, f. 326.

[cxiii] Ivi, f. 322, da Parigi, 19 gennaio.

[cxiv] ASNA, Carteggio Farnese, fasc. 694, litt. F.

[cxv] Add. Ms. 8715, f. 335; da Faenza a mons. Ambrogio, da Parigi.

[cxvi] Ibid.

[cxvii] Ivi, f. 333.

[cxviii] JOHN E. LAW, The nunciature to Scoltland in 1548 of Pietro Lippomano, bishop of Verona, estr. da «Atti e Memorie dell’Accademia di Agricoltura Scienze e Lettere di Verona» (a. acc. 1970-71, serie VI, vol. XXII, p. 426).

[cxix] Cfr. L’Italia del Rinascimento, Bari 1989  (ed. originale Italy in the Age of the Renaissance,1380-1530, 1989 Longman Group UK Limited).

[cxx] LAW, The nunciature, cit., pp. 426-7.

[cxxi] Enciclopedia Italiana, voce Giacomo V Stuart.

[cxxii] Add. Ms. 8715, f. 340 ss.

[cxxiii] Ivi, ff. 357v ss.

[cxxiv] Ibid.

[cxxv] Ivi, ff. 359v. ss.

[cxxvi] CIACONIUS, cit., t. III, col. 672.

[cxxvii] In «Scottish Historical Review», vol. IX (1914).

[cxxviii] Conc. Trid., cit., indice, p. 604.

[cxxix] Annalium OSM, t. II, p. 120.

[cxxx] JEDIN, cit., p. 266.

[cxxxi] Ivi, p. 290.

[cxxxii] Annalium OSM, II, pp. 120 ss.

[cxxxiii] Archivio di San Marcello, Tomo Bullarium, Litt. A n. 18.

[cxxxiv] Litt. 5-1, f. 25v., a firma «Dionisius Beneventanus».

[cxxxv] Litt. A, f. 104, a firma Dionisio Priore Generale.

[cxxxvi] Traducendo fedelmente dall’inglese quanto scritto dallo storico nella citata The nunciature to Scotland, pg. 447.

[cxxxvii] Ibid.

[cxxxviii] ROSSI, I Servi di Maria, cit., pp. 69 ss.

[cxxxix] Trad. di A. M. ROSSI, ivi, p. 70.

[cxl] Conc. Trid., XII, p. 215, n. 3.

[cxli] BAV, Barb. lat. 5362, ff. 188 ss.

[cxlii] Cfr. PASTOR, cit., V, p.117, n. 1.

[cxliii] DE NICASTRO, cit.

[cxliv] Cfr. Annalium OSM, pp. 123 ss.

[cxlv] PASTOR, cit., V, p. 123.

[cxlvi] Ivi, p. 124.

[cxlvii] Ivi, pp. 125 ss.

[cxlviii] Cfr. dispaccio di Vincenzo da Gattico al duca di Mantova del 24 ottobre, ove si parla di «fra Dionisio generale de servi» fra i candidati (ASMN, Archivio Gonzaga).

[cxlix] PASTOR, cit., pp. 127 ss.; sulla cooptazione fra i cardinali di teologi, umanisti, letterati, cfr. M. FIRPO, Il cardinale, cit., p. 121.

[cl] CIARLANTI, cit., p. 475; cfr. anche Annalium OSM, cit., p. 125. L’assegnazione di quel titolo è del 28 gennaio 1540 secondo Ehses (Conc. Trid., XII, p. 604) sarebbe invece datata 6 febbraio secondo il Tomo Bull. (Litt. C n. 38).

[cli] PALAZIO, cit., col. 144-5.

[clii] G. SADOLETO, Epistolae, Roma 1764, Generosus Salomonius, pars tertia, pp. 199-201.

[cliii] Cfr. Tomo Bull., cit., alla data del 14 febbraio, litt. A n. 47; B. LIGI, I vescovi ed arcivescovi di Urbino, Urbino 1953, II, pp. 140 ss.; UGHELLI, cit., T. II, col. 798.

[cliv] Cfr. R. PIO, Discorso a Carlo V Cesare del modo di dominare il mondo, redatto nel 1543.

[clv] Il Laurerio deteneva da tempo la carica di arcidiacono della cattedrale beneventana. E’ questa una delle tante notizie fornite da tutti i suoi biografi, ma per la quale non esiste alcuna fonte assolutamente attendibile, e neppure la data nella quale la nomina fu pronunciata. Se, come essi scrivevano, «la qual dignità ritenne in tutto il corso di sua vita» (cfr. CIARLANTI, cit., p. 474; CIACONIUS, cit.), considerando la breve vita del Nostro, e, allo stesso tempo, l’importanza rivestita da quella prelatura, solitamente non conferita a religiosi troppo giovani, è possibile ipotizzare che Dionisio ne fosse investito nel periodo che intercorre tra l’incarico di procuratore generale dei frati serviti (1527) e quello di priore generale (1535). Possiamo qui ricordare che fino al 1504 lo aveva preceduto Giustiniano Moriconi, di Amelia, e gli sarebbe succeduto Tomaso Conturbinio il 29 ottobre 1542 (cfr. Archivio Capitolare di Benevento, Lettere Onorifiche di Personaggi al R.mo Capitolo, coll. 88, lettera del card. Farnese).   

[clvi] ARCHIVIO GENERALE DEI SERVI DI MARIA, Cartella Laurerio.

[clvii] Cfr. DIZIONARIO BIOGRAFICO DEGLI ITALIANI, voce G. Della Casa (Roma 1988, vol. 36, p. 703).

[clviii] A. F. PIERMEI, Memorabilium Sacri Ordinis Servorum B. M. V. Breviarium ecc., Roma 1934, vol. IV, pp. 7 ss., in n. 1.

[clix] Cfr. Conc. Trid., cit., p. 454.

[clx] PIERMEI, cit, p. 10; cfr. Epistolae Reginaldi Poli et aliorum ad ipsum ecc., a cura di G. Quirini, Brescia 1744-57, vol. III, pp. 73-76.

[clxi] Ivi, citando le Epistolae del cardinale.

[clxii] SADOLETO, cit., pp. 201-202.

[clxiii] Ivi, pp. 254-257.

[clxiv] Ivi, pp. 202-203.

[clxv] PIERMEI, cit., p. 9, nota.

[clxvi] Ibid.

[clxvii] Cfr. EHSES, Acta Consistoralia del 27 maggio; cfr. «Studi Storici», XVI, 250.

[clxviii] Cfr. VICENTINI, cit., p. 13 n. 10.

[clxix]ASLU, Storia di Lucca, vol. II, 309.

[clxx] JEDIN, cit., p. 368.

[clxxi] VICENTINI, cit., p.14.

[clxxii] DE NICASTRO, cit.

[clxxiii] CIACONIUS, cit., col. 673.

[clxxiv] DE NICASTRO, cit.

[clxxv] ASFI, f. 3264, citato da PASTOR.

[clxxvi] Annalium OSM, II, pp. 129-131.

[clxxvii] Testo in Annalium, cit.

[clxxviii] DE NICASTRO, cit.

[clxxix] ASV, Archivio Concistoriale, 4 f. 153, Acta Cameraria 3.

[clxxx] Datata 31 ottobre 1539, in Lettere onorifiche (cit., n. 91, f. 8). Il n. 89, f. 8, reca la data dell’11 gennaio 1542, contiene una sua lettera di raccomandazione per la concessione di indulgenze per la festa del Corpus Domini ed il sigillo del cardinale di San Marcello.

[clxxxi] CIACONIUS, cit., a sua volta citando P. GIOVIO; cfr. PASTOR, cit., V, p. 450.

[clxxxii] DE NICASTRO, cit.

[clxxxiii] ASFI, citato da PASTOR, che data la nomina dei cardinali al giorno 4 (cit., p. 673).

[clxxxiv] PASTOR, cit., p. 673.

[clxxxv] Ivi, p. 674.

[clxxxvi] A. PROSPERI, Tribunali della coscienza. Inquisitori, confessori, missionari,Torino 1996, p. 45.

[clxxxvii] Ivi, p. 676; cfr. Concilium Tridentinum, 2: Diariorum pars altera, a cura di S. MERKLE, Freiburg im Bresigau 1991, p. 405.

[clxxxviii] Enciclopedia  Italiana, voce Inquisizione.

[clxxxix] JEDIN, cit., pp. 311-312.

[cxc] ROSSI, Il Contributo ecc., cit., p. 72, n. 2.

[cxci] Ivi, p. 71.

[cxcii] VICENTINI, cit., p. 8, n. 2, riportando quando scritto da PIERMEI, cit., p. 7, n.1, citando egli a sua volta: «De Dionysio haec habet Synopsis nostra: [] morbo incurabili consumptus Frusoloni [non Romae] obiit, et Romae sepelitur».

[cxciii] ASBN, Liber Mandatorum, cc. 116v, 177, 179.

[cxciv] Cfr. A. ZAZO, in «Samnium», anno XL, gennaio-giugno 1967, n.1-2, p. 28.

[cxcv] DE NICASTRO, cit.

[cxcvi] ASFI, Congregazioni soppresse, cit., f. 83.

[cxcvii] SADOLETO, cit., p. 321.

[cxcviii] Con queste parole ha termine il manoscritto, tuttora inedito, che Giovanni de Nicastro ebbe a dedicare alla figura di Dionisio Laurerio. Aveva cominciato il componimento confutando la possibilità che il borgo di Sieti, vicino Salerno, avesse potuto dare i natali al celebrato cardinale, poiché l’autore si sarebbe sforzato «di provar, che la patria del suddetto Cardinale sia Benevento»; affinché a questa, che già era stata la patria di «tre Sommi pontefici, otto altri Cardinali, d’innumerevoli Arcivescovi, e Vescovi, e d’infiniti celebri Letterati non mancasse ad un così glorioso Eroe, e celebre Letterato, quale si fù il Laurerio».

[cxcix] VICENTINI, cit., p. 9.

[cc] Ivi, p. 33; lettera del 28 dicembre 1764.

[cci] L’iscrizione fu riportata da molti, in versioni simili: Ciacconio, Cabrera, Della Vipera, Ciarlanti, Gianio; si può considerare come più vicina all’originale quella tratta da V. FORCELLA (Iscrizioni delle Chiese di Roma ecc., Roma 1874, vol. II, p. 305, n. 942), in quanto fedele trascrizione del citato ms. Chigiano I (v. 167, f. 326):

DYONYSIO LAVRERIO BENEVENTANO

TT.LI S.TI MARCELLI S.R.E. PRESBITERO CARDINALI

VRBINATENSI EPISCOPO RELIGIONIS SERVORVM

GENERALI GRAVISSIMO AC LEGATO CAMPANIE

A P. III ORDINATO VIRO OMNI FERE

OMNI SCIENTIARVM GENERE ORNATO

R.P.M. AUGVSTINVS ARETINVS EIVS

ALVMNVS GENERALIS POSVIT VIXIT ANNOS

XLV OBIIT XVII DIE SEPTEMBRIS MDXLII

[ccii] «Per tutto il ‘500 e fino al ‘700 proseguirono infine i lavori di abbellimento, che riguardano soprattutto le cappelle laterali ed arricchiscono la chiesa di nuovi capolavori» (L. GIGLI, San Marcello al Corso, Istituto di Studi Romani, Roma 1977, p. 27). Della dispersa tomba del Generale, naturalmente, non troviamo accenni.

[cciii] Cfr. la citata concessione dell’11 novembre 1557 in ASS.

[cciv] Cfr. Annalium OSM, cit., p.138; anche in VICENTINI, cit., p. 17.

[ccv] PASTOR, cit., p. 676, n. 4.

[ccvi] BRITISH LIBRARY, State Papers, IX, 192, citato in L. P., vol. XVII, p. 533, n. 935.

[ccvii] Cfr. copia a Cambridge, Caius College, ms. 597, p. 189.

[ccviii] COCHRANE, cit., p. 155. Solo per un attimo, privi come siamo di qualsivoglia riscontro in proposito, il pensiero ritorna a Volturara Appula: se esso fu paese sede di “eretici” valdesi, fin dal 1502 (cfr. G. SACCO, Gli eretici «Oltremontani» dell’ Alto Fortore, in RSS, I/1995, III serie, pp. 153 ss.), è possibile che i Laureri, e quindi un giovane Bernardino, vi abbiano avuto contatti con i movimenti «oltremontani»?

[ccix] Ivi, p. 160.


 [FL1]

23 octobre, 2011

Prima lista di cognomi ebrei italiani, stranieri, ashkenazi e sefardi

Classé dans : Non classé — andreadicaffa02 @ 15:59

 

<a href=http://blog.lisabuzz.com>Lisabuzz.com</a> parle de Eglise Sainte Genevieve : Pincez-moi ! Est-ce un rêve ? Un songe ? Une hallucination ? Sainte Genevieve Mulhouse a réussi a réunir en un seul blog (<a href=’Https://www.facebook.com/saintegenevieve.mulhouse’ target=blank class=’blog’>Eglise Sainte Genevieve</a>) tous les ingrédients nécessaires au plaisir de l internaute. Où donc Sainte Genevieve Mulhouse et son esprit brillant ont-ils dégotté la formule magique du web ? Hélàs, je l ignore. Mais une chose est sûre : je retournerai souvent sur <a href=’Https://www.facebook.com/saintegenevieve.mulhouse’ target=blank class=’blog’>Eglise Sainte Genevieve</a>, du bonheur en pixels. signé <a href=http://blog.lisabuzz.com> http://blog.lisabuzz.com</a>

 

 

 

 

L’Ordre de Saint André de Caffa Istituto Ordine di Sant’ Andrea di Caffa est un Ordre totalement indépendant.
Son organisation est fédérale et internationale.
Ses Prieurés correspondent à des unités territoriales
regroupant des Commanderies d’au moins 10 membres
qui vivent dispersés mais en union d’esprit.

L’Ordre ne possède aucun bien matériel destiné à son propre usage,
il n’a pas de bureaux et de structures administratives permanentes.
Son fonctionnement repose intégralement sur le bénévolat.

Les Réunions regroupent périodiquement les Membres de l’Ordre de Saint André de Caffa,
qui choisissent librement de vivre selon la Règle de Saint Augustin,
et ses Recommandations de vie en déterminant, selon leur vocation,
le degré d’engagement qui leur convient.

L’activité caritative est proposée aux Membres de l’Ordre,
mais aussi à toute personne non-Membre de bonne volonté.

Toute personne qui se sent en affinité avec
la Présentation de l’Ordre de Saint André de Caffa Istituto Ordine di Sant’Andrea di Caffa, devenu « stagiaire »,
peut envisager sa postulation et poser sa Candidature
pour devenir Membre de
l’Ordre .

e-mail: ordresaintandredecaffa@orange.fr

fax: 0033(0)970066635

Prima lista di cognomi ebrei italiani, stranieri, ashkenazi e sefardi. Comprende personalità ebree ed ebree occulte (marranos) dell’economia, dello spettacolo, della cultura, della politica mondiale storica e contemporanea. Presto seguiranno una seconda lista ed alcuni link molto utili.

ELENCO DEI COGNOMI DI CIRCA 10.000 FAMIGLIE EBREE D’ITALIA

Prima di far seguire l’elenco, devo premettere alcune considerazioni generiche: L’elenco comprende circa 1650 cognomi corrispondenti a 9.800 famiglie, ossia in media un cognome ogni sei famiglie. Il numero grande dei cognomi deriva dal fatto che mentre a ciascun cognome italiano nel senso largo corrispondono alcune famiglie, gli Ebrei delle quattro Comunità tedesche, da meno di un secolo immigrate, hanno quasi ogni famiglia il proprio cognome. L’elenco comprende i cognomi delle famiglie ebree di tutta Italia, in quanto sono registrate presso l’Ufficio Statistico del Keren Hajesod (Fondo di ricostruzione Palestinese) d’Italia, inclusi quelli delle quattro Comunità tedesche, esclusi quelli delle colonie (Tripoli, Bengasi, Rodi, ecc.).

Enumerando, l’elenco contiene:

1) Cognomi geografici italiani (per non ripetere, trascrivo senz’altro qui i cognomi corrispondenti, riservandomi di parlare estesamente sulla loro origine ecc. nella parte terza). Quest’elenco non pretende nè di essere completo nè senza sbagli. Ed ecco: D’Italia, Pugliese, Calabrese, Toscano (Siciliano oggi estinto presso gli Ebrei). Città e Comuni d’Italia: Alatri, Ancona, Anticoli, Ariccia, Ascoli, Asti, Bassano, Bologna, Borghi (Borgo Trentino), Cagli, Caivano, Camerino, Campagnano, Capua, Carpi, Castelbolognesi, Castelfranco, Castelnuovo, Castiglioni, Cave, Cavalieri (Piemonte), Cesana, Cividale, Cingoli, Civita, Colorni (o), Conigliani, Cori, Corinaldi, Fano, Ferrarese, Fiorentino, Foligno, Forlì, Frascati, Gattinara, Genazzano (i), Guastalla, Jesi, Livoli, Limentani, Macerata, Marcaria, Marino (i), Marradi, Massa, Massarani, Melli, Mestre, Milano, Minerbi, Mirandola, Modena, Modigliani, Momigliano, Mondolfo, Mondovì, Monselice, Montagnana, Montalcino (i), Montecorboli, Mortara, Muggia, Nepi, Nola, Norlenghi (o), Norsa (Norcia), Ortona, Orvieto, Osimo, Padova, Pavia, Pavoncello, Perugia, Pesaro, Pescarolo, Piazza (Sicilia), Piperno, Pisa, Parenzo, Pitigliano (i), Poggibonsi, Pontecorboli, Pontecorvo, Pontremoli, Prato, Pirano (i), Ravenna, Rignano, Recanati, Reggio, Revere (sul Po), Rieti, Rimini, Romano, Rom, Rovighi (Rovigo), Russi, Saravalle (Veneto), Scandiani, Senigaglia, Sereni, (o), Servi (?), Sforno, Soave (Veneto), Sonnino, Sorani (o), Sulmona, Supino, Tagliacozzo, Teglio, Terni, Terracina, Tivoli, Trieste, Udine, Urbino, Veneziano, Vercelli, Veruli, Verona, Vigevano (ì), Viterbo, Voghera, Volterra, Zara.

2) Cognomi tedeschi delle quattro Comunità tedeschi e sparsi in tutta Italia, specialmente a Milano.

3) Cognomi spagnoli, a Livorno e specialmente in Toscana.

4) Cognomi orientali, specialmente a Milano e Napoli.

5) Cognomi ebraici sparsi in tutta Italia, specie in Toscana.

6) Cognomi greci, a Trieste.

7) Cognomi di professione.

8) Cognomi cattolici, dovuti a matrimonio misto con una ragazza ebrea. Questo potrà essere studiato a parte, da chi è in condizione precisa di contare i cognomi cattolici nel seguente dizionario.

9) Cognomi di origine diversissima. Ed ecco senz’altro l’elenco dei cognomi:

A

Aadith, Abadì, Abeles, Abenaim, Abeniacar, Abib, Abigdor, Aboaf, Abramson, Abravanel, Abulaffi, (1) Abulaffia, Acco, Acher, Adagnia, Aderca, Ades, Adler, Aelion, Aghib, Ahrens, Ajar, Alatri, Alba, Albahari, Albaum, Albert, Albina, Albini, Alcalai, Alfaquain, Algranati, Alhaique, Allalouf, Allan Civita, Alrnagià, Almansi, Almansi Macchioro, Almeda, Alphandery, Alpron, Alt, Altarass, Altaress, Altberger, Alter, Alticheh, Amar, Ameriglio, Amati, Ambonetti, Ambron, Amì, Amman, Amy, Anau, Ancona, Andrè, Angel, Angeli, Angelini, Anguillara, Anticoli, Ara, Arbib, Archivolti, Arditti, Arditi, Ariani, Arias, Ariccia, Ariete, Arieti, Arnstein, Artom, Aruch, Ascarelli, Ascer, Aschenazi, Ascher, Ascoli, Ascoli Marchetti, Assajcas, Asseo, Astein, Asti, Astrologo, Attal, Attias, Aub, Avigdor, Auerbach, Awerbach, Azankot, Azavei, Azavey, Azria, Azriel, Azzaria.

(1) – Si nota che qui sono trascritti i cognomi delle famiglie ebree d’ltalia, ma con lo svolgersi del tempo i cognomi sono andati trasformandosi, cosicché troveremo che ci sono delle famiglie che portano lo stesso cognome, preso come base, ma diverso oggi come scrittura; per esempio chi potrà oggi parlare di una parentela fra le famiglie del cognome Abulaffia, Abolaffi, Abolaffio, Abolafia, Bolaffio, Bolaffi, che tutti derivano dal cognome base Abulaffia? Lo avverto perché anche i Luzzatto e Luzzatti, i Modigliano e Modigliani sono oggi cognomi di famiglie diverse.

B

Badalassi Orvieto, Baer, Bachi, Backschmiedt, Bagdalli, Bahorjudà, Baiona, Bak, Balachovsky, Ball, Ballanti, Balog, Banon, Banti, Baquis, Baracchi, Barchi, Barmè Mazloun, Baroccio, Barroccio, Baruch, Barzilai, Barzillon, Basevi, Basilea, Basola, Bassan, Behor, Bassani, Bassano, Bassi, Batò, Battino, Bauer, Beck, Bedarida, Bedussa, Beer, Behar, Beilinson, Belaise, Belforte, Belgrado, Belimbau, Belleli, Bellom, Belmonte, Bemporad, Benadì, Benaim, Benamozegh, Benarayo, Benedetti, Beniacar, Beniamin, Benigno, Benoliel, Bensillun, Bensussan, Benusiglio, Benveniste, Benvenisti, Benzimrà, Benzouan, Berahà, Berer, Bergmann, Bergholz, Bermann, Bernardoni, Berni, Bernheimer, Bernsteir, Bertel, Beruchel, Besso, Betrich, Betti, Bettinelli, Bettmann, Biach, Bianchini, Bienenfeld, Bigiavi, Bigio, Biks, Bingen, Bischof (vescovo!), Bises, Bisi Mantovani, Bisogni, Bisson, Bivak, Blanes, Blaskopf, Blau, Blitz, Bloch, Blotzek, Blum, Blumberg, Blumenthal, Boaz, Bobek, Boccara, Boffi, Boghen, Boehm, Bolaffi, Bolaffio, Bollag, Bolle, Bologna, Bolosca, Baustein, Bonaventura, Bondì, Bonfiglioli, Bonomie, Bonucci, Boralevi, Borgetti, Borghi, Borlenghi, Borseti, Bows, Bracci, Brandenburg, Brandes, Brandi, Braeuer, Braun, Brauner, Braunschweig, Braunstein, Bravermann, Brecher, Breiner, Breinin, Bresner, Brill, Brisi, Brociner, Brok, Brod, Brodanka, Brunner, Buchbinder, Buchsbaum, Bueno, Bunzel.

C

Cabibbe, Cademann, Cadorini, Caffaz, Cagli, Caimi, Caimmi, Caivano, Calabi, Calabresi, Calderoni, Calef, Caleff, Calfoa, Calimani, Calò, Calvo, Camaioli, Camerini, Camerino, Camhi, Camis, Camis de Fonseca, Cammeo, Campagnano, Campos, Canarutto, Cannaruto, Cantoni, Capato, Capua, Carasso, Carrara, Carcsson, Cardoso, Carijo, Carlì, Carmi, Carmona, Caro, Carpanetti, Carpi, Carsen, Caruba, Casanova, Cases, Cases Pellegrini, Cascinelli, Cassin, Cassuto, Castelbolognesi, Castelletti, Castelli, Castelfranchi, Castelfranco, Castelnuovo Tedesco, Castiglioni, Castro, Cattelani, Cava, Cave Bondì, Cavaglieri, Cavaglione, Cavalieri, Caviglia, Cendraissousa, Cervetti, Cesana, Cevidalli, Clerido, Clava, Clerle, Cludnevitz, Chajes, Chapira, Chimichì, Ciaroff, Cingoli, Citone, Citone in Alvarenga, Citoni, Cividalli, Civita, Coen, Coen Cantarini, Coen Gialli, Coenca, Cogoi, Cohen, Coifmann, Colasanti, Colia, Colombo, Colonna, Colorni, Confino, Conforte, Conforti, Confort, Conigliani, Consarelli, Consigli, Consiglio, Consolo, Contini, Corcos, Cori, Corinaldi, Coscas Majon, Costa, Costantini, Cotton, Covo, Cramer, Cratz, Crema, Cremisi, Creo, Croccolo, Curiat, Curiel, Cusin, Cutti, Cuzzeri, Cuzzi, Czachi, Czatzkis, Czimmer.

D

Dadone, Da Fano, D’Agata, Daldon, Dalla Torre, D’Ancona, Daniel, Danitti, Dann, Da Zara, De Abravanel, De Alvarez, De Angelis, Deangelis, De Benedetti, De Castro, De Cori, De Farro, De Frigessy, De Funel, De Leon, Della Riccia, Dell’Ariccia, Della Rocca, Della Seta, Della Torre, Della Volta, Dello Strologo, Del Mar, Del Monte, Del Sole, De Luisa, Del Valle, Del Valle de Paz, Del Vecchio, Demajo, De Medina, De Montel, De Nola, Depace, Depangher, De Paz, De Rossi, De Semo, De Sousa, Dessau, Deutsch, Diamant, Diaz, Di Capua, Di Castro, Di Cave, Dickmann, Di Cori, Diena, Dienstfertig, Di Gioacchino, Di Laudadio, Dina, Di Nepi, Dinkelspiel, Di Nola, Di Porto, Di Segni, D’ltalia, Di Tivoli, Ditz, Di Veroli, Dolfo, Donati, Donner, Doerfles, Dorn, Dowek, Dragoner, Dresner, Dreyfus, Drucker, Dubinsky, Durante, Duranti, D’Urbino.

E

Eckert, Edward, Eibenschuetz, Effendi, Efrati, Ehrenfeld, Ehrenfreund, Ehrenteil, Ehrlich, Eisenstaedter, Elfer, Elia, Elias, Eliazon, Eliezer, Elseo, Eltbogen, Emdin, Eminente, Engel, Enriquez, Eppinger, Epstein, Erber, Ergas, Errera, Esdra, Esquenasi, Essinger, Ettlinger, Evangelisti.

F

Falcini Servi, Falco, Faldini, Faldino, Falk, Fano, Faraggi, Farber, Farchi, Fargion, Farinelli, Farkas, Fasano, Fassel, Fasulo, Fatucci, Fein, Feiner, Feistmann, Felberbaum, Felici, Fellner, Fernandes, Ferrarese, Ferro, Ferusciany, Fiandra, Fiano, Fieder, Fifer, Fink, Finkelstein, Finker, Finzi, Fiorentino, Fimberg, Fischbein, Fischer, Fischl, Fischmann, Fiz, Flack, Flaschel, Fleisher, Fleischner, Foà, Fodor, Foligno, Fonseca, Fontanella, Forlì, Formiggini, Fornari, Forti, Franchetti, Franco, Frank, Frankental, Frankl, Franzes, Frascati, Frassinetti, Freiberger, Freisinger, Frenkel, Fresco, Freund, Fried, Friedenthal, Friedlaender, Friedmann, Fries, Frizzi, Frischmann, Fruchter, Fuà, Fubini, Fuchs, Funaro, Fuerst.

G

Gabbai, Gabriel, Gaensler Frankenstein, Gaggio, Gori, Galinidi, Galletti, Galli, Gallichi, Gallico, Galligo, Gandus, Gani, Garda, Garsen, Garza, Gasperini, Gattegno, Gattinara, Gazes, Geddes, Geller, Gemelli, Genazzani, Gentili, Gentilli, Gentilomo, Gerold, Gerstel, Gerstenfeld, Gesess, Gerschanovitz, Ghersfeld, Ghiron, Ghissin, Giaconi, Giavol, Ginzburg, Giovanelli, Giroux, Giuili, Giuli, Glanz, Glass, Glattstein, Glicenstein, Glueck, Godell, Goetz, Goetzel, Goldbacher, Goldberg, Goldberger, Goldenberg, Goldfinger, Goldfrucht, Goldmann, Goldring, Goldschmiedt, Goldstein, Goldstaub, Golembiovski, Gomel, Gondelmann, Goudstikker, Graf, Granichstaedten, Grassetti, Grassini, Graziani, Greco, Greco-Siglina, Grego, Greiger, Gronich, Gruen, Gruenbaum, Gruenberg, Gruenland, Gruener, Gruenfeld, Gruenwald, Gruss, Guagnacchi, Guetta, Gugenheim, Guggenheim, Guglielmi, Gurewitsch, Guttierez, Guttmann.

H

Haardt, Haas, Haber, Hackl, Hagmann, Hahn, Haim, Haimovici, Haimovitsch, Hajek, Hajon, Hakin, Haliffi, Hamburger, Harmer, Hanania, Hanau, Handler, Hanemann Toff, Hanen, Harrari, Hasdà, Hassan, Hassid, Hasson, Haussmann, Hasan, Heilbrunn, Heimann, Heinhorn, Heischmann, Heitler, Helfer, Heller, Hensel, Hepner, Herbatschek, Herbert, Herlitzka, Hersch, Herschmann, Herzer, Hirschfeld, Hirsch, Herzog (duca), Hochwald, Hodara, Holberg, Hollaender, Hollinger, Honig, Hoenisberg, Horitzky Orsini, Horn, Horniker, Horovici, Horvat, Huesca, Hupperi.

I

Ichainer, Illes, Isciaki, Ismalun, Israel, Israeli, Issel, Issmann, Italia.

J

Jacchia, Jacobson, Jacur, Jaffe, Jahni, Janowitz, Janni, Jarach, Jarè, Jenda, Jenina, Jenna, Jenni, Jesi, Jesurum, Jessulam, Job, Joffe, Johanan, Jolles, Jones, Jona, Jos, Joseph, Josz, Joung, Jules, Just.

K

Kabiglio, Kach, Kagnaff, Kahn, Kajon, Kalk, Kalmus, Kaminka, Kaptan, Kasman, Kastner, Katz, Kauffrnann, Kaula, Keller, Kern, Kessler, Kirsch, Kirschen, Kitt, Klauber, Klein, Kleinzeller, Klippel, Klugmann, Koch, Kohn, Kohner, Kolb, Koltzinsky, Koenigsberger, Konti, Konrad, Koerber, Korn, Kornell, Kornfeld, Koschiltzki, Kostoris, Krassner, Kraus, Krauterkraft, Krebs, Kreh, Kreilsheim, Kremer, Kron, Kries, Krikunetz, Kron, Kropf, Kruskah, Krzentowski, Kuehn.

L

Lacis, Lackenbacher, Lacomba, Laden, Lager, Laide, Lakin, Lamberg, Lampronti, Landesmann Laudi, Landau, Langbank, Lanternari, Lanzana, Lapajowker, Lappert, Lascar, Lassejower, Laz, Latis, Lattes, Latzer, Lavagno, Leblis, Lehrecht, Lecerf, Lechner, Lenner, Lee, Leipziger, Lekner, Lenghi, Lennox, Leone, Leoni, Leonino, Leonzini, Leperer, Lerner, Lessmann, Levi, Levi Bianchini, Levibran, Levi-Cases Momigliano, (tre cognomi), Levi de Veali, Levi Minzi, Levin, Levis Levitsch, Lewish, Levy, Lewy, Lichetnstadt, Lichtenstein, Lieblein, Liehmann, Limentani, Lindemer, Linder, Lipschuetz, Liscia, Liuzzi, Livoli, Lob, Locascio-Goldschmiedt, Lodeserto, Loeb, Loeffler, Loevy, Loewy, Loisada, Lolli, Lombroso, Lopes, Lopez, Lopez-Rabello, Lorant, Loria, Loschitz, Loethe, Loevinson, Loew, Loewental, Loewenthal, Loewinson, Loewy, Luft, Luftschuetz, Luisada, Lumbroso, Luria, Lusena, Lust, Lustig, Lutomirsky, Luttinger, Luzzatti, Luzzatto.

M

Macchioro, Macerata, Maendl, Maestri, Maestro, Magrini, Mahlberg, Maimann, Maino, Maionica, Maissa, Majò, Malvano, Manara, Manasse, Mandel, Mandelberg, Mandler, Mandula, Mangold, Mann, Mannheimer, Marach, Marcaria, Marcheria, Marcus, Margulies, Mariani, Marino, Marini, Mariotti, Maroni, Marradi, Marsiglio, Massa, Massarani, Massarek, Massiah, Matalon, Mattatia, Mattersdorfer, Mautner, Mayer, Mazzola, Mazoleni, Medina, Medvedieff, Medoro, Meinster, Melgrano, Melli, Menasci, Mendel, Mendes, Menz, Merkl, Mesha, Mestre, Michelis, Michelstaedter, Mieli, Migliau, Milano, Milla, Millul, Minerbi, Mingardi, Mires, Misan, Misan-Saia, Misano, Misul, Misrahi, Modena, Modiano, Modigliani, Modigliano, Modona, Moeller, Moisé, Molco, Molnar, Momigliani, Momigliano, Mondolfi, Mondolfo, Mondovì, Monferini, Monreale, Monselise, Monselles, Montag, Montagnana, Montalcini, Montalcino, Montalti, Montebarozzi, Montecorboli, Montefiore, Montefiori, Montel, Montiglia, Morais, Moravia, Mordo, Mordoh, Morel, Morelli, Morello, Moreno, Moreschi, Moresco, Moretti, Morgenstern, Mori, Moroni, Morpurgo, Mortara, Mortera, Morway, Moscato, Moscé, Moskowitz, Moully, Mrad Esses, Mosseri, Muggia, Mugnai, Muehlstein, Muia, Muelberg, Mueller, Musacchi, Musatti, Mussafia, Mustacchi.

N

Naar, Nacamù, Nacamulli, Nacmias, Nacson, Nador, Najschitz, Nahmias, Nahon, Nahum, Naim, Namen, Namer, Nathan, Navara, Navarra, Navarro, Negrini, Neiger Nepi, Neppi, Neri, Neppi Modona, Neris, Netter, Neumann, Nibal Raimondi, Nigris, Nissim, Nizza, Nordlinger, Norlenghi, Norsa, Norzi, Nossal, Nunes, Nunes Franco, Nunes Vais, Nuernberg, Nussbaum.

O

Oberdorfer, Oblath, Ocvirk, O’Hara, Ohlsen, Olivieri, Olivetti, Olper, Olschki, Oppenheim, Oreffice, Orefice, Orefici, Ortona, Orvieto, Oser, Osimo, Osmo, Osta, Oesterreicher, Ottolenghi, Ottolenghi Boccara, Ottolenghi di Vallepiana, Ovazza.

P

Pace, Pacifici, Padoa, Padova, Padovani, Padovano, Paggi, Panerai, Panzieri, Paoli, Paper, Pardo, Pardo – Roques, Parente, Parenzo, Passigli, Pattin, Pavia, Pavoncello, Pegna, Perez, Perlmutter, Permutti, Perpetui, Perugia, Pesaro, Pesaro Maurogonato, Pescarolo, Philipson, Piattelli, Piazza, Picard, Picciacci, Picciaccio, Pick, Pieboni, Piesen, Pignero, Piha, Pincherle, Pinto, Piperno, Pines, Pirani, Pirola, Pisa, Pisanty, Pisetzky, Pisinger, Pitigliani, Pitteri, Plankenstein, Plaskis, Platzek, Plaschier, Poggetto, Poggibonsi, Poggiolini, Polacco, Poliakoff, Politi, Politzer, Pollak, Pomeranz, Pontecorboli, Pontecorvo, Pontremoli, Popper, Porges, Porta, Portaleon, Portaleone, Portnoff, Porto, Post, Pozinak, Prato, Pregel, Pressburger, Priester, Procaccia, Prohatzka, Provenzal, Pugliese, Puritz, Puttermann, Putti.

Q

Quercioli.

R

Rabà, Rabbeno, Rabelio, Rabinovici, Racah, Radau, Raffael, Raffaelli, Rahamin, Ram, Randegger, Rappaport, Rath, Ravà, Ravà Longhi, Ravenna, Ravicz, Reah, Recanati, Reder, Redzinsky, Reeson, Reggio, Reghini, Reich, Reichenback, Reichmann, Reinach, Reiner, Reinert, Reinhardt, Reinisch, Reis, Reiser, Reis, Reissner, Remondini, Renier, Resignani, Restani, Reuben, Revan, Revere, Revici, Riboni, Richetti, Richtmann, Riedler, Rieger, Rieti, Rietti, Rignano, Riftin, Rimini, Rocca, Roccas, Rodriguez, Roganti, Rogers, Roumann, Romanelli, Romani, Romanin, Romanin Jacur, Romano, Romoli, Roques, Rosel, Rosen, Rosenberg, Rosenfeld, Rosenholz, Rosenstein, Rosenthal, Rosenzweig, Rosselli, Rossi, Rotbart, Roth, Rouff, Rouzel, Rovighi, Rubert, Rubinstein, Rudoi, Russi.

S

Sabatello, Sabbadini, Sacerdote, Sacerdoti, Sacerdotti, Sacerdotti di Carobbio, Sachs, Sacuto, Sadok, Sadun, Saadun, Saffaro, Sagà, Saiegli, Salem, Salmon, Salmona, Salmoni, Salom, Salonicchio, Saltiel, Salto, Salus, Samaia, Sambulovich, Samuele, Sancò, Sanguinetti, Sanguski, Santillana, Saporta, Saralvo, Sarasson, Saraval, Saravalle, Sarfatti, Sariette, Sarsowski, Sasson, Savani, Saxel, Scazzocchio, Scandiani, Scaramella, Scarpa, Schjowitz, Schalmon, Schamasch, Schapira, Schaerf, Schick, Schiffer, Schiller, Schischa, Schlesinger, Schloss, Schmitz, Schmoltz, Schmukler, Schnur, Schoen, Schoenfeld, Schoenhaut, Schoenheit, Schoenstein, Schor, Schostal, Schotte, Schreiber, Schreider, Schultz, Schunnach, Schuessler, Schuetz, Schwarz, Schwarzkopf, Schweiger, Schwob, Sciaky, Scitrug, Sciunnach, Sdraffa, Sed, Sefardi, Segal, Segrè, Seidel, Seidmann, Seif, Semak, Semania, Semo, Senigaglia, Senigallia, Sepilli, Serena, Sereni, Sereno, Sergi, Sermoneta, Serravalle, Serrera, Servadio, Servi, Sessa, Sessi, Sestieri, Sforni, Sermann, Siccoli Bondì, Siebzehner, Sierra, Silbermann, Silva, Sivera, Sinai, Singer, Sitri, Slvaja, Smolensky, Smolesco, Soarez, Soliani, Soavi, Somenzi, Sommer, Sommermann, Sonne, Sonnenberger, Sonnino, Sorani, Sorbi, Soria, Sornaga, Sorraga, Soschino, Spagnoletto, Spagnolo, Specos, Spiegel, Spierer, Spitilli, Spitz, Spitzer, Spizzichino, Sprinzeles, Sraffa, Stein, Steindler, Steiner, Steinhardt, Stern, Steinhaus, Sternberg, Sternfeld, Sternschuss, Stettner, Stipanowitsch, Stock, Straaten, Stransky, Strossberg, Stucovitz, Stuetzel, Suarez, Subak, Subert, Sullam, Sulmona, Sun, Supino, Susani, Susin, Suess, Suessland, Sviadoschitz, Szabados, Szamatolsky, Szeynberg, Szirmay.

T

Tabet, Tagger, Tagiuri, Tagliacozzo, Tailor, Tajar, Tannenbaum, Taenzer, Taubert, Taussig, Tazartes, Tedeschi, Tedesco, Teglio, Teichner, Temin, Terni, Terracina, Terracini, Tesoro, Teubal, Tewich, Thuretzky, Tiano, Tivoli, Toaff, Todeschini, Todesc, Todros, Toledano, Tolentino, Tolosa, Torres, Toscano, Toschi, Tramer, Treulich, Treves, Treves de’ Bonfili, Trevi, Trevis, Trieste, Trietsch, Trionfo, Turba, Tuerk, Turra.

U

Udine, Ullmann, Umano, Ungar, Urbini, Urbino, Urovitz, Usigli, Usiglio, Uziel, Uzielli.

V

Valabrega, Valch, Valensin, Valenti, Valentin, Valenzin, Valobra, Valmarano, Valmarin, Varadi, Varios, Varsano, Velicogna, Venezia, Veneziani, Veneziano, Ventura, Vercelli, Veroli, Verona, Verreano, Vigdorcik, Vigevani, Vigevano, Vilcher, Visser, Vita, Vitta, Vitale, Vitalevi, Vitali, Viterbi, Viterbo, Vitta Zelmann, Vivante, Vivanti, Vovante, Vogel, Vogelmann, Vogler, Voghera, Volli, Volterra, Vretermann, Vucenovich.

W

Wachsmann, Walch, Wallfisch, Waschitz, Wassermam, Wax, Wehli, Weichsel, Weiger, Weil, Weiller, Weil-Schott, Weinstein, Weisberg, Weischel, Weishut, Weiss, Weiss Dodi, Weisser, Weissmann, Weizmann, Weleminsky, Welisch, Werblowsky, Wernikoff, Wilhelm, Windspach, Winternitz, Wohl, Wolf, Wolfler, Wolff, Wolfsohn, Wollemborg, Wollner, Wolner, Wortmann.

Z

Zabban, Zaccaria, Zaccuti, Zacun, Zacutti, Zagdun, Zalai, Zalman-Finzi, Zamatto, Zamorani, Zanotti, Zarfati, Zargani, Zarzovsky, Zebolun, Zeller, Zelman, Zemanek, Zevi, Zibell, Zibren, Ziffer, Zipper, Zitrin, Zmigrod, Zoller, Zuccari, Zuckermann, Zurk, Zweig, Zwillinger.

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The Gentle Art of Changing Jewish Names
The Madansky brothers—Max, Solomon, Benjamin, and Jacob—have written that their names henceforth will be May. It is a good old Anglo-Saxon name, but the Madanskys are of Asiatic origin.

Elmo Lincoln, a movie actor, comes into a Los Angeles court on the motion of his wife, and it is discovered that he is only Otto Linknhelt.

A large department store owner was born with the name Levy. He is now known as Lytton. It is quite possible he did not like Levy as a name; but why did he not change it for another Jewish name? Or perhaps it was the Jewishness of “Levy” that displeased him.

A popular tenor star recently brough suit against his wife, who married him after allowing him to believe that she was of Spanish origin. “I understood from her misleading stage name that she was Spanish when I married her. Later I found that she was Jewish and that her real name was Bergenstein.”

One of the biggest and best known stores in the United States goes under an honored Christian name, though every one of the owners is Jewish. The public still carries a mental picture of the good old merchant who established the store, which picture would speedily change if the public could get a glimpse of the real owners.

Take the name Belmont, for example, and trace its history. Prior to the nineteenth century the Jews resident in Germany did not use family names. It was “Joseph the son of Jacob,” “Isaac ben Abraham,” the son being designated as the son of his father. But the Napoleonic era, especially following upon the assembly of the Great Sanhedrin under Napoleon’s command, caused a distinct change in Jewish customs in Europe.

In 1808 Napoleon sent out a decree commanding all Jews to adopt family names. In Austria a list of surnames was assigned to the Jews, and if a Jew was unable to choose, the state chose for him. The names were devised from precious stones, as Rubenstein; precious metals, such as Goldstein, Silberberg; plants, trees, and animals, such as Mandelbaum, Lilienthal, Ochs, Wolf, and Loewe.

The German Jews created surnames by the simple method of affixing the syllable “son” to the father’s name, thus making Jacobson, Isaacson; while others adopted the names of the localities in which they lived, the Jew resident in Berlin becoming Berliner, and the Jew resident in Oppenheim becoming Oppenheimer.

Now, in the region of Schoenberg, in the German Rhine country, a settlement of Jews had lived for several generations. When the order to adopt surnames went forth, Isaac Simon, the head of the settlement, chose the name of Schoenberg. It signifies in German, “beautiful hill.” It is very easily Frenchified into Belmont, which also means beautiful hill or mountain. A Columbia University professor once tried to make it appear that the Belmonts originated in the Belmontes family of Portugal, but found it impossible to harmonize this theory with the Schoenberg facts.

It is noteworthy that a Belmont became American agent of the Rothschilds, and that the name of Rothschild is derived from the red shield on a house in the Jewish quarter of Frankfort-on-the-Main. What the original family name is has never been divulged.

The Jewish habit of changing names is responsible for the immense camouflage that has concealed the true character of Russian events. When Leon Bronstein becomes Leo Trotsky, and when the Jewish Apfelbaum becomes the “Russian” Zinoviev; and when the Jewish Cohen becomes the “Russian” Volodarsky, and so on down through the list of the controllers of Russia—Goldman becoming Izgoev, and Feldman becoming Vladimirov—it is a little difficult for people who think that names do not lie, to see just what is transpiring.

Indeed, there is any amount of evidence that in numberless cases this change of names—or adoption of “cover names,” as the Jewish description is—is for purposes of concealment. There is an immense difference in the state of mind in which a customer enters the store of Isadore Levy and the state of mind in which he enters the store of Alex May. And what would be his feeling to learn that Isadore Levy painted up the name of Alex May with that state of mind in view? When Rosenbluth and Schlesinger becomes “The American Mercantile Company,” there is justification for the feeling that the name “American” is being used to conceal the Jewish character of the firm.

The tendency of Jews to change their names dates back very far. There was and is a superstition that to give a sick person another name is to “change his luck,” and save him from the misfortune destined upon his old name. There was also the Biblical example of a change of nature being followed by a change of name, as when Abram became Abraham and Jacob became Israel.

There have been justifiable grounds, however, for Jews changing their names in Europe. The nationalism of that continent is, of course, intense, and the Jews are an international nation, scattered among all the nations, with an unenviable reputation of being ready to exploit for Jewish purposes the nationalistic intensity of the Gentiles. To mollify a suspicion held against them wherever they have lived (a suspicion so general and so persistent as to be explainable only on the assumption that it was abundantly justified) the Jews have been quick to adopt the names and colors of whatever country they may be living in. It is no trouble at all to change a flag, since none of the flags is the insignia of Judah. This was seen throughout the war zone; the Jews hoisted whatever flag was expedient at the moment, and changed it as often as the shifting tide of battle required.

A Polish Jew named Zuckermandle, emigrating to Hungary, would be anxious to show hat he had shuffled off the Polish allegiance which his name proclaimed; and the only way he could do this would be to change his name, which would very likely become Zukor, a perfectly good Hungarian name. Originally the Zukors were not Jews; now the usual guess would be that they are. In the United States it would be almost a certainty. Such a change as Mr. Zuckermandle would make, however, would not be for the purpose of concealing the fact that he was a Jew, but only to conceal the fact that he was a foreign Jew.

In the United States it has been found that Jews change their names for three reasons: first, for the same reason that many other foreigners change their names, namely, to minimize as much as possible the “foreign look” and the difficulty of pronunciation which many of those names carry with them; second, for business reasons, to prevent the knowledge becoming current that So-and-So is “a Jew store”; third, for social reasons.

The desire not to appear singular among one’s neighbors, when stated in just these words, very easily passes muster a being a natural desire, until you apply it to yourself. If you were going abroad to Italy, Germany, Russia, there to live and engage in business, would you cast about for a changed name immediately? Of course not. Your name is part of you, and you have your own opinion of an alias. The Jew, however, has his own name among his own people, regardless of what “cover name” the world may know him by, and, therefore, he changes his outside name quite coolly. The only likeness we have to that in America is the changing of men’s pay numbers as they move their employment from place to place. John Smith may be No. 49 in Black’s shop and No. 375 in White’s shop, but he is always John Smith. So the Jew may be Simon son of Benjamin in the privacy of the Jewish circle, while to the world he may be Mortimer Alexander.

In the United States it is hardly to be doubted that business and social reasons are mostly responsible for the changes in Jewish names. The designation “American” is itself much coveted, as may be gathered by its frequent use in firm names, the members of which are not American in any sense that entitles them to blazon that name throughout the world.

When Moses is changed to Mortimer, and Nathan to Norton, and Isadore to Irving (as for example Irving Berlin, whose relatives, however, still know him as “Izzy”), the concealment of Jewishness in a country where so much is done by print, must be regarded as a probable motive.

When “Mr. Lee Jackson” is proposed for the club there would seem to be no reason, as far as reading goes, why anything unusual about Mr. Jackson should be surmised, until you know that Mr. Jackson is really Mr. Jacobs. Jackson happens to be the name of a President of the United States, which names are quite in favor with the name-changers, but in this case it happens also to be one of the “derivatives” of an old Jewish name.

The Jewish Encyclopedia contains interesting information on this matter of derivatives.

Asher is shaded off into Archer, Ansell, Asherson.

Baruch is touched up into Benedict, Beniton, Berthold.

Benjamin becomes Lopez, Seef, Wolf (this is translation).

David becomes Davis, Davison, Davies, Davidson.

Isaac becomes Sachs, Saxe, Sace, Seckel.

Jacob becomes Jackson, Jacobi, Jacobus, Jacof, Kaplan, Kauffmann, Marchant, Merchant.

Jonah becomes by quite simple changes, Jones and Joseph, Jonas.

Judah (the true Jewish name) becomes Jewell, Leo, Leon, Lionel, Lyon, Leoni, Judith.

Levi becomes Leopold, Levine, Lewis, Loewe, Low, Lowy.

Moses becomes Moritz, Moss, Mortimer, Max, Mack, Moskin, Mosse.

Solomon becomes Salmon, Salome, Sloman, Salmuth.

And so on through the list of Jewish “changelings”—Barnett, Barnard, Beer, Hirschel, Mann, Mendel, Mandell, Mendelsohn, with various others which are not even adaptations but sheer appropriations.

The millinery business, which is one of the principal Jewish grafts off American women, shows, the liking of the Jews for names which do not name, but which stand as impressive insignia—“Lucile,” “Mme. Grande,” and the like. Reuben Abraham Cohen is a perfectly good name, and a good citizen could make it immensely respected in his neighborhood, but Reuben thinks that the first round in the battle of minds should be his, and he does not scruple at a little deceit to obtain it, so he painted on a window of his store, R. A. Le Cán, which, when set off with a borrowed coat of arms, looks sufficiently Frenchified for even observant boobs among the Gentiles. Similarly a Mr. Barondesky may blossom out as Barondes or La Baron.

Commonly, Mr. Abraham becomes Miller. Why Miller should have been picked on for Judaization is not clear, but the Millers of the white race may yet be compelled to adopt some method of indicating that their name is not Jewish. It is conceivable that a Yiddish and an American form of the same name may some time be deemed necessary. Aarons becomes Arnold—there are a number of Jewish Arnolds. Aarons became Allingham. One Cohen became Druce, another Cohen became Freeman. Still another Cohen became a Montagu; a fourth Cohen became a Rothbury and a fifth Cohen became a Cooke.

The Cohens have an excuse, however. In one ghetto there are so many Cohens that some distinction must be observed. There is Cohen the rag gatherer, and Cohen the schacet (ritual meat killer), and Cohen the rising lawyer, as well as Cohen the physician. To make the matter more difficult their first names (otherwise their “Christian” names) are Louis. It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that the young lawyer should become Attorney Cohane (which does all the better if thereby certain Irish clients are attracted), and that the young doctor should become Doctor Kahn, or Kohn. These are some of the many forms that the priestly name of Cohen takes.

The same may be said with reference to Kaplan, a very common name. Charlie Chaplin’s name was, in all probability, Caplan, or Kaplan. At any rate, this is what the Jews believe about their great “star.” Non-Jews have read of Charlie as a “poor English boy.”

There is the Rev. Stephen S. Wise, for another example. He booms his way across the country from one platform to the other, a wonder in his way, that such pomposity of sound should convey such paucity of sense. He is an actor, the less effective because he essays a part in which sincerity is requisite. This Rabbi, whose vocal exercise exhausts his other powers, was born in Hungary, his family name being Weisz. Sometimes this name is Germanized to Weiss. When S. S. Weisz became S. S. Wise, we do not know. If he had merely Americanized his Hungarian name it would have given him the name of White. Apparently “Wise” looked better. Truly it is better to be white than to be wise, but Dr. Stephen S. is a fresh point in the query of “what’s in a name?”

The list of Jews in public life whose names are not Jewish would be a long one. Louis Marshall, head of the American Jewish Committee, for example—what could his old family name have been before it was changed for the name of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States?

Mr. Selwyn’s name, now so widely known in motion pictures, was originally Schlesinger. Some of the Schlesingers become Sinclairs, but Selwyn made a really good choice for a man in the show business. A rabbi whose real name was Posnansky became Posner. The name Kalen is usually an abbreviation of Kalensky. A true story is told of an East Side tinsmith whose name was very decidedly foreign-Jewish. It is withheld here, because THE DEARBORN INDEPENDENT prefers in this connection to mention only the names of those who can take care of themselves. But the tinsmith moved to a non-Jewish section and opened a new shop under the name of Perkins, and his luck really did change! He is doing well and, being an industrious, honest workman, deserves his prosperity.

Of course, there are lower uses of the name-changing practice, as every employer of labor knows. A man contracts a debt under one name, and to avoid a garnishee, quits his job, collects his pay, and in a day or two attempts to hire out under another name. This was once quite a successful trick, and is not wholly unknown now.

There is also much complaint among the stricter observers of the Jewish ritual requirements that the word “Kosher” is greatly misused, that indeed it covers a multitude of sins. “Kosher” has come to signify, in some places, little more than a commercial advertisement designed to attract Jewish trade. For all it means of what it says, it might just as well be “The Best Place in Town to Eat”—which it isn’t, of course; and neither is it always “strictly” Kosher.

It must be conceded, however, that the tendency to mislabel men and things is deep set in Jewish character. Jews are great coiners of catchwords that are not true, inventors of slogans that do not move. There is a considerable decrease in the power they wielded by such methods; their brilliancy in this respect is running to seed. This may be explained by the fact that there are so many song titles to write for the Jewish jazz factories, and so much “snappy” matter for screen descriptions. Their come-back is painfully thin and forced. Without peers in dealing with a superficial situation like a dispute over the beauty of two rival “stars,” or the amount and method of distributing confetti, they are the veriest dubs in dealing with a situation like that which has arisen in this country.

Immediately upon the appearance of the Jewish Question in the United States the Jews reverted naturally to their habit of mislabeling. They were going to fool the people once more with a pat phrase. They are still seeking for that phrase. Slowly they are recognizing that they are up against the Truth, and truth is neither a jazzy jade nor a movie motto, which can be recostumed and changed at will.

This passion for misleading people by names is deep and varied in its expression. Chiefly due to Jewish influences, we are giving the name of “liberalism” to looseness. We are dignifying with names that do not correctly name, many subversive movements. We are living in an era of false labels, whose danger is recognized by all who observe the various underground currents which move through all sections of society. Socialism itself is no longer what its name signifies; the name has been seized and used to label anarchy. Judaistic influence creeping into the Christian church has kept the apostolic labels, but thoroughly destroyed the apostolic content; the disruptive work has gone on quietly and unhindered, because often as the people looked, the same label was there—as the same old merchant’s name stays on the store the Jews have bought and cheapened. Thus there are “reverends” who are both unreverend and irreverent, and there are shepherds who flock with the wolves.

Zionism is another misnomer. Modern Zionism is not what its label would indicate it to be. The managers of the new money collection—millions of it, badly used, badly accounted for—are about as much interested in Zionism as an Ohio Baptist is in Meccaism. For the leading so-called “Zionists,” Mt. Zion and all that it stands for has next to no meaning; they see only the political and real estate aspects of Palestine, another people’s country just at present. The present movement is not religious, although it plays upon the religious sentiments of the lower class of Jews; it is certainly not what Judaized orators among the Christians want the Christians to think it is; Zionism is at present a most mischievous thing, potentially a most dangerous thing, as several governments could confidentially tell you.

But it is all a part of the Jewish practice of setting up a label pretending one thing, while quite another thing really exists.

Take anti-Semitism. That is a label which the Jews have industriously pasted up everywhere. If ever it was an effective label its uses are over now. It doesn’t mean anything. Anti-Semitism does not exist, since the thing so named is found among the Semites, too. Semites cannot be anti-Semitic. When the world holds up a warning finger against a race that is the moving spirit of the corruptive, subversive and destructive influences abroad in the world today, that race cannot nullify the warning by sticking up a false label of “Anti-Semitism,” anymore than it can justify the sign of gold on a $1.50 watch or the sign of “pure wool” on a $11.50 suit of clothes.

So with the whole group of labels which the Jews have trotted out like talismen to work some magic spell upon the aroused mind of America. They are lies. And when one lie fails, how quickly they hitch their hopes to another. If “Anti-Semitism” fails, then try “Anti-Catholic”—that might do something. If that fails, try “Anti-American”—get the biggest talent that can be hired for a night on the B’nai B’rith platform to shout it. And when that fails, as it has—?

The American Jewish Committee is itself a misnomer. The committee is not exclusively American, and its work is not to Americanize the Jews nor even to encourage real Americanization among them. It is a committee composed of Jews representing that class which profits most by keeping the mass of the Jews segregated from Americans and in bondage to the “higher ups” among the Jews. They are the “big Jews,” as Norman Hapgood used to call them, who say to the “little Jews,” “You hang closely together; we will be your representatives to these foreign peoples, the Americans and others.” If the American Jewish Committee would change its name to this: “The Jewish Commission for America,” it might be nearer the truth. It has dealt with America in the recent past very much as the Allied Commissions deal with Germany. There are certain things we may do, and certain things we may not do, and the Jewish Commission for America tells us what we may and may not do. One of the things we may not do is to declare that this is a Christian country.

There is one absolutely safe rule in dealing with anything emanating from the American Jewish Commitee. Don’t rely on the label, open the matter up. You will find that the Kehillah is not what it pretends to be; that the Jewish labor union is not what it pretends to be; that Zionism is a camouflage for something entirely different; that the name and the nature are nearly always different, which is the reason for a particular name being chosen. It runs all the way through Jewish practice, and presents another little job for the Jewish reformer.

[THE DEARBORN INDEPENDENT, issue of 12 November 1921]

——————

SEPHARDIC NAMES TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH FROM
ARABIC (A), ARAMAIC (AR), BERBER (B), GERMAN (D), FRENCH (F), GREEK (G), HEBREW (H), HEBREW BIBLICAL (HB), HEBREW TALMUD (HT), ITALIAN (I), LATIN (L) SPANISH (S), PORTUGUESE (P), TURKISH (T), YIDDISH (Y)

Translations provided by members of the forum at Sephardim.com

Name Language Translation(s)
A
Aaro (H)(S) From Aharon, the great priest. Perhaps from Aro, ring
Abadia (H)(S) From Obadia: Praise G-d. the Prophet of the same name perhaps from the Spanish word for abbey,
Abalos (S) Village in La Rioja
Abarbanel (H) Variant of Abravanel
Abarracin (S) Rrom Albarracin: Toponimic an area in Teruel
Abastado (S) From the word Astado. horned cattle
Abbis (A) A location in Alexandria Egypt
Abcatar (S) From the word Catar to taste
Abelda (A) Small village in La Rioja
Abella (S) From the word Bella, beautiful
Abella (S) From the Catalan, bee (more likely)
Abella (I) Also an Italian village where the Trojans lived prior to Spain
Aben (A) An archaic form of Ibn meaning son of
Abenamor (A)(S) Aben(A), son of. Amor(S), love
Abenatar (A)(S) Aben(A), son of. Atar(S), to tie up
Abenatar (A) Son of the prefumes/spices seller
Abencabra (A)(S) Aben(A), son of. Cabra(S), goat
Abencasson (A)(S) Aben(A), son of. Casson(S), Brown sugar
Abencasson (S) Cason(S), old ancestral home
Abencasson (S) Cazon(S), a type of fish
Abencasson (A)(H) Son of Casson derived from Casson meaning joy
Abenfacen (A) Aben (A) son of, Facen from the word Hassan, benefactor
Abenforma (A)(S) Aben (A) son of, Forma shape
Abenito (S) Benit, Benedict
Abenmayor (A)(S) Aben (A) son of, Mayor (S), the eldest
(A)(S) Son of the eldest
Abenvive (A)(S) Aben (A) son of. Vive (S) lives
Abetar (A) A location in Syria
Abiatar (HB) From Ebiatar, meaning more than a father, son of the priest Ahimelekh
Abiego (S) A small village in Huesca
Abihssera (H)(AR) See Becerra
Abi Sadiq (H) Father of Sadiq, sadig deriving from Tsaik meaning righeous
Abila (A) The house
Abila (S) Avila, a Spanish town
Abiles (A) The house
Abinnaxim (A) Share
Ablitas (S) A village in Navarre
Aboab (A) Stringed muscial insrument
Aboaf (A) Stringed musical instrument
Aboav (A) Stringed muscial instrument
Abolafia (A) Doubting
Abolays (A) Doubting
Aboub (A) Stringed musical instrument
Abrabanel (H) Variant of Abravanel
Abraham of Beja (S) Bejar a town in Salamanca
Abraham of
Sanguesa (S) The name of a town in Navarre
Abrantes de (S)(P) A hamlet in Galicia, Spain, a city in Ribadetejo, Portugal
Abravanel (H) A limb of a limb of G-D
Abravanel (H)
Dormido (S) Asleep
Abulafia (A) Abu, father or owner of heath, the healthy one
Abulker (A) One who does good to all people
Abutarda (S) From Avutarda, Great Bustard, a bird
Acacia (P) Name of an ornamental tree
Aceraf (A) Money changer
Acosta (S) Rib in old Castillian. Same as Costa and Costilla. Not coast as in modern Spanish.
Aelion (H) The Supreme
Affonso Frances (S) Alponse French
Afia (A) Good wishes
Agreda (S) A village in the province of Soria
Aguado (S) Watered
Aguirre (S) A Basque family name
Aguila (S) Eagle
Aguilon (S) Village in the province of Soria
Agusti (S) From the name Agustin
Ailion (H) The Supreme
Aimeric (S) Aymeric a French name
Aires (S) Airs, breezes
Aix D’ (F) From Aix, a city in France
Aji (T) Bitter, sharp
Aji Luna (S) Aji pertaining to saint, Luna, the moon
Aknin (B) Jacob
Al (A) An Arabic prefix meaning the.
Aladjem (A) The Persian
Alagon (S) A river in Aragon, Spain
Alaman (A) German
Alamani (A) German
Alamany (A) German
Alarcon (S) Town in Spain
Alashka (S) From the Basque Ashkar or Azkar swift or quick
Alba (A) Punishment from G-D
Alba (S) Dawn, surplice used in church , white
Alba (S) A locality in Teruel
Albaala (A) Punishment from G-D
Albaca (S) From Albahaca, the basil plant
Albagil (A) Female horse
Albagli (A) Female horse
Albahari (A) Sailor
Albalag (A) Moving
Albalansi (A) Alvalansi (An old boat)
Albelda (S) Small village in Huesca
Albeldano (S) A person from Albelda
Albesa (S) A town in Lerida, Catalonia
Albion (S) Ancient name for Great Briton
Albo (S) White
Albo (A) Victory
Albons (S) A locality in province of Gerona, Catalonia
Alborge (S) A locality in Zaragoza
Alborgi (S) An inhabitant of Alborge
Albuquerque (T) From the marrano surname Albukerk of Turkey
Alcaiceria (S) Silk market (in Granada) or a group of shops belonging to the King and rented to Jewish merchants (Aragon,Alcarria, and Cuenca)
Alcala (S) A town near Madrid
Alcalde (S) Mayor
Alcalahorrano (S) From Calahorrano, an inhabitant of Calahorra
Alcalle (S) From the word Calle meaning street.
Ancantara (S)(P) A village in the province of Caceres, a village in Portugal
Alcaniz (S) A town in Aragon
Alcastell (S) In the castle
Alcazar (S) Fortress
Alegria (S) Joy
Alfakhar (A) Proud man
Alfaro (S) Municipality in the province of Logrono
Alfassa (A) From Fez, Morocco
Alforja (S) Saddlebag
Algranate (S) From the word granate meaning garnet, also the color
Algrannate (A) From Granada
Alguadix (S) From Gaudix, a town in Andalusia
Alguazil (S) Bailiff
Alicante (S) A city in Spain
Aries (H) From the Hebrew word arieh meaning lion. Portugues or Galican variant of the name Arias.
Almagro (S) A town near Madrid
Almansa (S) A city in Spain
Almanza (S) A city in the province of Leon, Spain
Almazan (S) A city in the province of Soria, Spain
Almeida (A) Boating technician
(A) Street sweeper
(A) Resident of Almeida
Almenara (A) Fire on watch towers, water channels
Almendros (S) Almond Trees
Almonte (S) A village in Huelva
Alouf (A) Chief, leader, champion, major general, lord, city head
Alouf (H) Chief, leader, champion, major general, lord , city head
Altalef (A) Worthless
Aluf (A) Chief, leader, champion, major geneal, lord, city head
Aluf (H) Chief, leader, champion, major general, lord, city head
Alut (A) The biblical Lot
Alvares Corcho (S) Corcho cork
Alvaro (S) From the name Alvar
Alvo (A) Victory
Alvorada (S) Alborada, dawn
Amado (S) Loved
Amagna (A) I hope
Amar (A) Builder
Amar (S) Love
Amarilljo (S) Amarillo meaning yellow, a color long used on clothing to
identify Jews
Amezquita (A)(S) Mezquita a mosque
Amigo (S) Friend
Amira (A) Princess
Amiras (A) Princess
Amon (A) A good person
Amores (S) Loves
Anchieta (S) A Basque family name
Andosilla (S) A village of Navarre
Andrada (S) An old and famous Galician lineage
Andrade (S) An old and famous Galician lineage
Andujar (S) A city in the Province of Jaen
Angeles (S) Angels
Angelet (S) Small Angel (Catalan language)
Anriquies (S) Es meaning son of, son of Henry
Anson (S) From Anso, a small village in Huesca
Antillon (S) A small village in Huesca
Antores (S) Sellers who have in good faith purchased stolen goods.
Apatron (S) Patron meaning the boss
Aradi (A) Earth
Araha (A) Wishing for relaxation
Arama (S) A municipality in the province of Guipuzcoa
Arana (S) A Basque family name
Arancibia (S) A Basque family name
Aranda (S) The name of several towns in Spain
Arano (S) A municipality in the province of Navarra
Arba (S) A river in the province of Zaragoza
Ares(z) (S) The smaill town of Arres in Huesca
Arboleda (S) A group of trees, wood
Arboles (S) Trees
Arbona (S) A Basque toponimic, in the French Basque Country
Arce (S) A municipality in the province of Navarra
Ardit (A) Cave in Jordan
Arditti (A) Cave in Jordan
Ardout (A) Cave in Jordan
Argentier (F) Silversmith
Arias (H) From the Hebrew word arieh meaning lion.
Aridti (A) Cave in Jordan
Arino (S) A Basque family name
Ariza (S) A village in the province of Zaragoza
Armendariz (S) A Basque family name
Arnedillo (S) A town in Rioja
Arnedo (S) A town in Rioja
Arogueti (A) I will go
Aroh (A) I will go
Arriaga (S) A Basque family name
Arroja (S) throws
Aruh (A) The wind
Aruh (H) From Arokh meaning long
Asaov (A) Trouble maker
Ascar (A) Remembering G-D
Aseo (A) Trouble maker
Assa (HB) Remedy and the name of a Judean King
Assael (A) Angry
Assael (HB) God made, name of Yoab’s brother
Assai (A) Care taker of horses
Assaias (A) Care taker of horses
Asseo (A) Trouble maker
Assia Antica (S) Ancient Asia
Assias (A) Care taker of horses
Astorga (S) A town in the Kingdom of Leon
Astorgano (S) An inhabitant of Astroga, Leon
Asubel (A) Waves
Atas (A) Great sadness
Ataz (A) Great sadness
Athias (A) Gift
Atias (A) Gift
Attes (A) Great sadness
Attias (A) Gift
Avelar (A) Running
Avenbenvenist (S) From benvenist, welcome
Avila (A) The house
Avila (S) A city and province of Spain
Aviles (A) The house
Aviles (S) A town in Asturias, Spain
Aya (H) To fly swiftly
Ayala (S) A location in Alava, the Basque Ccuntry, a village in Alava
Ayerbe (S) A town in Aragon, a village in Huesca
Ayllon (S) A village in the province of Segovia
Ayuda (S) Helps
Azarque (A) Remembering G-D
Azraki (A) Remembering G-D
Azeite (P)(S) Olive oil
Azeitado (P)(S) Stained with olive oil
Azicri (P) Remembering
Azrici (H) From Zacharia
Azlor (S) A locality in Huesca
Azor (S) A bird, the goshawk
Azrifi (A) Very nice person
Azzraki (A) Remembering G-D

B
Baca (HB) The name of a valley near Jerusalem
Badi (A) New begining
Baena (A) Gathering
Baez (A) Expensive shop
Baeza (A) Expensive shop
Bahar (A) Sea
Bahar (S) Go down
Bahya (A) Good things
Baissa (A) Expensive shop
Baiz (A) Expensive shop
Bakish (A) Proving himself good

Baptista (S) Baptist
Barbanel (H) Polish variant of Abravanel
Barbanelska (H) Polish variant of Abravenel
Barbas (S) Beards
Baron (S) Title of nobility, not the be confused with Varon, male
Barrio (S) Village
Barrios (S) Villages
Baso (S) An old word meaning glass
Becerra (H)(AR) Owner and carpet of straw
Bechor (A) First born
Bega (A) First born
Behar (H) Acronym of Ben Kvod haRa = son of his honor the Rabbi
Behar (A) First born
Behor (A) First born
Beja (A) First born
Bejar (H) See Behar
Belmonte (S) Beautiful mountain, a town in Andalusia
Ben Saba (S) Son of Saturday, the Sabbath, a Levite name
Bensabat (S) Son of Saturday. the Sabbath, a Levite name
Bensabath (S) Son of Saturday, the Sabbath, a Levite name
Bensabath (S) Son of Saturday, the Sabbath. a Levite name
Beso (S) Kiss
Bezerra (H)(AR) See Becerra
Blanca (S) White
Boher (H) Elects
Bohor (H) From Hehor meaning first born
Bolar (S) The verb to fly
Bosque (P)(S) Forest, Woods
Boton (S) Button
Brarata (S) Inexpensive
Bravo (S) Bravo, boastful, blustering, fine, excellent
Buen (S) Good
Buena Vida (S) Good life
Buendia (S) Good day
Bueno (S) Good
Bulhao (P) Turbulent, noisy
Bulha (P) Quarrel, strife
Burla (S) Taunt, ridicule

C
Caballeria (S) Riding stock
Caballeria (S) Cavalry
Caballero (S) Knight, gentleman
Cabarral (S) Animal parasite, tick
Cabeca (P) Head
Cabeza de Vaca (S) Head of the cow
Cabezas (S) Heads
Cabeludo (P) Hairy
Cabra (P)(S) She goat
Cabral (P) Herd of goats
Cabreiro (P) From goats
Cabrera (S) Goat herd
Cabrero (S) Goat attendant, goat herd
Cabrito (P) Kid
Cabron (S) Stud goat
Cadiz (S) Port city in Spain
Caes (S) You fall
Caja (S) Box, safey deposit box
Cajal (S) Group of boxes, person in charge of the boxes
Calabaza (S) Pumkin
Calache (S) Old furniture
Calahora (S) Public place where bread was distirbuted in scarce times
Calahorra (S) Same as calahora
Calamaro (S) Squid
Calao (P) See Calo
Calatayud (A) A town in province of Zaragoza from q’alat ayyud.
Calda (P) Syrup, Welding material
Caldas (P) Hot springs
Caldera (S) Soup Pot
Calderon (S) Cauldron
Caler (S) Lime seller
Calero (S) Lime seller
Callado (S) Quiet
Callar (S) The verb to remain quiet
Calle (S) Street
Callo (S) Callous
Calo (G) From Kalo meaning good
Calo (S) Gypsy
Calzada (S) Paved road
Camara (P) Chamber
(P) Surname assigned to Orphans
(S) Master room
Cambo (S) Room where meat product are hung to cure
Campo (P) Field
Campo (S) Country side
Campos (S) Fields
Canas (P) Reed, cane
Canas (S) Gray hair
Candeias (P) Oil lamp
Candelero (S) Candle light
Candida (S) Full of live and happiness
Candido (P) Candid, sincere
Canes (S) Dogs
Cano (P) Pipe
Cano (S) Gray haired man
Canto (P) Chant, sing, song,corner
Canto (S) Melody
Cantor (P) Singer
Canudo (P) Pipe
Caparra (S) Earnest, sign given as a guarantee
Caparrosa (S) Vitriol, an earnest man, a man wearing a red coat
Capeteiro (also (P) Shoe maker
Sapateiro)
Capeludo (P) Friars hood, cardinal cap
Capon (S) Castrated, gelded, a bundle of cut vineshoots
Capote (P) Overcoat, cloak
Capote (S) Raincoat
Capuano (S) Beaten, beating, thrashing
Carabella (S) Pretty face, Spanish ship
Caravida (S) Wishful face
Caravita (S) Facing life
Carco (S) One who goes back to the old ways
Carceres (S) Jails
Carceles (S) Jails
Cardado (S) To tease the hair
Cardenas (S) Reddish color
Cardinal (S) Foundation, reference point
Cardo (P) Thistle
Cardona (S) A village in Catalonia where the lineage of Cardona began as the result of the marriage of Ramon Folch and Argencia, the sister of Charlemegne
Cardoso (P) Full of thistle
Cardozo (S) Thorny bushes
Caraca (P) Mask, tick, mitel
Caraco (P) Snail
Caraco (S) Shell
Caracol (S) Shell
Carajal (S) Rejected, lost place, a place not in order
Caravajal (S) Oak woods, forest
Carbo (S) Carbon, charcoal
Carca (S) One who goes back to his old ways
Careco (P) Bald man
Cario (S) From Caria, a region in Asia Minor
Carion (S) From Carrion de los Condes a village in Spain
Carlos (S) Charles
Carner (S) Ram
Carnero (S) Ram
Carnicer (S) Butcher
Carnicero (S) Butcher
Caro (P)(S) Dear, expensive, loved one
Caroco (P) Pit
Carranca (P) Frown
Carranca (S) Spiked dog collar
Carrasco (P) Hang man, executioner, cruel man
Carrasco (S) Evergreen oak forest
Carrascon (S) Small Oak
Carregal (P) Loading place, name of town
Carreira (P) Career, walkway, path
Carretero (S) A peddler who travels by mule carriage to sell goods
Carrilho (P) Carillon, set of bells, musical clock, chimes
Carrillo (S) Wagon
Carrizo (S) Reed grass, a brown colored bird
Cartagena (S) A city of Spain
Carvajal (S) Oak woods, forest
Carvalhal (P) Oak grove
Carvalho (P) Oak tree
Casa (P)(S) House, home
Casafranca (S) Truthful house
Casal (S) Ghetto
Casas (P)(S) Houses
Casal (P) Couple, farm house
Casa Franca (P) Home of abundance
Casado (P)(S) Married
Casares (P) To get married
Cases (P) To get married
Cases (S) From casas, houses
Casteneda (S) Forest
Castanheda (P) Chestnuts
Castanheira (P) Chestnut tree
Castanho (P) The color brown
Castano (S) Brown
Castelhano (P) Castillian
Castellano (S) Castillian, language or person or object from Castile
Castellanos (S) People from Castile
Castellar (S) To sustain
Castellon (S) Town in Spain
Castelo (P) Castle
Castelo Branco (P) White Castle, the name a town
Castillo (S) Castle
Castro (P) Roman tower, the name of a town
Castro (S) Pre Roman fortified towns where military training took place, a cliff over the ocean
Catalan (P) From Catalonia, Spain
Catalanao (P) From Catalonia, Spain
Catalano (S) From Catalonia, Spain
Catan (S) Oriental cutlass
Catano (P) Anger, cursing
Catano (S) Long sword
Catano (H) From Catan, small, short
Catorze (S) Fourteen
Cava (P) Dig, plow, hollow
Cava (S) Cove
Cavacos (P) Kindling, chat
Cavalaria (P) Horse stable
Cavalo (P) Horse
Cazado (S) Hunted
Cazales (S) A group of houses where labor took place
Ceia (P) Supper, the name of a town
Cejas (S) Eyebrows
Centeno (S) A cereal. rye, hundreth
Cento (S) One hundred
Cepa (P) Vine
Cepa (S) Stump of any tree or plant, vine
Cepo (P) Stump
Cera (P)(S) Wax, bees wax
Cerda (S) Female pig
Cerdas (P) Bristles from a boar or othe animal
Cerdeira (P) Cherries
Cerdo (P) Bristles
Cerdo (P) Pig
Cerero (S) Wax handler
Cerez (S) Son of Zero (Cero), cherry tree
Cerezo (S) Son of Zero (Cero), cherry tree
Cerrada (P)(S) Closed
Cervo (P) Stag
Cespedes (S) Grass
Chacon (S) Salamander
Chame (P) To call
Chao (P) Floor, ground
Chao (S) A town in Asturias
Charon (S) From Sharon, the Valley of the Lillies
Chaves (P) Keys, the name of a city
Chichones (S) Bumps or inflamation of the skin.
Chico (P)(S) Small, nickanme for Francisco, small child
Chillon (S) Something that makes a loud noise
Chito (S) Wood piece, quiet
Cid (A) Master, lord
Cid (S) Strong and brave
Cida (S) Exterminator
Cipres (S) Cypress
Ciudad (S) City
Clara (P) Light
Clara (S) Clear, transparent
Claret (P) Type or wine
Clava (S) From the verb to hammer
Clema (S) Grape vine
Clemente (S) Just and righteous
Coba (S) Coin, importance

Cobos (S) Explicit declaration
Coche (S) Horse drawn carriage
Cocher (S) Kosher
Coelho (P) Rabbit
Colaco (P) Milk brother (fed from the same breast),
foster sibling
Colada (P) Glued
Colada (S) Filtered
Colodro (S) Wooden shoe
Campos (P) Fields
Conceicao (P) Conception (Our Lady Of)
Conchill (S) Dye maker
Condesa (S) Countess
Condessa (P) Countess
Conejo (S) Rabbit
Confino (S) Confined, jailed
Contamina (S) Contaminate
Contamina (P) Poison
Copha (S) Basket
Copo (P) Glass
Corbera (S) Raven, crow, black raven. crow’s nest
Cordero (S) Lamb
Cordeiro (P) Lamb
Cordoba (S) City of Spain
Cordon (S) Cord
Cordova (S) Cordoba, a city of Spain
Cori (S) Small heart
Coronel (P)(S) Military rank
Cormano (S) Cousin
Corral (S) A place where animals are kept.
Correia (P) Belt, leather strap
Corro (P) Run
Coruja (P) Day owl
Correa (S) Belt
Corredor (P)(S) Runner, a real estate broker
Correio (P) Mail
Cortes (S) Courteous
Corteza (S) Cortex
Corvera (S) Crow, raven, crow’s nest
Corzo (S) From Corsica, deer, roe
Cosida (P) Boiled
Cosida (S) Sewed, stiched together, or from cocida ,meaning fully cooked
Costa (P) Coast, back side
Costa (S) Rib in old Castillian. See Acosta. Coast in modern Spanish but it is not the meaning of the name.
Costal (S) Large sack for carrying or storing grains
Costela (P) Small back rib
Costilla (S) Rib. See Acosta
Cota (P) Coat, fare
Cota (P) Coat, clothing
Coutinho (P) From reserve game ground
Covreador (S) From Cobrador, collector
Creces (S) High earning interest
Creciente (S) Growing
Crescas (S) Grow up
Crespo (S) Curly haired person
Cristian (S) Christian
Crudo (S) Uncooked, raw
Cruz (P)(S) Cross
Cuba (S) Recipient, wine barrel
Cuello (S) Neck
Cuenca (S) River basin, wooden bowl
Cuervo (S) Crow
Cuevas (S) Caves
Cunal (S) A room where cribs lay
Cunha (P) Wedge, recommendation, full

D
Danon (S)(A) Judge. Increase.

Delgado (S) Slim, slender
Delicado (P) Delicate
Dias (P) Days
Djaen (S)(A) From Jaen, a city in the south of Spain. Devil
Djebali (A) Mountain, a Jewish Libyan name
Dourando (P) Golden
Drikes (S) From the name Rodrigues. Also Driques and Drighes.
Duro (P) Vegetable patch
Duro (P) Hard

E
Ebenazan (A+H) Eben fpr Eban, son of. Azan for Hazan, meaning cantor. Son of the cantor.
Ebot (A) Dog
Echen (S) To pour
Eder (H) See Edrehi
Ederra (H) See Edrehi
Edrehi (HB) Derives from Der’l, and ancient city in the Jordan valley
Efarti (HB) See Efrati
Effraim (HB) Son of Joseph
Effrit (HB) See Efrati
Efrati (HB) Derives from Efrat, Caleb’s wife
Efrathi (HB) See Efrati
Efraym (HB) See Efraim
Egozi (H) From Egoz, nut
Einkave (A) From Enqawa, purity. Famous Toledo family
El (A)(S) Article meaning the
El Barchilon (L) From the latin name of Barcelona,Spain
El Corredor (S) The runner
El Costal (S) The sack
El Cuerno (S) The horn, usually an animal horn
El Cuervo (S) The Crow (usually said of someone dressed in black)
El Hai (A) The man who never dies
El Hai (H) G-d is alive
El Neyto (S) The grandson
El Rab (A)(H) The Rabbi
El Roman (A) One from Rome
El Ruvio (S) The blond
El Saig (A) See essayag
El Zarco (S) The blue
Elazar (HB) G-d has helped, son of Aharon the great priest
Elbaz (A) The Falcon
Eldar (S) The act of giving
Eleazar (HB) See Elazar
Elhadad (A) Blacksmith
Eli (H) My G-d
Eli (HB) Top most, Name of Shilo the great priest
Eliakim (HB) G-d will edify, name of the minister of King Heskiyahu
Elias (H)(HB) See Eli
Elie (HB) See Eli
Elies (HB) See Eli
Eliezer (HB) G-d helps. name of Abraham’ servant
Elimelej (H) El (G-D) and melej (king)
Elimelej (HB) Derives from Elimelekh, my G-d is king, Naomi’s husband
Elisa (HB) Derives from Elisha – G-d is my savior, the name of a prophet
Elkana (A) Behind
Elkana (HB) G-d brought, Father of Samuel the prophet
Ellias (HB) See Eli
Elmaleh (A) The good
Ely (HB) See Eli
Emanuel (H) G-D us with us. See Emmanuel
Eminente (S) Eminent, distinguished
Emmanuel (HB) G-d is with us, son of Isaiah the prophet
Empecina (S) Stubborn, obstinate
Encabe (A) See Einkave
Encina (S) Grove of oak trees
Enero (S) January
Enfazen (A) See Abenfacen
Enoch (HB) Human. Son of Seth. Grandson of Adam
Enpesar (S) In distress
Epharti See Efrati
Ephraim See Efraim
Enriques (S) Son of Henry
Ermitano (S) Hermit
Escalera (S) Stairs, ladder
Escales (S) To scale, climb
Escaloni (HB) Derived from Eshkol, one of Abrahams allies
Escapa (P)(S) Escape
Eschenazi (H) See Eskenazi
Escobar (S) Broom
Escogido (S) The chosen one
Escola (P) School
Escriba (S) Scribe

Escriva (P) Scribe
Escudero (S) Squire, shield maker
Eskenazi (H) Derives from Ashkenazi meaning German
Espadilha (P) Spread out
Espana (S) Spain
Espanhol (P) Spanish
Espanol (S) Spanish
Espejo (S) Mirror
Esperanza (S) Hope
Espina (S) Spine, thorn, prickle
Espino (S) Hawthorn
Espiritu Santo (S) Holy Ghost (A converso name)
Esquenazi (S) See Eskenazi
Essayag (A) The goldsmith or silversmith
Este (P)(S) East, this
Estela (S) Trail
Estella (S) Star
Esteves (P) Son of Esteban, or son of Esteve
Estroumza (G) Derives from Strumica, a city North of Salonika
Estruc (L) Derives fromasterius, star or happy
Estrugano (H) See Estrugo
Estrugo (H) Derives from etrog meaning citron
Evangel (S) Eve Angle
Evora (P) City in Portugal. An inquisition center located here.
Ezaguy (S) (A) Derives from Azogue meaning Mercury. Deriving from Azzaouaq, meaning clever
Ezkiel (HB) G-d will strenthen, name of a prophet
Ezobi (H) Hyssop-like
Ezra (HB) Help of God, Head of the Babyloninan Jews, builder of the second temple. Aben (A) son of, Ben (H) son of, Ibn (A) son of.

F
Fabib (A) See Habib
Fachima (A) Old lady who knows all, see Fehima
Facquim (A) See Hakim
Fakhar (A) Noble people
Faina (P) Toil, labor
Falano (P) Guy
Falcao (P) Hawk
Fandari (A) From Alfandari, tax collector
Fanno (I) See Fanno
Fano (I) Name of a town in Italy, also see Mefano, Mifano
Faquin (A) See Hakim
Farach (A) See Farage
Farage (A) Healer
Farhi (A) Happy
Farias (P) To do
Farin (F) Flour
Farjeon (A) Great healer
Faro (P) Scent
Farraj (A) See Farage
Farto (P) Abundant
Fasa (A) From Fez, Morocco, also see Alfassa
Fasan (A) See Hassan
Fasi (A) Tax collector
Fateixa (P) Name of town
Fatias (P) Slices
Fehima (A) Coal merchant
Feijao (P) Bean
Feigo (P) Name of town, beans
Felis(z) (P) Happy
Fernandes (P) Son of Fernao
Ferreira (P) Iron smith
Ferro (P) Iron
Fez (P) City in Morocco
Figo (P) Fig
Figueira (P) Fig tree
Figueiredo (P) From a fig tree field
Figueiroa (P) From a fig tree field
Filosof (G) Philosopher
Finci (HB)(I) See Finzi
Finse (HB)(I) See Finzi
Finsie (HB)(I) See Finzi
Finzi (HB) From the name Pinhas, grandson of ahron
Finzi (I) Derived from the town of Faenza, Italy
Fissi (A) High education
Flor (P) Flower
Foces (P) To go, pits
Fonseca (P) Dry fountain
Forno (P) Oven
Forte (P) Strong
Francisco (P) The name Francis
Franco (P) Honest, sincere, French
Freire (P) Frier
Freixo (P) Ash Tree
Fresco (P) Fresh
Fulano (P) See Falano
Fundao (P) Bottom. the name of a city
Furtado (P) Stolen
Fuso (P) Spindle, lines of latitude and longitude

G
Gabai (H) See Gabbai, synagogue treasurer
Gabaij (H) See Gabbai, synagogue treasurer
Gabay (H) Synagogue treasurer
Gabbai (H) Synagogue treasurer
Gabbai, Ibn (H)(A) Son of Synagogue
Gabbay (H) See Gabbai
Gabby (H) Synagogue treasurer
Gabirol (H) Gabriel
Gabirol, Ibn (H)(A) Son of Gabriel
Gabis (H) See Gabison
Gabishon (H) See Gabison
Gabison (H) Derives from Gavish, meaning crystal, describes someone clever.
Gabriel (HB) G-d has prevailed. The name of the Arcangel
Gaby (H) Synagouge treasurer
Gadanha (P) Scythe
Gadelha (HB) See Gedaliah
Gadella (HB) See Gadaliah
Gagin (BR) Son of Gag. Gag is a Berber tribe
Gagui (BR) Son of Gag. Gag is a Berber tribe
Gaguin (BR) Son of Gag. Gag is a Berber tribe
Galboa (H) Derives Gilboa, the name of Holy Land a mountain
Galego (P) Galician
Gallego (P) Galicia a provence in Northern Spain
Slave, slang as in working like a slave
Galimide (G) See Galimidi
Galimidi (G) Derives from Ganimidis, mythological servant in G-ds palace
Gallel, Aben (A) Galilee in the north of Israel, Son of Galilee

Galo (P) Rooster
Galvao (P) Explosive, galvanic
Gama (P) Gamut, scale
(G) Third letter of the Greek alphabet
Gamil (A) Beautiful
Gamis (A) Small apple like fruit
Gamiz (A) Small apple like fruit
Ganem (A) Stock breeder
Ganso (P) Goose, geese, gander
Gaon (H) Genius
Ganon (H)(S) Garden. Increase.
Gaona (H) See Goan
Garca (P) Herron, name of a town
Garguir (H) Grain, also used by Ramban to mean very small community
Garson (HB) See Gerson
Gasto (P) Used, spent, expense
Gatinho (P) From gatenho, uncultivated, perhaps also uneducated
Gato (P) Cat
Gavriel (H) See Gabriel
Gavsion (H) See Gabison
Gaze (A) To receive money
Gazi (A) To receive money
Gedaliah (HB) G-d has made me grow
Gedelia (HB) G-d is great, the name of Zephania’s grandfather
Gerson (HB) Gershon. The son of Levi, son of Yaakov
Gomel (H) Reward
Granada (A) From Granada
Granadi (A) From Granada
Grandos (A) From Granada
Granate (A) From Granada
Grante (A) From Granada
Guabay (H) See Gabbai
Guahnish (A/BR/S) Drives from Ohanes (Almeria province of Spain) In turn derives from Wahanis
Guarda (P) Guarda, name of a city
Gubbay (H) See Gabbai
Guedelha (P) Tuft of hair
Guedelha (HB) Derives from Guedalia, G-d is great. Grandfaher of Zephania the prophet. See Gedaliah.
Guedelia (HB) See Gedaliah
Guedalla (HB) See Gedaliah.
Guedj (BR) Moving house
Guerra (P) War
Guerreiro (P) Warrior
Guez (BR) See Guedj
Guio (P) Guide, drive

H
Habib (A) Beloved
Hadef (A) Target
Hakim (A) Doctor
Hallas (A) Finish
Hamis (A) Five, for five fingers of the hand against the evil eye
Hamiz (A) Five, for five fingers of the hand against the evil eye
Harael (A) Silk
Harel ((H) Mount of G-d
Hayyat (A) A snake
Hazan (H) Cantor in a Synagogue
(A) Spot on the skin
Hemsi (A) Fifth for the fifth child
Henriques (P)(S) Es meanin son, Son of Henry
Hopa (S) Cassock
Horabuena (S) Good time
Horta (P) Garden (same as Orta)
Hoyo (S) Hole, pit, dent
Hoz (S) Sickle, gorge, ravine
Huesca (S) A city in Spain
Husillo (S) Small spindle, dim

I
Ibn (A) Prefix meaning son of
Idana (P)(S) Town in Portugal and Spain
Ijar (S) Flank, side
Ilhao (S) Big island
Isaac (H) Biblical name
Isidoro (S) Isadore

J
Jachia (HB) For Yihye, meaning will live, the name of a Levite
Jacinto (S) Ornament for horses
Jaen (S) Jaen, Spain
Jaez (S) Kind
Jaique (A) Moorish hooded cloack
Jaime (S) James
Jara (S) Rock rose
Jarra (P)(S) Vase, pitcher
Jato (S) Young calf
Jerez (S) Sherry wine, a Spanish town
Jordan (S) The river Jordan
Jorge (S) George
Josue (S) Joshua
Journo (I) From the Italian Giomo meaning day
Juan (S) John
Juarez (S) A town in Spain
Jucef (S) Joseph
Juncos (S) Chinese ships, bulrush
Juarda (S) Sworn in

K
Kalo (Ladino) See Calo
Kush (A) Small shop

L
Lachkar (A) Derives from Al asghar meaning blond or red haired
Lafaia (A) See Lafia
Lafia (A) Derives from Al afia meaning the health
Lagarto (P) Lizard
Lagos (P) Lakes
Lahana (BR) See Lahyani
Lahyani (BR) Derives from al Hyana, a Berber tribe
Lais (A) Lion
Lamas (P) Muds, also the names of several towns
Lamego (P) From mud, the name of a city
Lasry (A) The moder, the contemporary
Latif (A) Delicate
Lavi (H) Lion
Layani (BR) See Lahyani
Lazraque (A) Derives from the word Alazraki. The blue eyed
Leal (P) Loyal
Leao (P) Lion
Lebaan (HB) Derives from Lavan meaning white. Jacob’s father in law.
Lebben (D)(Y) Variant of Leben
Leben (A) Little milk
Leben (D)(Y) Life
Legasa (BR) Derives from the Berber tribe Ait Wagassa
Legrain (F) The seed
Leitao (P) Suckling pig
Leite (P) Milk
Lellouche (A) Allush, the young lamb
Lemos (P) Helm
Ler (P) To read
Leven (HB) See Levi
Levey (HB) See Levi
Levi (HB) From the tribe of Levi
Levi de (HB) See Levi
Levim (HB) See Levi
Levit (HB) See Levi
Levitt (HB) See Levi
Levy (HB) See Levi
Lezar (HB) Derives from Elazar
Lima (P) File, plant, river in north Portugal
Lindo (P) Beautiful
Lis (A)(H) Derived from Laish meaning lion
Lisboa (P) Lisbon
Lobato (P) Small wolf, weak
Lobo (P) Wolf
Lomba (P) Upland
Lombard (P) From Lombard
Lopez (P) Son of Lopo
Loufrani (BR) Man with long hair or from Oufrane, Morocco
Lourenco (P) Lawrence
Lousada (P) Name of a town
Lusitano (P) Portuguese
Lusa (P) Portuguese (female)

M
Maca (P) Stretcher
Macana (P) Weapon used by the indigenous people of Brazil
Macedo (P) Person from Macedonia
Machado (P) Axe
Macho (P) Male, masculine, pleat in a garment
Machorro (P) Barren animal
Machuca (P) Bruise, pound, crush
Macia (P) Soft
Madeira (P) Wood, timber
Maduro (P) Ripe, mature, mellow
Maestro (P) Teacher, wise
Magrico (P) Foolish
Maia (P) Town in northern Portugal, May day feast, flower,
chestnut picked on May day
Maio (P) The month of May
Mala (P) Suitcase, leather bag. handbag, trunk
Maleh (A) Good
Manuel (P) Enamoel
Maor (A) Cooking pot
Maor (S) From Mayor, meaning main
Mar (P) Sea
Mara (H) Sorrow
Marco (P) Mark, boundry, mail box, landmark
Marques (P) To mark, Marquis
Mas (H) Acroynm of the Hebrew Mokher Sefarim meaning book seller.
Masia (P) Soft
Mass (H) See Mas
Masson (P) Mason, masonic
Mateus (P) Mathew
Matos (P) Woods, brushwood
Mayor (P) Big, larger
Mayoral (P) Manager, chief, head of an organization
Medeiros (P) Grain storage yard
Medico (P) Doctor
Megas (P) Small mosquito
Mehemia (HB) See Nehemia
Meida (A) To prize someone
Melon (P) Melon
Mendes (P) Son of Mendo
Menir (P) Tall stone, megalithic monument
Mercado (P) Market, gathering place
Mesa (P) Table, altar
Mesquita (P) Mosque
(A) Derived from the Mesquita Aljama of Cordoba
Messias (P) Messiah
Meyda (A) To prize someone
Mezquita (A) Derived from the Mezquita Aljama of Cordoba
Miara (P) To cry or scream, meow
Micas (P) Nickname, shiney stone
Miguel (P) Michael
Milao (P) Milan, Italy
Millares (P) Thousand, millenary
Mira (P) To look, sight, aim, purpose, mathematical insturment
Miranda (P) A city in the north of Portugal
Mistral (P) A northern, violent and dry wind in the Mediterranean
Moeda (P) Coin
Moel (H) From the word mohel, circumciser
Mogadouro (P) City in the north of Portugal
Molina (P) Fabric from Aragon
Monco (P) humor, protruding parts of a rooster’s head
Monforte (P) Name of City in Portugal
Monsanto (P) Sacred hill, town in Portugal
(S) Holy mountain
Montanha (P) Mountain
Monte (P) Hill
Monteflor (P) Flower hill, town in Portugal
Monteforte (P) Strong hill, town in Portugal
Monterreal (P) Royal hill, town in Portugal
Monteverde (P) Green hill, town in Portugal
Montezinhos (P) Small hills, town in Portugal
Montpao (P) Bradhill
Moraes (P) Place of residency
Morao (P) Moor
Moreira (P) Mulberry tree
Moreno (P) Brunette, darker
Morisco (P) Moorish
Moro (P) Moor
Morro (P) Mountain, die
Morteira (P) Cannon, mortar, name of town
Moscato (P) Fly
Mosquita (P) Female mosquito
Mota (P) Elevation to stop flooding, soil around tree trunks
to protect from weather
Motta Veiga (P) Tilled plain, level country
Mudur(r)a (P) To move
Munir (P) To provide
Musa (P) Inspiration, muse

N
Naamias (H) See Nehemia
Naar (H) Young man
Nabes (S) Ships
Nabo (P)(S) Turnip, dull, fool
Nabon (S) Large turnip
Naccache (A) Sculpture, engraver
Nachmanides (H) See Nahman
Nachmias (H) See Nehemia
Nachon (H) See Navon
Nada (P)(S) Nothing
Nadal (A) From Nidal, meaning struggle
Nafuci (A) Soul
Nafusa (A) See Nafuci
Nafusi (A) See Nafuci
Nagari (A) See Najar
Nagarri (A) See Najar
Nagi (A) Confident
Nahar (H) River, also see Naar
Nahman (H) Recomforter
Nahmanides (H) See Nahman
Nahmann (H) See Nahman
Nahmias (H) See Nehemia
Nahon (H) See Navon
Nahum (HB) Recomforted, also the name of a Prophet
Naja (A) See Najar
Najar (A) Carpenter
Najara (A) See Najar
Najari (A) See Najar
Najera (A) See Najar
Najum (A) Star
Nakam (H) Revenge
Namias (H) See Nehemia
Namiaz (H) See Nehemia
Naon (H) See Navon
Naor (AM) Light
Naphataly (H) See Naphtali
Naphtali (H) Son of the Patriarch Jacob
Naphthali (H) See Naphtali
Nasci (H) See Nasi
Nashahon (HB) From Nahshon, also a dashing person
Nasi (H) President
Nassi (H) See Nasi
Nasso (H) See Nasi
Nassy (H) See Nasi
Nata (P) Cream from milk
Nataf (H) Aromatic resin
Natali (H) My burden, my load
Natan (HB) He gave, name of he profit
Natanel (HB) God gave
Natas (S) Cream from milk (plural)
Nathan (H) See Natan
Natronay (H) One of the Gaonites
Nava (S) Hollow plain between two mountains
Navarra (S) City in Span
Navarro (S) From Navarra
Naves (S) Ships
Navon (H) Wise, clever
Necim (H) See Nissim
Negro (P)(S) Black, dark
Negron (S) Augmentative of black
Nehemia (HB) Name of the prophet, meaning « G-d has comforted »
Neto (P) Grandson
Neves (P) From snow
Niebla (S) Fog
Nieto (S) Grandson
Nifoci (A) See Nafuci
Nino (S) Boy
Nissim (H) Miracles. The name of a Talmud Comentator
Noah HB) Calm, comfortable. The ark builder
Noble (S) Noble
Nobre (P) Noble
Nogueira (P) Walnut tree
Nogueria (S) Walnut tree plantation
Noguera (S) Walnut tree
Nogueras (S) Walnut trees
Noe (HB) Noah
Novaes (P) From new, young
Nunes (P) Son of Nuno

O
Obadia (H) See Ovadia
Obadias (H) See Ovadia
Obediente (S) Obedient
Obrador (S) Working man
Ociel (H) See: Uziel
Oeb (H) From the word Ohev, meaning loves
Ohayoun (A)(B) O meaning son of. Hayun meaning alive
Oheb (H) Loves
Ojos Negros (S) Black eyes
Olibar (S) Olive grove
Olibera (S) Olive grove
Oliva (P)(S) Olive, olive tree
Olivar (S) Olive grove

Olival (P) Olive grove
Olivares (P)(S) Many olive trees or son of Olivar
Oliveira (P) Olive tree
Oliveros (S) Men who own olive groves
Olivos (S) Olive trees
Olmo (P)(S) Elm tree
Olmos (P)(S) Elm trees
Omar (A) Life
Oporto (P)(S) City in Portugal, port wine
Orelha (P) Ear
Ori (H) See: Uri
Oro (P)(S) Gold,pray
Orocara (S) Gold and face
Oropes(z) (S) From the words oro, gold and pesa, weight
Orta (P) Garden (same as Horta)
Osado (S) Bold, daring
Osso (P) Bone
Ossado (P) Bony
Ossado (S) Bold, daring
Oualid (A) Child
Ouhayoun (A)(B) See Ohayoun
Ouziel (H) See: Uziel
Ouzillo (H) See: Uziel
Ovadia (HB) God’s Worshipper. Name of a prophet
Oved (HB) Works/Worships

P
Pacifico (S) Calm, quiet, peaceful, friend of peace
Pacuda (H) Order
Padilla (S) Small frying pan, bread oven
Padre (P) Priest, father
Padre (S) Father, male descendant, principal or head of a lineage
Padresanto (S) Holy father meaning the Pope
Padron (S) Poll, census, model, memorial column of person of infamy. Also a city of Spain.
Padua (S) A city of Italy
Paduano (S) From Padua
Paes (S) Country
Pais (P)(S) Country, nation, land, region
Pajon (S) Course straw
Pakuda (H) Order
Palencia (S) A city in Spain
Palma (P) Palm tree
Palma (S) Palm tree leaf, palm of hand. sole of hoof, interior part of stables, applause
Palmeria (P) Palm tree
Palmero (S) A city in Sicily
Palomo (S) Cock, male pigeon
Palos (S) Sticks, staffs, colloquila for lumber
Palti (HB) Refugee, one from the tribe of Benjamin
Pampana (S) Wine leaf
Pamplones (S) From the city of Pomplona
Panadero (S) Baker, a Spanish dance with clogs
Papo (P)(S) Craw of birds
Para (P) Stop, city in Brazil
Para (T) Money
Paramo (S) High barren plain, bleak, windy place
Parets (HB) Eee Perets
Parra (S) A preposition « to », « for », or « towards »
Pardo (P) Mulatto, brown
Pardo (S) The color brown, drab, dark, cloudy, a flat, dull voice that has no clarity.
Paredes (P)(S) Walls
Paredes (H) Orange grove
Pareja (S) Adjective meaning equal, even or smooth
Parejo (S) Male derivative of Pareja has seperate different meaning. Alike of on par.
Parhon
Pariente (P)(S) Relative, family
Pares (P)(S) Couples, duos, pairs
Paris (S) A city of France
Parra (P) Grape leaf
Parra (S) Grape vine, short and wide earthen jar
Parreira (P) Grape vine
Pasapais (S) The country, region, city
Pasarel (S) From Pasarela, a footbridge or catwalk
Pascoa (H) From Pessah meaning Passover
Pascual (S) From Pascua, meaning Easter, but also meaning the deliverance of the Jews from Egypt
Pasqual (S) Same as Pascual
Parsi (S) People from ancient Persia, now called Farsistion on the gulf of Persia. Also the language and the immigrants who went to india, now called Parsi or Parsee.
Paso (S) Step, pass, gait, measure, or basting stitch
Pass (A) Name of a city in Morocco, Pas or Fez
Passos (P) Foot steps, walk
Passy (A) From Fassi, meaning from the city of Fas of Fez, Morocco
Pastor (P) Shepperd, minister
Pata(o) (P) Duck. paw
Pata (S) Paw, foot, leg and leg of furniture
Pater (L) Latin for father
Pato (S) Duck (usually domestic), drake
Pavia (P) Name of city
Pavia (S) City in Italy
Pavon (S) Bluing, browning, breezy, peacock
Paz (P)(S) Peace
Pedreira (P) Stone quarry
Pedreira (S) Precious stones, jewelry
Pedreiro (P) Stone mason
Pedro (P)(S) Peter
Pedroso (P) Stony
Pegado (P) Glued, stuck
Pegado (S) Patch, sticking, plaster
Peinado (S) Arrangement of the hair (hair do) combed, groomed
Peixoto (P) A type of fish
Pelo (P) Fuzz, hair
Pelo (S) Hair or down on skin or fruit, fiber, filament, flaw in precious stones, raw silk
Pena (S) Rock, bolder, cliff, club, usually means a field of rocks.
Penafiel (P) A city in Portugal
Penafiel (S) A city in Spain
Penas (S) Rocky surfaces or places
Pechero (S) Taxable, taxpayer, commoner
Penco (P) Thick cabbage leaf
Penco (S) A form of jade
Penedo (P) Boulder
Penha (P) Cliff, boulder
Penhorado (P) Seized, confiscated
Penhorante (P) Obliged
Pensa (P) Think
Penteado (P) Groomed, hair style
Peon (S) Pedestrian, foot soldier, laborer, pawn in a chess game
Pera (P) Pear
Perahia (H) Flower of Gold. Name of Talmud writter
Perahya (H) See Perahia
Peral (P) Pear Orchard
Peralta (P) Dandy, cox comb
Perets (HB) Breach. The name of a son of Judah
Pesado (P)(S) Heavy, burdendome
Peso (S) Weight, scale, balance, burdensome load, judgement, good sense
Pessah (HB) Passed over
Pessoa (P) Person
Pestana (P) Eyelash
Pestana (S) eyelash, flange,fluks of an anchor, lace edging, tire, rim
Pez (P) Pitch, tar
Picador (P) Riding Master, sting, prickly person
Picardo (F) Ancient town in France
Pico (P) Island, pick, sharp point
Pico (S) Beak, bill, spout of a pitcher,pick ax, woodpecker
Pie (S) Foot, footing, foothold
Piedrahita (S) Pierdra (stone) + hita (fixed) = fixed stone or landmark
Pilar (P) Peer.
Pilar (S) Bowl of a fountain
Pilas (P) Little boys’ penises, a call for chickens
Pilo (P) A weapon, a lance used during the middle ages
Pina. (P) Part of a wheel
Pina (with~) (P) A fire cone, knob, plug, cluster, knot, pineapple
Pine de (S) A kind of pine tree
Pina (S) Pine tree or steep incline
Pineda (S) A grove of pine trees or a braid for garters
Pino (S) Pine tree or steep incline
Pintado (S) Painted
Pinto (S) A species of bean (the pinto bean), spot, dot, pint lines on Spanish playing cards indicating the suit. The name of a town near Madrid.
Pintor (S) Paintor (artist)
Pintos (S) Spots
Pimenta (P) Pepper
Pimental (P)(S) Pepper field
Pimentel (P) Pepper field
Pimentilla (S) A small pepper field or a kind of pepper
Pimienta (S) Black pepper, also allspice and pimento
Pinha (P) Pine cone
Pinhal (P) Pine forest
Pinhedo (P) Boulder
Pinheiro (P) Pine tree
Pinho (P) Small pine tree
Pintado (P) Painted
Pinto (P) To paint, chick
Pires (P) Saucers
Pita (P) Aloe, cactus, chicken
Pita (S) Aloe plant, century plant, pita fiber, hissing,
Pita (A) A flat bread
Pizarro (S) Pizarra means shale, slate, black board. (Note variant spelling)
Planes (S) Plans
Pliego (S) Sheet of paper. folder, cover, envelope, sealed letter, a bill
Poel (H) Worker
Poeta (P)(S) Poet, one who writes in verse
Polaco (P) Polish, a person or language or object from Poland
Pola r (S) Relating to the earth’s poles or pole star
Polegar (P) Thumb
Pollo (S) Chicken, young bee, or sly fellow
Polo (S) Relating to the earth’s geographic poles
Pomar (P) Orchard
Pomar (S) Apple Orchard
Pomares (S) Apple Orchards
Pombal (P) Dove coat
Pombeiro (P) Person who has doves
Pombo (P) Dove
Ponce (P) A town in Portugal
Ponte (P)(S) Bridge
Porat (HB) Fruitful, word used in Jacob’s blessings
Porron (S) Slow, heavy, sluggish. earthen jar, wine bottle with long spout
Porta (P) Door, opening
Porta (S) Port hole, cover of a loop hole
Porte de (S) Carrying portage of., conduct, dress, bearing nobility
Portela (P) Narrow passage, toll
Portilla (S) Port hole, private cart or private cattel pass
Porto (P)(S) Port, city of Portugal, a sweet wine from the region
Prades (S) Extension
Prado (P) Meadow
Prado (S) Meadow, pasture, walk, promendade
Prat (S) There is a town in Spain called Prat de Llobregh
Preseguido (P) Followed
Preseguido (S) To announce or prevent an event
Presente (S) Present
Preto (P) Black
Preto (S) From the latin, a magistrate
Prieto (P) Black, darking, a dark color
Proenca (P) Deed, prowess
Proenza (P) Deed, prowess
Provencal (S) From Provence in French
Provence (F)(S) Provence
Provensal (S) Provence
Puar (S) To put teeth on a comb or other instrument
Puigcerda (S) A city in Spain
Pulgar (S) Thumb or extension of a vine
Purim (H) The Jewish festival of Purim, changes, fortunes

Q
Quadres (S) To square, to adjust
Quadros (P)(S) Black board, pictures, organizational board,squares, frames
Quatorce (S) Fourteen
Quatorze (P) Fourteen
Quatro (P) Four
Quer (P) Wants
Querido (P)(S) Dear, darling, beloved
Queijada (P) Cheese pastry, walking stick, staff
Queiroz (P) Ling, heather
Queixas(al) (P) Jaw bone
Quintal (P) Cultivated back yard field
Quintanal (S) Village, cottage, levy

R
Rab (H) Rabbi
Raban (AM) Rabbi
Rabbi, El (H)(S) The rabbi
Rabelo (P) Boat that transports port wine
Rabi (S) Rabbi
Rabica (H) From Rabbi Cah, Rabbi Yitshak
Racah (H) He composed/concocted
Racca (H) See Racah
Rafael (H) G_d healed, of the tribe of Levi
Rafel (HB) See Rafael
Rafels (H) See Rafael
Rahamim (H) Mercy
Rahamin (H) See Rahamim
Ralo (P) Grate, mole, cricket
Ramalho (P) Rustling of leaves
Ramas (P) Bows of a plant
Ramas (S) Branches
Ramirez (S) Son of Ramiro
Ramon (S) Large branch
Ramon (HB) High, also the father of two generals with King David
Ramos (S) Plural of bouquet, lines of business
Ran (H) Sings
Raphal (H) See Rafael
Raposa (P) Fox
Raposa (S) Fox, a cunning person
Ratom(ao) (P) Large rat
Real (P)(S) Royal
Rebello (S) So beautiful
Rebi (H) See Rab
Redes (P)(S) Network, fishing net, barbed wire, trap
Redondo (P)(S) Round, circular, spherical, city in Alentejo, Portugal
Refael (H) See Rafael
Regalon (S) Gift giver
Rego (P) Drain, drench, crack
Reina (S) Queen
Reis (P) Kings
Remesa (S) Remittance, shipment
Remez (H) Clue
Remos (P)(S) Oars, paddles, go
Ressureicao (P) Ressurection
Reuben (HB) :Look at the boy. Son of Jacob, head of the tribe of Rueben
Reunen (S) To reunite, to gather.
Reunen (H) See Rueben
Reuveni (H) Of the Rueben family
Rey (S) King
Reyes (S) Kings or collectively the King and Queen
Reza (S) To Pray
Ribas (P) Cliff, bank
Ribash (H) Acronym for Rabbi Yitshak Bar Sheshet
Ribera (S) Shore, bank, strand, riverside
Ribeiro (P) Brook
Rienda (S) Bridle
Rijo (P) Hard, stiff, harsh, severe
Rimoc (A) See Rimokh
Rimoch (A) Meaning unknown
Rimokh (A) See Rimoch
Rinoch (A) From Rimoch
Rio (P)(S) River
Rios (P)(S) Rivers
Rivera (S) Shore, bank, strand, riverside
Robledo (S) Oak grove
Robledos (S) Oaks (plural)
Roca (P) Distaff, baby rattle
Roca (S) Rock
Roca (w/cedil) (P) Farm
Roda (P) Wheel, name of town, baby left for adoption
Rodrigues (P)(S) Son of Rodrigo, meaning very glorious
Rofe (H) Physician
Roffe (H) See Rofe
Roffet (H) See Rofe
Rophe (H) See Rofe
Roiz (P) Short for Rodrigues
Rojas (S) Of red color (for female items in plural)
Rojo (S) Of red color (male or generic)
Rolando (P) Confused, pell-mell
Romano (P)(S) Roman
Romeiro (P) Pilgrim, those in charge of organizing fiesta
Romero (S) Pilgrim, rosemary (botanical)
Romeu (P) Romeo
Romo (S) Blunt, obtuse, stubby
Rophe (H) See Rofe
Rosa (P)(S) Rose, pink
Rosales (S) Rosebushes
Rosario (P)(S) Rosary
Rouxinol (P) Nightingale
Roza (P) Rose
Rosado (S) The color pink
Ruben (H) See Reuben
Rubi (A) Dress
Rubin (H) See Reuben
Rueda (S) Wheel
Ruivo (P) Red headed
Ruso (S) From Russia, Russian
Russo (P) Russian, blonde, bleached from the sun
Ruvio (S) Blond

S
Saada (A) Good fortune
Sa’adia ben Danan (H) Saadia, son of the judge
Saadi (H) See Saadia
Saadi HaLevi (H) Saadi, the Levite (servant of the priest_
Saadia (H) G-d has helped
Saadia, Ben (H) Son of Saadia
Saassson Nathol (H) Saasson. joy, mirth and Nathol from Nathan
Saadya (H) See Saadia
Sab (A) From Saba
Saba (A) Early morning riser
Sabaday (H) See Sabbetai
Sabadial (H) See Sabbetai
Sabah (A) Early morning riser
Sabaj (A) Spanish spelling of Sabah
Saban (A) Soap maker
Sabbatai, Ibn (H) See Sabbetai, Ibn, son of
Sacramento (P) Sacrament (A converso name)
Sadia (P) Healthy
Saba (P) Island in the Caribbean, verb to know
Saba (A) Lion
Sabbatha (H) See Sabbetai
Sabbetai (HB) Derives from Sabbath
Sabi (H) See Sabbetai
Sacute (H) See Zacuto
Sacuto (H) See Zacuto
Sacutto (H) See Zacuto
Sadiq (H) See Zadich
Sadium (P) Healthy
Sadium (H) See Saadia
Sadoch (HB) See Zadoch
Safarti (H) See Sarfati
Safati (H) See Sarfati
Safaty (H) See Sarfaty
Sahl (S) Easy temper
Sahula (A) Easiness of temper
Said (A) Chief, master
Saidon (A) From the word sa’ad. Good fortune
Saig (A) Silversmith
Sal (P) Salt
Salah (A) Morality, Justice
Salama (A) Peace, quiteness
Salame (A) See Salama
Salami (A) See Salama
Salamo (HB) Shlomo
Salamies (A) See Salama
Salamon (H) See Shlomo
Salamons (HB) See Shlomo
Salanha (P) Balance
Salazar (P) From luxurious (Salaz)
Salem (H) From Shalem meaning entire
Salgueiro (P) Willow
Salinas (P) Saline, salt marshes
Salm (H) See Salem
Salmo (HB) See Shlomo
Salmon (HB) See Shlomo
Salmona (H) Darkness, from the Hebrew word Tslmona
Salmons (HB) See Sholmo
Salom (H) See Shalom
Salome (H) See Shalom
Salomo (HB) See Shlomo
Salomon (HB) See Shlomo
Salomons (HB) See Shlomo
Salon (H) See Salom
Saltel (HB) See Saltiel
Saltell (HB) See Shealtiel
Saltiel (HB) See Shealtiel
Salvador (P) Savior, to save, reclaim, rescue
Salves (P) Saves
Samama (A) From Shamama, Tunisia
Samarian (H) From Shomron, an area of Israel
Samiel (HB) See Shemuel
Samora (P) A Spanish city – Zamora
Sampso (HB) See Shimshon
Sampson (HB) See Shimshon
Samso (HB) See Shimshon
Samson (HB) See Shimshon
Samuel (HB) See Shemuel
Samuels (HB) See Shemuel
Sanchez (P) Son of Sancho
Sancho (S) Patronimic
Sanson (HB) See Shimshon
Santa Clara (P) Saint Claire
Santarem (P) A City of Portugal
Santiago (S) A converso name, Sant Iago meaning Saint Jacob
Santo (P) Saint
Santos (P) Saints
Saphaty (H) See Sarfati
Saragossa (P) A city of Spain – Zaragossa
Saraphaty (H) See Sarfati
Saravia (P) Hail stone
Sarfati (H) The Hebrew word for French

Sarfatis (H) See Sarfati
Sarfatti (H) See Sarfati
Sarfatty (H) See Sarfati
Sarfaty (H) See Sarfati
Sarilho (P) Trouble, mess, reel, rack
Sarmento (P) Vine twig
Sarphati (H) See Sarfati
Sarphatie (H) See Sarfati
Sarzedas (P) A town in Portugal
Sason (H) See Sasson
Sasso (H) See Sasson
Sasson (H) Joy, merriment
Sassoon (H) See Sasson
Satell (H) See Sheatiel
Satich (H) See Zadich
Saud (A) Fullfilled, satisfied
Saul (HB) See Shaul
Saul, Ben (HB) Son of Shaul
Savila (P) A city in Spain – Sevilla (Seville)
Sazon (H) See Sasson
Scemama (A) See Samama
Schuhami (H) From the biblical Shuham family
Sealtiel (HB) See Shealtiel
Seba (A) See Sebag
Sebag (A) Dyer
Sebah (A) See Sabah
Sedaca (H) From the Hebrew word Tsekaka, meaning charity
Seebi (H) See Zeevi
Sefat (H) From the name of the city of Saged in Israel
Segovia (P) A city in Spain
Segueta (P) From the word Cequeta , blind
Segura (P) A town in Portugal, safe, hold
Sehadia (H) See Saadia
Sehadya (H) See Saadia
Seixas (P) Pebbles
Sem Tob (H) See Shem Tov
Semach (HB) See Semah
Semah (HB) From Tseman, Plant, Vegetable, name of a man in Zekhar
Semes (H) From Shemesh, the Sun
Sena (P) Six on card games
Senho (P) Ticket, voucher
Senhor (P) Man, Lord, gentleman
Senior (P) Elder
Sephardi (H) Spanish
Sequeira (P) Dried out, bothersome
Seraf (A) From Saraf, money changer
Serafi (A) See Seraf
Sereno (P) Serene, calm
Serfati (H) See Sarfati
Serfatti (H) See Sarfati
Serfaty (H) See Sarfati
Seror (A) Gaiety
Serra (P) Mountain
Serrano (P) From the hills
Seymeon (H) See Simeon
Shaki (H) See Isaac
Shalem (H) Complete, also the name of a man of the tribe of Naftali
Shalish (H) Aide de Camp, Adjudant
Shalom (H) Peace
Shaltiel (H) See Shealtiel
Shamasch (H) Attendant, caretaker
Shami (A) Mystical name of Syria or the Orient
Sharet (H) Servant
Shaul (H) Asked, Interrogated, Name of a King
Shealtiel (H) I sked G-d. Name of Zerubabel’s father
Shehem (H) See Shuhami
Shem Tov (H) Good Name
Shemtov (H) See Shem Tov
Shemaria (H) G-d has saved. Son of Rehav’am
Shemaya (H) See Shemaria
Shemtob (H) See Shem Tov
Shemuel (H) A prophet
Sheneur (H) Two lights
Sheshet (H) Name of one of the two talmud writers
Shimshon (HB) Small sun. one of the judges
Shiphrut (H) See Chiprut, elaboration
Shlomo (HB) His Peace, Name of King Salomon
Shoel (H) Ask
Shoshan (H) See Shushan
Shuhami (HB) Browned, of Shuham family, son of Dan
Shushan (H) Susa, the Persian city in which Queen Esther lived
Shullam (H) Paid
Sibony (A) See Saban
Sibroni (A) See Saban
Sid (A) Master
Sides (A) See Sid
Sidi (A) My master
Siso (B) Yosef or Joseph
Silva (P) Blackberry bush, brumble
Simeon (HB) See Shimon
Simha (H) Joy
Simhah (H) Joy
Simhon (H) Joyful
Silveira (P) Blackberry thicket
Simo (H) See Shmuel
Simoel (H) See Shmuel
Simoes (H) See Shmuel
Simon (H) See Shimon
Simona (H) See Shimon
Simone (H) See Shimon
Simons (H) See Shimon
Simuel (H) See Shmuel
Sina (H) Sinai
Sinai (H) Mountain upon which Moses received the Commandments
Sinay (H) See Sinai
Sio (H) See Sion
Sion (H) Zion
Siprut (H) See Shiprut
Siprutini (H) See Shiprut
Sisso (B) Yosef or Joseph
Sitbon (A) Wood cutter
Soares (P) Sounds, noises, sweat
Soares (H) See Suarez
Soarez (H) See Suarez
Sobremonte (P) Over the hill
Sobrinho (P) Nephew
Soeiro (P) Custom
Sola (P) Hide, leather, sole
Solam (H) See Sullam
Sollam (H) See Sullam
Solomo (H) See Shlomo
Solomon (H) See Sholomo
Solomons (H) See Sholomo
Soltan (A) From Sultan meaning Governor
Soltani (A) See Sultan
Sonso (P) Sly
Sosa (H) See Shushan
Sosan (H) See Shushan
Sosi (H) See Shushan
Sossa (H) SeeShushan
Soto (P) Substitute
Souhami (H) See Shuhami
Sousa (P) A variety of grape
Sousa (H) The city of Susa in ancient Persia where lived Queen Ester
Sousa (H) See Shushan
Souza (H) See Shushan
Souto (P) A grove of chestnuts
Spinosa (P) From espinhosa, fish bones
Suares (H) See Suarez
Suarez (H) From the Hebrew « zu haarets » meaning this is the land
Suasso (P) South wind
Suasso (F) From the city of Soissons. France
Suhami (H) See Shuhami
Suhamy (H) See Shuhami
Sulam (H) See Sullam
Sullam (H) Ladder (From Jacob’s Dream?)
Sur de Luna (H)(S) Sur from the Hebrew word Tsur meaning rock, Luna Spanish word for moon.
Susagna (H) See Shushan
Susan (H) See Shushan
Susana (H) See Shushan
Susanna (H) See Shushan
Sussi (A) From the Sous of Southern Morocco
Suyllam (H) See Sullam
Suzi (H) See Sullam
Symons (H) See Shimon

T
Tabladillo (S) Small flamenco dance floor
Taboada (P) Arithmatic tables
Tabuh (A) Cooker
Tafalla (H) From Hebrew word Tefliah meaning prayer
Taffalla (H) See Tafalla
Tagger (A) From the word Tadjer meaning Merchant
Taieb (A) Delicate, good
Talavera (P) A city in Spain known for its line of pottery
Talayero (S) Lumber jack
Tam (H) Innocent, simple, naive
Tama (H) See Tam
Tamborer (S) Drummer, from the word tambor for drum
Taous (A) Peacock
Tapia (S) Garden wall
Tapiero (S) A builder of mud walls.
Tarica (A) From the word Tarik meaning morning Star. Also mount meaning Gibraltar.
Tarifa (P) A city in Spain, fare
Tarifa (A) Name of the Berber conqueror of Andalusia
Tarifa (S) Rate, fare for transport
Tarragano (S) One from Tarragona
Tarragona (S) A city in Spain
Tarrega (S) A city in Spain
Tata (A) Name of a location near Fes, Morocco
Tartas (S) Cakes
Tchiprut (H) See Shiprut
Teba (H) Ark of the law or readers desk in a synagogue
Tebet (H) The fourth month of the Jewish calendar
Tedghi (A) Todgha, a location in sourthern Morocco
Teixoso (P) Yew
Tejedor (S) Weaver
Temimi (A)(H) Perfect
Templo (S) Temple
Terra (P) Land
Terrassa (S) City of Spain
Teruel (S) City of Spain
Testa (P)(S) Forehead or head
Teva (H) See Teba
Tevah (H) Cooker
Tirado (S) To be lying
Tito (S) Uncle
Tobi (H) See Tuvia
Tobias (H) G-d’s kindness
Tobies (H) See Tobias
Toby (H) See Tuvia
Todo (P) All
Toledano (S) From Toledo
Toledo (S) City of Spain
Tomar (S) To drink
Toriel (P) A city in Spain
Toro (S) A bull
Torones (S) Big bulls
Torre (P)(S) Tower
Torres (S) Towers
Tortosa (S) A city in Spain
Touro (P) Bull
Tov (H) Good
Tova (H) Good (feminine form)
Tovi (H) See Tuvia
Trapero (S) Rag dealer (an authorized Jewish occupation)
Trigo (S) Wheat
Trillo (H) Thresher, threshing machine
Trinidad (S) Trinity (a converso name)
Truco (S) Trick
Tsvei (H) From the word Tsvi meaning deer or stag
Tubi (H) See Tuvia
Tubias (H) See Tubias
Tudela (S) City in Spain
Turjillo (S) City in Spain
Tsevi (H) Stag, deer, also see Tzevi
Tuby (H) See Tobias
Tudela (S) A city of Spain
Tueta (A) From the word Tueta, a region in Algerian Sahara
Tuil (A) From the word Tauil, meaning large, high
Tuvi (H) See Tobias
Tzaken (H) From Zaken
Tzevi (H) See Tsevi, stag or deer, also see Tsevi
Tzevia (H) Tsvia, female deer
Tzur (H) From Tsur, meaning rock or fortress. See Abensur

U
Uncastillo (S) One Castle
Uri (HB) My light
Uriel (HB) G-d is my light
Usiel (H) See Uziel
Uniello (H) See Uziel
Usigilo (H) See Uziel
Usiglo (H) See Uziel
Usillo (H) See Uziel
Usus (HB) From Yehoshua, G-d saved him. The servant of Moses
Uszan (H) See Uziel
Uziel (H) G-d is my strenght
Uzielli (H) See Uziel
Uzilli (H) See Uziel
Uzziielli (H) See Uziel

V
Vaca (P)(S) Cow, beef
Vaena (S) From Faena, work, job
Valcazzar (S) Valley of the Alcazar
Valdajos (S) Garlic(s) valley
Valdaura (S) Sun Valley
Valdecanas (S) Cane Valley
Valdeolivas (S) Olive Valley
Valderrama (S) Branch Valley
Vale (P) Valley
Valencia (P)(S) A city in Spain
Valensuela (S) Female from Valencia
Valladolid (P)(S) A city in Spain
Valle (S) Valley
Valles (S) Valleys
Vallejo (S) Small Valley
Vallestero (S) External Valley
Vallseca (S) Dry Valley
Valverde (P)(S) A town in portugal, green valley
Vaquero (S) Cowboy, cattle herder
Vara (P) Rod, twig, staff, herd of swine
Vara (S) Stick
Varca (S) From Barca, boat
Varga (P) Marshy plain
Varon (S) From baron meaning male
Varona (S) Woman
Varquez (S) Son of Varca
Vega (S) Small mountain
Velazquez (S) Son of Velazco
Veles (S) Son of Velo
Velez (P) Wooly, downy
Velho (P) Old
Vello (S) Hair
Vellocino (S) Balls of hair
Velloso (S) Hairy
Veloso (S) Hairy
Vento (P) Wind
Ventos (S) From Vientos, winds
Ventura (S) Venture
Vera (S) Real, truth
Verga (S) Stick, pole, mast of a sailing vessel
Vezinho (P) Neighbor
Vezino (P) Neighbor
Viabrera (S) Workers way or road
Victoria (S) Victory
Vida (P)(S) Life
Vidas (P)(S) Lives
Vilafranca (P) A town in Portugal, free village
Vilalobos (P) A town in Portugal, city of wolves
Vilalongo (P) A town in Portugal, long city
Vilanova (P) A town in Portugal, new city
Vilaplana (P) A town in Portugal, plain town
Vilar (P) A town in Portugal, small hamlet
Vilareal (P) A town in Portugal, royal town
Vilela (P) Small village
Villa (S) Village
Villahermosa (S) Beautiful
Villa Lobos (S) Village of the Wolves
Villalta (S) High village
Villa Nova (S) New village
Villanueva (S) New village
Villar (S) Small village
Villarubia (S) Blond village
Villa Real (S) Royal village
Vita (S) From Vida for life
Viva (S) Alive
Viveiros (P) Fish pond, plant nursery
Viveros (S) Fish pond
Volta (P) Return, run, turn

W
Wahnon (HB) Hanun, the builder of the walls of Jerusalem

X
Xabi (A) From Habib
Xaham (H) Clever, also a title for Rabbi among the Sephardim

Xapatao (P) Shoe maker. big shoe
Xaprut (H) See Saprut
Xarilho (P) Same as Sarilho, trouble, mess, reel, rack
Xaron (H) Anger, indignation
Xato (P) Bothersome, pain in the neck, flat
Ximon (H) See Shimon
Xoares (P) Same as Soares, sounds, noises, sweat

Y
Ya’bet (H) See Yaabez
Yaabez (H) Acronym of Yaakov Ben Tsur, see Abensur
Yaacov (HB) Will follow. Name of the Patriarch Jacob
Yaavez (H) See Yaabes
Yaco (H) Yaacov
Yacub (A) Arab pronounciation of Jacob
Yaech (A) See Yaish
Yafe (H) Beautiful
Yahia (H) Will live
Yahini (H) From Yakhin meaning will prepare
Yahuda (H) See Yehuda
Yahya (H) See Yahia
Ya’ish (A) See Yaish
Yaish (A) Alive
Yakov (HB) Yaakov
Yamin (A) Right
Yamin (HB) Right. Son of Shimon
Yanto (H) See Yomtov
Yarabel (HB) From Yerubaal, they will fear the Lord.
Yecutie (HB) From Yekutiel. We hope in G_d
Yehezkel (HB) G-d will strengthen
Yehzkiel (HB) G-d will strengthen
Yehiel (HB) G-d will revive

Yehouda (HB) Will thank, son of Jacob
Yeini (H) See Yene
Yekuel (H) See Yecutiel
Yeni (H) My wine
Yeni (T) New
Yento (H) See Yomtov
Yerushalmi (H) From Jerusalem
Yeshurum (HB) Another name for Israel
Yoel (HB) He is G-d, the name of a prophet Joel
Yomtob (H) See Yomtov
Yomtov (H) Good day, used for a feast
Yona (HB) Dove, the Prophet Jonah
Yordan (H) The river Jordan
Yossef (HB) Will be added, the son of Jacob
Yovel (HB) From Yoval, meaning brook. Father of musicans
Ysaque (H) Isaac
Yuda (H) See Yehouda
Yzquia (HB) From Hezkiya meaning G-d strengthened me

Z
Zacarias (HB) Zekhariah the Prophet, G-d strengthened me
Zacaride (H) See Zacarias
Zacharia Baruch (H) Zacarias and Blessed
Zachin (A) From Zaki, pure, chaste
Zachuth (H) From the word Zekhut, meaning right, priviledge.title
Zacuta (H) From the word Zekhuta, her right, priviledge, title
Zacuto (H) From the word Zekhuto, his right, priviledge, title
Zacutto (H) See Zacuto
Zacutus (H) See Zacuto
Zadich (H) From Tsadik, meaning Righteous, G-d fearing.
Zadok (H) From Tsadok. the name of a Rabbi during the time of the second temple
Zaglo (BR) Pole, yoke
Zahadia (H) From Saadia meaning G-d helped, one of the Gaonites
Zahalon (H) From Tsahalon meaning Joyful, rejoiced
Zahar (A) From Zahir, Shining, flourishing
Zahara (A) Flower, blossom or to shine or to blossom
Zalama (A) See Salama
Zamora (P) Samora, a city in Spain
Zaprut (H) Also see Saprut, from the word Shiprut, meaning Elaboration
Zaragosa (P) Saragosa, a city in Spain
Zarco (P) Light blue eyed
Zarefati (H) See Sarfati
Zarfati (H) See Sarfati
Zarfatti (H) See Sarfati
Zarka (A) Blue eyes
Zayat (A) See Zayet
Zayet (A) Olive
Zecharia Baruch (HB) Remember God and Blessed
Zeevi (H) Of the wolf
Zeitoun (A) Olives
Zemah (H) See Semah
Zemmour (BR) Rrom Zemmur, the name of a Berber tribe in Morocco.
Zera (H) Seed
Zeraf (A) See Seraf
Zerah (HB) Shining, son of Juda, son of Jacob
Zevi (H) See Tsevi
Zif (A) sword
Zimra (H) Song
Zuleman (H) See Suleman
Zulili (A) A neighborhood of Mehdia, Tunisia
Zvi (H) Stag, aslo see Tsevi

———————

Family Trees Index
This is an index covering the principal surnames contained in the family trees which have been deposited in the library as at December 1998. Each tree has a reference number (e.g. A1) which can be used when visiting the library to research trees. The reference number can also be used to determine the surname of the member who submitted the tree.

For example, suppose you are tracing the surname Aaronovsky. The list below indicates that Aaronovsky is mentioned on tree A18. You can then pay a personal visit to Our Library and look at tree A18. Alternatively, you may prefer to contact the member who submitted tree A18. Simply refer to the List of Family Tree Submitters Page which will enable you to identify the surname and membership number of the person who submitted tree A18. That page also contains instructions on how members and non-members of the Society can establish contact with those who submitted trees. Members who are no longer contactable are clearly identified on that page. Please do not ask us to contact them for you, it is not possible (sorry).

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

a’Cohen – B17
Aaron – A31, C12, A86
Aaronovich – C4
Aaronovsky – A18
Aarons – A12, A18
Aaronson – C12, A86
Abecassis – A97
Abelson – A67, A93
Abendana – A15, B17, B8
Abraham – A14, A31, A97
Abrahams – A1, A12, A27, A66, A70, A83, A84, A90, B5, B7, B8, B10, B28, B31, C13
Abrahamson – A67, B2, B3
Abramovich – B23
Abrams – A39, A61, B23
Adler – A13, A66, A98, A99
Afia – A94
Agostinetti – B22
Ahrenfeld – C7
Ahron – C2
Ahronsberg – A55, A56
Albert – A65
Albury – A55, A56
Alexander – A31, A62, B10, B2
Allen – C9
Allstadt – A89
Alper – B8, B25
Altman – B23
Altshul – B3
Amar – B30
Amitan – B25
Amsberg – A62
Andrade – A53
Angus – A84
Ansbach – A109
Ansell – A27
Appel – A66
Applebaum – B25
Apter – B2
Arbib – A66
Arditti – B30
Arendt – B25
Arndt – A45
Arnholz – A43
Arnstein – B23
Aron – B6
Arons – C2
Asche – C5
Aschenheim – C2
Ashberg – A84
Asher – A14
Ashleigh – B8
Asser – B26
Attwell – C13
Atwell – A66, B8
Aub – B6
Auerbach – B25
Aufrichtig – C9
Aurich – C9
Austin – A84
Ayrton – A12
Bach – A4
Bachmann – B1
Bachwitz – A4
Baerlin – A62
Baerman – B23
Baime – A67
Bakofen – A109
Balen – B28
Balkin – A10, C12, A86
Bamberger – B1
Banks – B25, C12, A86
Barak – A72
Baratz – B25
Barden – B9
Barends – B29
Barentz – B29
Barnard – A62
Barnett – A85, A93, B11, B17, B7
Barrakloz – A52
Barron – A99
Baruch – B9
Barza – A72
Baskin – B25
Bassewitz – A88
Bavington – A84
Bear – A98
Bearstead (Lord ) – B10
Beauman – B10
Becker – C12, A86
Beddington – A12, A14, A31, B10
Beddington-Behrens – B10
Bedford – A84
Behman – B25
Behrend – A62
Behrens – A14, B10, C11
Behrman – A55, A56
Belais – C5
Belasco – A14a, B17
Belinfante – C5
Bello – A97
Benadon – B30
Benaroya – B30
Bendon – B8
Ben-Dor – B23
Benfey – A62
Benjamin – A37, A43, A5, A66, A72, A97, A109, B10, B11, B7, B9
Bennett – A71, A82
Benson – B9
Benusiglio – B30
Berbstein – C3
Berelowitz – B23
Berengarten – A75
Berg – A7
Bergen – A96
Bergman – A99
Berkovich – A39, B25
Berlin – A62
Berliner – A67
Berlyn – B8
Berman – A51
Bernal – A14a
Bernstein – A13, A55, A56, A75, A93 ,A96, B25, B3, B8
Berolzheimer – B23
Berwanger – A51
Bessie – C13
Best – A84
Beym – A67
Biederman – A76
Binder – A19
Binderman – B14
Bing – A97, B1, B4
Birn – B8
Birn – C13
Birnberg – B7
Bischopwehder – A84
Bishop – A97
Bittke – B25
Bitton – A14a
Black – B2, B3
Blackburn – A102
Blackman – A84
Blankensee – B10
Blaubaum – B9
Blaumen – A75
Blaustein – C5
Bleiman – C7
Bles – B22
Blint – C12, A86
Blitz – A105
Bloch – A8, A9, A91, B1, B2, B23, C12, A86
Blogh – A9
Blok – C5
Bloom – C12, A86
Blooman – A75
Bloomfield – A92
Bluestone – B13
Bluethentalb – B6
Blum – A96
Blumenthal – A75 ,A96, B1
Blumgart – A61
Boleman ( Booleman )- B29
Boas – B29
Bockchin – C3
Bockner – B8
Boden – A84
Bodenheimer – B1
Bollag – B23
Boni – A76, B22
Bonn – B22
Bonwit – A98
Book – A55, A56, B7
Bookman – A55, A56
Boraks ( Borax ) A98
Borensteine – A13
Boriello – B25
Bottigheimer – B23
Bradley – A55, A56
Braham – A12, A92, A109, B10
Brandenberg – A91
Brandon – B17
Bransky – A55, A56
Brasch ( Brash ) – B9
Braun – A66
Breitz – B2
Brener – C1
Breskauer – A76
Breslauer – B22
Brody – A64
Bronson – B8
Brown – A82
Bruckmann – B1
Brüll – B1
Brunel-Cohen – B10
Brunner – A76
Brunner – B22
Bucks – A78
Bucks – B8
Bueno de Mesquita – A53
Buhler – A85
Bulkin – A10
Burford – B14
Burleigh – B14
Burman – A75
Burns – A75, B7
Burton – A11, B31
Burtschell – C12, A86
Butler – A84
Buzaglo – A62
Byers – A55, A56
Campbell – A62, A102
Campe( Campen ) – B29
Cansino – C5
Canter – C7
Cantor – B7
Caplan – A44
Cardoza – A43
Caro – A55, A56
Carrillo – A2
Carson – B16
Carvalho – A12
Carvalho (Nunes) – B10
Casana – A76
Castle – B9
Castleberg – B9
Causton – A97
Chalfon – A62
Chanowitz – A22
Charkham – B8
Charuk – A87
Checket – C6
Chernovitz – B25
Chesler – A80
Chessler – C6
Chetham – B28
Chinn – B14
Cianchi – B9
Cisneros – A2
Clark – B8
Clarke – C6
Clein – A99
Clemensson – B4
Clover – C12, A86
Codron – C7
Cohen – A12, A26, A39, A4, A51, A55, A56, A6, A62, A66, A67
Cohen – A70, A72, A84, A96, A97, A98 , B10, B11, B13, B3, B7, B8, B9
Cohen – B14, B17, B18, B25, B28, B29, B31, C12, A86
Cohn – A62, C6
Coleman – C12, A86
Coles – A102
Collins – A55, A56, C12, A86
Connick – A75
Connor – A84
Conradi – A4, B8
Convisser – C4
Cooper – A13, A64, A75
Coplin – A25c
Cordero – A76
Cordero Montezemolo – B22
Costa (Gomes Da) – B15
Cousins – C4
Coussins – C12, A86
Coventry – A67
Cowan – A94, B10, C12, A86
Cramer – A85
Cream – A31
Cristofas – A84
Cromwell – C12, A86
Cross – C11
Cuckle – A82
Curtis – A98
Curtis-Bennett – B10
Cusack Smith – B10
Cytron – C12, A86
D’Arcy-Hart – B10
da Costa – A3
Daikan – B2
Dakin – A84
Danglow – B9
Danishevesky – B25
Danziger – A31
Dasberg – B23
Davey – B11, B17
David – A98, C5
Davidson – B1
Davies – A67
Davis – A15, A14a, A37, A47, A5, A55, A56, A6, A61, A74, A83, A97, A109
Davis – B10, B11, B12, B17, B19, B2, B28, B8, B31, C6
de Aguillar – A3
de Beer – B9, C6
de Castro – A3
de Chaves – A35
de Fonseca – B2
de Lange – A92
de Lara – A14a
de Pangher Manzini – B22
de Pass – A8, A97
de Savary – B28
de Sola – C5
de Solla – A39
de Swarte – A87
de Wilde – A92
Defries – B12, B18, B19
Deiches – B14
Dellevie – A62
Dennis – B25
Denssdag – B29
Dernberg – B23
Derzavitz – A96
Derzon – A96
Deutchman – A84
Deyong – B8
Diamond – A67
Diamondstein – A67
Dias – A3, A50
Diner – B18
Dini – A51
Dinkelspuehler – B23
Disna – A57
Ditjakowsky A96
Doenberger – B23
Doff – A25a
Doffman – A55, A56
Dormitzer – B6
Doyle – A84
Dreyfus ( Dreyfuss ) – A62, A84, A97
Dryer – A97
Dubrow – A96
Dukoff – A10
Dumoulin – B30
Durlacher – B31
Dvorkin – A55, A56
Dworkin – C12, A86
Eberstadt – B1
Echouse – A20
Eckert – B25
Edelshain – A108
Edelstein – A81
Eden – A105, B3
Edgell – B31
Edward – A84
Edwards – A84
Ehrentreu – A9, B23
Eichenbaum – A96
Eiff – A67
Einbond – A84
Eisen – A96
Eitig – A45
Elder – A84
Elias – A48, A73, A84
Elkan – A62, B9, C13
Elkin – A53, C5
Elliot – B3
Ellis – A48, A90, B11, B18
Ellman – A67
Elster – A63
Elton – B3
Emanuel – A55, A56, B18, B7, B8, B31, C13
Embden – A62, A105
Emden – A62, A105
Emdin – A93
Englander – A50, C6
Ennis – A84
Enoch – B28
Epel – A16
Eppel – A16
Ephraim – B6, C6
Eppel – B3
Epson – B2, B3
Epstein – B2, B3
Epstein – C12, A86
Erlanger – B1
Erlich – A89, B25
Eschwege ( Eschwegeelby ) – A97
Ettlinger – A97, A108
Evans – A84
Falk – A97, A108
Faraguna – A76, B22
Featherman – C12, A86
Feldman – A92, B20, B25
Fels – B9
Fereminsky – A25a
Fergusson – B17
Ferst – A98
Feuchwanger – B23
Fialka – A19
Fialkow – A19
Fidlan – B12
Fieldhouse, – C13
Fineman – C12, A86
Finkelstein – A16
Fischel – A76, B22
Fishbein – A9
Fisher – A67
Flatau – A27, B31
Fleischman – B23
Fleischmann – B1
Flersheim – B1
Forbes-Ritte – A84
Forrester – A84
Forsyth – B9
Fox – A14a, B31, C6
Fraenkel – B23
Frampton – A23
Franck – B23
Frank – A84, A89, B1, B25
Frankel – A72, B7, C13
Franklin – A72, B10, B17
Franks – A66
Frazer – A23
Fredrikstadt – B29
Freedenberg – A91
Freedman – A25b, A25c, A39, A67, A99, B11, B18, C12, A86, C6
Freeman – A55, A56
Frenchman – C4
Frenk – B24
Fried – B1
Friederberg – A23, C13
Friedland – A52
Friedlander – B9
Friedman – B25, C3, C5
Friedmann – B1
Frieze – A67
Frommel – B6
Fruchterman – B25
Frydman – C3
Fulton – A84
Fürst – B1, B4
Gabowitz – A9
Gabriel – A12
Gallewski – A55, A56
Gallob – B24
Galoon – A36
Galun, Galoon – C1
Gantovnik – C1
Garb – A96
Garnett – C6
Garroway – B25
Gedman – A84
Geduld – A67
Gefner – A81
Geisler – A47
Gelman – A96
Gelvan – A42
Gentili – A49
Gerald – C13
Gerber – A16
Gerngross – B1
Gernsbach – A97
Gerstle – A93
Gestetner – A85, B7
Gill – A96
Gille – B4
Gillis – A55, A56
Ginzberg – A84
Girsh – C1
Girsman – A27
Gittins – A87
Glass – C12, A86
Glassburg – A90
Glausiusz – B17
Gledhill – A84
Gleek – A25a, A25a
Gleiberman – A84
Glick – A16
Glickson – A55, A56
Globerman – A75
Glück – A16
Gluckstein – A66, B8, C13
Glueck – C1
Glueckstadt – B23
Goetz – A68
Gold – A55, A56, A98
Goldberg – A55, A56, C1, C12, A86
Goldfarb – A9, B30
Goldfein – A52
Golding – B10, B3
Goldinger – C7
Goldman – A31, A55, A56, B13, B14, B16
Goldschmid – B22, B29
Goldschmidt – A98, B23, B4
Goldsmid – A28
Goldsmit – A28
Goldsmith – A98
Goldstein – A25a, A55, A56, A82, B2, B25
Goldston – B11, B13
Goldwurm – A22
Goldwyn – A39
Gollin – B10
Golombovich – A75
Gomes da Costa – B15, B17
Gompertz – B29, A102
Goodman – A75, B25
Goolst – A42
Goorvich – A39
Gordimer – A29
Gordon – A55, A56, B2, C12, A86
Gorewitz – B3
Gosschalk – A97
Gottesman – C3, C6
Gottheimer – A17
Gotthgelf – B9
Gottlieb – A55, A56
Gould – B2
Goulston – B9
Gous – A84
Graaf – A99
Grant – C12, A86
Green – A37, A52, A90, A98 , B10
Greenbaum – A72
Greenberg – A72, A93, B28
Greenhouse – B25
Greenman – B20
Gribechek – B25
Grieve – A84
Griffin – B25
Griffith – A84
Grill – A52
Grizman – B25
Groden – C12, A86
Gronnman – A98
Gross – A84, C3
Gross( Grosser ) – C6
Grosser – B22
Gruber – B25
Grunebaum – B23
Grunthal – A55, A56
Gruzd – A29
Guadagni – A76, B22
Gubbay – C5
Guest – A55, A56
Guggenheim ( Guggenheimer ) – B23
Guinsberg – A93
Guldmann – B1
Gurowitz – B25
Gursky- A96
Gurvitz – B15
Gut – A91
Gutierrez – A2
Gutman – A71
Gutmann – B6, B1
Haatstein – A25a
Habschush – B25
Hackenbroch – B23
Hahn – A62
Halberstadt – B4
Haldin – B10
Halford – A37
Halford – A44, A49, A62, B10
Halle – A66
Hallenstein – A32, B10, B9
Halperin – A40
Halsted – A32, B9, B10, B31
Hamburger – A70, A89, B23, B7
Hammar – A52
Hammerschmidt – C2
Hampson – B31
Hanegbi – A96
Hancock – C5
Handler – B25
Hansford – B10, B7
Hantzdörfer – B1
Harris – A14a, A31, A32, A47, A48, A55, A56, A6, A67, A69, A75, A84
Harris – A9, A92, A98, A101, A109, B13, B14, B15, B17, B31, B8, B9, C12, A86, C6
Harrison – B25, A84
Hart – A12, A55, A56, A6, A8, A80, A90, A94, B10, B2, B7, B8, B9, C5
Hartman – C6
Harvey – A108
Harvey-Samuel – A97
Hassan – B3
Hatoff – B25
Hawkins – A55, A56
Hayes – A75
Hayman – A5, A84, B9, A76
Haymann – B22
Hecht – C6
Heidenheimer – B1
Heilbron – A47
Heilbronn – B8
Heilbuth – C13
Heim – A54
Heiser – a75
Heller – B23
Hellerman – A42
Henison – B11, B18
Henriques – B10, B4
Henriques Valentine – A70, B8
Henry – A14, A31, A39, A55, A56, B9
Herman – A25a, C6, C6
Herrmann – B23
Herrnstadt – A89
Herschkowitz – B25
Hershman – C1
Hersz – A71
Herz – A110
Herzenberg – A34
Hesselberger – A93
Higham – A62, B10
Hilb – B1
Hiller – A67
Hillman – A98, B23, B25
Hirsch – B23
Hirschfeld – A16, B22
Hirschfield – A84
Hirschhorn – B1
Hirschkind – B23
Hirschmann – B1
Hirschsprung – B4
Hirsh – C1
Hochberg – B25NT>
Hodes – A34, A93
Hodgson – A84
Hoffman – A84
Hoffman – B25
Holland – B17
Hollerbusch – B1
Holstein – A45
Holt – B8
Holzberg – A55, A56
Holzer – A16
Holzinger – B23
Hope – A4
Hopf – B1
Horenczyk – B23
Horevitz – B3
Horkheimer – A97>
Horowitz – A16
Horwich – B2, B3
Hudson – B7
Hulbert – C13
Hush – A102
Hyam – A37, A44, B10
Hyams – A64, B8, B9
Hyamson – A39
Hyman – A42, A59, B31
Iglarsh – A96
Iglauer – B1
Invald – B25
Isaac – A31, A62
Isaacs – A14, A27, A31, A55, A56, A70, A109, B10, B7, B8, B9
Isaaks – A46
Isenberg – A75
Ison – A55, A56
Isowitsky – A25b
Israel – A6, A92, B10, B17, B9
Isserles – A22
Issroff – C1
Itting – A99
Iwi – A72
Jackson – A55, A56
Jacob – A37, A84, B31
Jacobs – A14a, A37, A39, A55, A56, A61, A78, A82, A83, A97, A101
Jacobs – B10, B14, B31, B7, B8, B9, C12, A86, C6, A84
Jacobsberg – C2
Jacobson – A47, A55, A56, A66, A93, B23
Jacoby – C5
Jaffe – B22, B25
Jaffeson – B25
James – C6
Japhet – B23
Jasven – A87
Jay – B15, B17
Jessel – A62
Jewell – A92
Joel – A6
Jonas – B9
Jones – A12, A37, A38, A69, B10, B13, B18, B21, C6
Joseph – A39, A55, A56, A66, A67, A84, B8, C11, C5
Josephs – A67, A98 , B18, B29
Josephson – C12, A86
Josephthal – B23
Joyce – B17
Judelman – B2
Jung – A9
Kablansky – A67
Kagan – A67, A99
Kahane – B28
Kahn – A93, B25, C3
Kairoch – B25
Kairow – B25
Kaiser – B23
Kalenchiwich – B25
Kallman – B6
Kalmin – C12, A86
Kalmus – C2
Kalsky – A9
Kamish – B25
Kampen – B29
Kanovich – C3
Kanter – B25
Kantor – B22, C1
Kantorowitz – A71
Kaplan – B25
Kappel – B4
Karensky – B25
Karet – B8
Karno – A67
Karnovsky – A67
Karolinski – A67
Karpel – B24
Karpeles – B22
Katanka – A67
Katchky – A19
Kater – B29
Katofsky – A10
Katz – A75, A96
Katzenellenbogen – A21, A47
Katzenstein – A62
Kauffman – A61
Kaufman – A22, C6
Kaufman ( Kaufmann ) – B6
Kaufmann – A51
Kay – A75, A85, A98, B25
Kaye – A98
Keane – C4
Keesing – B9
Keibel – A55, A56
Keiner – B23
Keller – A25a
Kelly – A25a, A67
Kelman – B6
Kelsey – A66
Kemper – A39
Kershaw – A84
Khan – A84
King – B8
Kirsch – B23
Kirzner – A9
Kisch – A8, B2
Kizer – B25
Klabin – B25
Klar – C12, A86
Klean – A66
Kleeman – A55, A56
Kleeman – B8
Kletz – B3
Kline – A16
Klopfer – B1
Klosenberg – A84
Klotz – A47
Klugmann – B6
Knebil – A40, A51, A40
Knobil – A51
Knopg – A93
Kobrin – B25
Kochendorf – A110
Koenigswarter – B23
Kofman – C6
Kohn – A76, B1, B22, B23, B9
Kolnik – A42
Kolpanitsky – C3
Konigswinter – B24
Koppenhagen – A66
Korach – B25
Korey – A96
Korinsky – B25
Kowler – A81
Kraal – B29
Kragen – C5
Krakow – B25
Krantz – A99
Krasnoff – A12
Krauss – C11
Kravetz – B25
Kristal – A29
Kronenberg – A84
Krotosky – A98
Kuhn – B6
Külhken – B1
Kumin – A16

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Lachmann – B23
Lacow – B25
Lakier – B2
Lakritz – A96
Landa – A75
Landauer – A91, B23
Lang – A20, A5, A67, B1
Langer – A96
Langford – A95, B7, B31
Langman – A67
Langner – C5
Lass – A47
Lassman – A27
Latte – A84
Latzer – B22
Laubheim – B6
Laurie – B25
Lavinberg – A31
Lawrence – A17
Lawson – A93
Lawton – A75, A95
Lazard – B14
Lazarus – A17, A14a, A43,A44,A47,A55, A56,A66,A67,A80
Lazarus – A84, A90, A93, A100, A109, B10, B7, B8, B9, B31, C7, C13
Leach – C12, A86
Lebrecht – B1
Leckie – A67
Lee – B17, B25, A102
Lees Levy – A55, A56
Leizner – B25
Lelyveld – A41
Leon – A31, A62, B10, B22
Lercester – B25
Leslie – A75, A95, B10
Lesser – A70
Lester – A84
Letchner – A16
Levene – A98, B5
Lever – A66
Leverson – A44, A49
Levey – A14a, C12, A86
Levi – A64, A78, A98 , B1, B23, B25, C12, A86
Levien – B26
Levin – A96, A99, B25
Levinson – A84, C6
Levitan – A96
Levitt – A97, A108
Levy – A14a, A25a, A59,A6,A66,A70,A83,A84,A92,A95, A97
Levy – B10, B12, B17, B18, B31, B2, B6, B7, B8, C12, A86, C13, C6
Levyno – B7
Lewin – A13, A65
Lewinstein – A13, A65
Lewis – A31, A9, C13, C4, C6
Lexner – A16
Lezard – B7
Librach – C3
Lichter – A22
Lichtheim – A55, A56
Lichthenstein – A98
Lie – C6
Lieberman – A75
Lifshitz – A42, A67
Lightstone – C5
Lincoln – C12, A86
Lindheim – B6
Lindo – A3, A31
Links – A66
Lintine – A61, B8
Lipp – A96
Lipper – C5
Lipschitz – A99, B25
Lipschutz – B2
Lipshitz – A55, A56
Lipson – B25
Lipszyc – A67
Lis – A67
Littman – B25
Loeb – A46
Loew – A14
Loewe – A39
Loewenberg – B22
Loewenstein – B9
Loewenthal – B23
Lorch – B25
Loterije – B29
Loth – B1
Louis – A55, A56
Löwensburg – B1
Löwenthal – B1
Löwi – B1
Lowidt – A67
Lurie – A47, C1
Lustgarten – A75
Lynes – A78
Lynn – B28
Lyon – A14, A31, A55, A56, A78, C7
Lyons – A16, A67
Madar – A20
Magnus – A69, A101
Maisner – A67
Maisel ( Maissel ) – A51, A99
Maitland – B7, C6
Maitland-Sions – A84
Majerkowicz – C12, A86
Makvitz – B25
Malin – A39
Mallah – B30
Malor – A14
Malor – A31, B7
Maltinsky – B25
Mamou – B28
Mandel – A66, A96
Mann – A75
Manning – A25c
Manoy – B9
Manson – C12, A86
Maraney – A75
Marcus – A73, A93, C12, A86
Margetts – A14a
Margolis – A48, – B25
Margolius – A93
Margosches – C10
Mark – A84
Marks – A14a, A43, A55, A56, A69, A70, A72, A82
Marks – A94, A102, B15, B17, B7, B8, B9, C13
Marquez-Cardoso – A2
Marsden – A44, A49, A97, B10, B9
Marshall – B17
Martin – A9, A105, B1, B15, B17, B18
Martyn – A105
Marx – A72, A93, A97
Mason – C12, A86
Matelevich – A13
Mathiason – B23
Mathiassohn – C2
Mayer – A20, A37, B1
Mayo – A94
McBride – A100
McCance – B31
McCrae – A87
McLaren-Lane – A84
McLeod – A17
Mech – B25
Megret – B10
Mehrman – B25
Meilin – A51
Meinrath – B9
Meltzer – A25b, A25c
Menachan – B25
Menbourne-Hart – B7
Mendelsohn – A67, A93
Mendelssohn – B7
Mendes – A3, C5
Mendes da Costa – A3, A31
Mendoza – A70, B17
Merrett – A55, A56
Merton – B10, B9
Messer – A26
Messias – C4
Metter – A93, B2
Metzger – B1, B23
Meyer – A44, A49 , A62, A105, B10, B23, B4
Meyerson – B25
Michaeis – A45
Michael – B18
Michaeli ( Michaelis ) – C2
Michaelis – B9
Michaels – A46, – B18
Michaelsen – B4
Michaelson – B2
Michel – B31
Michelovitz – C3
Michelsohn – A89
Michelson – B23, B25
Micholls – A14, A31, A37, B10
Miers – B7
Miller – A67, A95, B8, C12, A86, C7
Millett – A13
Mills – B26
Milns – B9
Milstein – C3
Mindel – A48
Mindelsohn – A84
Mindlin – B25
Minow- A96
Minsky – A55, A56
Mintz – A67
Miranda – A2, A107, B17
Mitchell – A66
Mocatta – A3
Mohr – B9
Molina – A2
Molloy – B31
Monk – A48
Montagu – A12, B10
Montague – A61, B14
Montefiore – A14, A3, A31, B10
Montezemolo – A76
Morganstein – A72
Morganstern – C7
Morris – A13, A25c, A27, A39, A63, A75, A97, B13, B8
Moscheles – A62
Moser – C2
Moses – A12, A39, A44, A46, A49, A83 ,A84, B10, B29, B9, C2, C6
Mosesman – C12, A86
Moss – A12, B10, C6
Mosseri – A27
Mothew – A63, C7
Mothio – C7
Mountain – B9
Muchin – A96
Mueller – B23
Müller – B1
Munk – A76, B22
Murray – A75
Myer – A37, A75, C11
Myers – A38, A55, A56, A6, A92
Myers – B10,B11, B13, B14, B17, B18, B8, B9
Myerson – A67, A93

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Nachemsohn – A16
Nachman – A24, B25
Nachmann – B1
Nager – B23
Napley – A100
Napthali – A100
Nathan – A98, B10, B23, B5, B9, C2
Nathansan – A27
Neipris – A16
Nettheim – C6
Neu, Noy – B23
Neumeyer – B1
Neustadt – A14, A31, B10
New – A20
Newman – A55, A56, A64, B25, C6
Newton – A75
Niasoff – A50
Nichinsky – A39
Niman – A67
Nomberg – C3
Nonken – A96
Nordlinger – A62
Nordon – A90
Nunes Carvalho – B10
Nunes-Martines, Martin – B15, B17
Nussbaum – B23
Nyman – A51, A51
O’Brien – B31
O’Connor – A84
Ockrim – C12, A86
Odesky – C1
Oettinger – B23
Offenstein – B1
Ogushoff – A42
Olsberg – A55, A56
Olsen-Ventegodt – B4
Olshowski – A55, A56
Olswang – A55, A56
Oppenheim – B1, C13, A20, B1, C5, C6
Oppenheimer – A20
Oppenheym – C2
Oppir – A55, A56
Orde – C13
Orkin – A53
Orkin – C5
Orley – C1
Orloff – B25
Orman – B3
Osband – B25
Osiakowski – A71
Osorio – A3, A54
Ottenstein – B1
Öttinger – B1
Padwa – A42
Pagnillo – A102
Palley – B25
Paltiel – C7
Pappenheim – B23
Paris – A17
Parnes – C4
Pas-Quiros – A2
Patz – C6
Payne – B8
Paz de Leon – A50
Pearlman – A55, A56
Pechanik – A75
Peck – A96, A97
Peckarsky – A96
Pedde – A26
Pels – B23
Penefield – B25
Pepper – A36, B12
Pesacovitch – A72
Pezaro – B7
Philipp – B1
Philips – A66, A33, A47, A50
Phillips – A14, A39, A55, A56, A58, A72, A97 , B7, B8, B9, C13
Phillipson – C13
Picus – A96
Pijpeman – B24
Pimentel – A2
Pincus – C2
Pinder – C7
Pine – B25
Pinnick – B2
Pinto – A55, A56
Pinto – C5
Pio – A97
Pivar – A96
Platman – A98
Platnauer – A70
Pleiner – A82
Podrid – A63
Polak – B22, B29
Pollack – A96
Poliziner – A84
Pollecoff – A67
Pollizer – A97, B8
Pollock – B13
Pool – C5
Popper – B8
Porker – B31
Porter – A84
Porterfield – C4
Posner – A47, A90, A95
Poster – C4
Prager – A54
Price – A39
Prince – A97
Prior – B9
Quinlan – C6
Quinn – A84
Rabin – A88
Rabinowitz – A42, A88
Rachelson – A12
Radoff ( Radoffitz ) – A96
Rafaeli – C3
Raphael – A31, A97 , B10, B8, B9
Rappaport – A84, B25
Rasmussen – A85
Ratner – A51
Rau – A85, B23, B7
Rausnitz – A85
Ray – B31
Reading (Lord) – B10
Reese – A59
Reeves – B9
Refson – A55, A56
Regensburger – B23
Reichenberg – A34
Reichenberger – A93
Reichl – B1
Reichmann – B23
Reik – A73, C10
Rein – A81
Reiner – A4
Reis – A97
Reitlinger – A76, B22
Reitzenberger – B1
Reizenstein – B1
Remington – C12, A86
Resnik – A96
Rettig – B25
Reuben – B20
Reznik – A96
Rice – A96
Richards – A93
Richardson – A55, A56
Riches – A96
Richman – B31
Rigal – A61, B8, B9, A90
Rimer – B25
Rindskopf – B23
Ring – A42
Ritchken – A52
Ritte – A84
Rittenberg – A84
Rittie – A84
Roat – A70
Roberts – C9
Robertson – B9
Robinson – A52, B17, B25
Robles – A2
Roche – A62
Rochef – A67
Rodrigues – B17
Rogers – A97, A108, B28, C5
Romain – A89, B8
Romberg – A62
Rose – B18
Rosen – A62, A96, B14, B25
Rosenau – B23
Rosenbaum – B23
Rosenberg – B25, C4
Rosenblatt – B1, B6
Rosenbloom – A39, A67
Rosenfeld – A75, B1
Rosenfelder – B23
Rosenheim – B23
Rosenn – B25
Rosenstein – A84
Rosenthal – B22, B23, B6, C7
Rosenwald – B1
Rosenzweig – B25
Rosetti – A98
Ross – A67, A96, C7
Rossine – A67
Rote – C7
Rotenberg – B25
Roth – A65, C7
Rothman – C12, A86
Rothstadt – C6
Rotimberg – A65
Rowson – B2
Rozelaar – A97
Rubel – A20
Rubidge – B7
Rubin – B20
Rubinstein – A96, B10
Rudelsheim – C11
Rudnitzky – B25
Sachs – A89
Sack – A25b
Safdi – C6
Saffrin – B25
Sahlmann – B6
Salaman – A97, A108, B10
Salamonson – A97
Salinger – A75
Salkind – A84, A84
Salmon – A106, B8
Salmonsen – B1
Salomons – B29
Salomonsen – B4
Saltiel – B30
Salzman – C3
Samson – A92
Samuel – A31, A74, B10, B7
Samuels – A92, B25
Sandall – A84
Sandler – B23, B25
Sandock – A88
Sandomersky – B25
Sands – B25
Santillana – B17
Sapiro – A67
Saqui – A35
Sarak – A29
Sarkozy – B30
Sassoon – C6
Saunders – A14a, C13
Schatz – B25
Schehr – B25
Scheidt – B6
Scherer – B1
Schiff – A75
Schiffman – B25
Schiller – A98
Schlesinger – A54, A109
Schlochauer – A98
Schloss – A109, B6
Schlupper – C3
Schmeter – A25a
Schmidt – C6
Schmulionson – B20
Schnabel – A62
Schneebaum – A19
Schneiderman – A75
Schneider – B31
Schneiders – A66
Schnitzer – C2
Schoenman, A98
Schonfeld – A45
Schonfield – A84
Schott – B22
Schottlaender – A76
Schottlaender – B22
Schottlander – C13
Schprinze – A88
Schreiber – A67
Schreiber – A89
Schreiber – A93
Schrijver – B29
Schulman – A39
Schultz – B1, C3
Schur – A96
Schurster – A97
Schuster – A96
Schwalb – B25
Schwartschild – B23
Schwartz – A98, B25
Schwerner – A98
Scop – B25
Scott – A61
Scragenheim – B23
Sebag-Montefiore – B10
Seckendorf – B1
Segal – A52, A55, A56, B25, C1, C4
Selby – A66, B9, C12, A86, C6
Selig – A97
Seligman – A62, B10, B7
Seligsohn – C2
Semel – A48
Sewill – A12, B10
Shaffer – A55, A56
Shapero – A36
Shapira, Shapiro – C3
Shapiro – A47, B23, B25
Shappero – A67
Sharman – A84
Sharpe – A75
Shedletsky – C7
Sheffick – C12, A86
Shefsky – A13
Sheinbaum – A21
Sheinebaum – A88
Sheldon – C7
Shenken – C12, A86
Sher – A93
Sheridan – B25
Sherman – C7
Sherwin – B26
Sherwood – A21
Shind – A42
Shissel – A22
Shitrit – A90
Shock – A42
Shone – A67
Shorn – A67
Shossen – A52
Shulman – B25, C12, A86
Shussin – A52
Sidell – A67
Sidersky – B2
Sidorsky – B25
Siegel – A96
Silberberg – B9, C6
Silberman – A84
Silva – B17
Silver – C5
Simenoff – A61
Simler – C4
Simmonds – B11, B18
Simmons – A17, A66, B18
Simon – A31, A62, B1, B10, B14, B7, C6
Simons – A97
Simonsen – B4
Simonson – C6
Sinscheimer – A97
Singer – A42 , A7, C12, A86
Sions – A72
Skinner – B12, B19
Skok – A61
Skorek – A98
Skyte – B6
Slevin – A80
Slobod – B25
Smilak – B25
Smith – A67 , A84, B10, B9
Smoijsz – A36
Snapper – B29
Snellen – A12
Sniderman – B25
Snowman – A72, A84
Sofer – B27
Sofier – C13
Solomon – A12 , A31 , A37 , A38 , A43, A53 , A6 , A66 ,A74, A97, A109
Solomon – B10 ,B2 , B3 ,B8 ,A38 ,B10 ,B17 , B7 , B8 , C6
Solotar – B25
Soloway – B25
Sonnenberg – A97
Sonnenthal – A97, A108
Spain – A9
Spence – A89 , C7
Speyer – A20
Spiegel – A81 ,A89
Spiewkowski – A14
Spiers – B8
Spilg – A63 , C7
Sprince – A88
Sproat – B10 , B7
Stalarskie – A67
Stanley-Low – A84
Stavis ( Stavisky ) – C3
Stavro – A76 B22
Stein – A72 , A84 , A93, A96 , B25
Steinberg – A82, B23 , B25
Steiner – B1, B22
Steinfeld – B25
Steinman – B25
Stenham – C2
Stephany – A59, B8 C13
Stern – A93 ,B22, B25 , B6 , B8 , C6
Stewart – B12, B19
Steyne – A84
Stieglitz – A19
Stiglitz – A19 , A50
Stodel – A61
Stoehr – C9
Stolboff – B25
Stopford – A102
Stranders – A97
Strauss – A91, A96, A98, B23
Strawbaum – A61
Strimling – A16
Sturm – B6
Sucklover – C12, A86
Sugarman – A26
Sultan – A12
Sumpton – A70
Sundheimer – B1
Super – B25
Susman ( Sussman ) – A52, C6
Sussin – A52
Susskind – C2
Sussman – A25c
Sussmanovich – A25c
Swaythling (Lord) – B10
Swed – C12, A86
Swerdlow – A93
Swift – A9
Symonds – A84
Symons – A66
Szamek – C9
Szon – A67
Szulc – C3

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z

Taitz – A29
Tal A5 – A90
Talbot – A39
Tannenbaum – B25
Tannenberg – B2
Taronto – C11
Tate – C12, A86
Taubkin – B25
Taylor – A39, A84, C6
Teacher – A70 , B13 , B14
Teutsch – B23
Theomin – B9
Thirtle – B26
Thompson – B9
Thorley – B18
Thorogood – A84
Thwaites – B17
Tikotzky – A20
Tilley ( Tilly ) A100
Tisman – A27
Tobias ( Tobiasz ) – A65, C12, A86
Toledano – B17
Tooch – A99
Toohey – A99
Torres – A2
Tosh – A75
Tresley – A96
Trevor – A66
Trier – B22
Troy – A71
Tuchman – A39, A82, B1
Tudor-Jones – A84
Tychoboff – A67
Tyfield – B14
Tyler – A84
Tytz – C12, A86
Tzorfas – B25
Ullman – A62, A72, A85
Ullstein – A62
Ulmann – B23
Unger – B25
Urdang – A93
Uris – B25
Valentine – A70, B15 ,B8
Valins – C12, A86
Van Cleef – A55, A56
Van den Bergh – A60
Van der Linde – B31
Van der Walde – B9
Van Loen – A67
Van Raalte – C5
van Rood – B8
van Zwannenberg – A54, B8, C13,
Vandermolen – B11, B12, B17, B19
Vaughan – C4
Veit – C9
Venezia – B30
Ventura – B17
Victor – B28 , A1
Vigofsky – A67
Vilkowsk – A67
Viner – A75
Vogel – A76,- B22
Vos – A66, A97, C13
Wadkin – A84
Wagman – A36
Waisman – A96
Waitzman – C1
Waley – A97
Waley-Cohen – B10
Walford – B10
Wallach – B9
Walter – B25 , A39 , B9
Warchauchik – B25
Ward – B8
Warshavsky – B2
Warshaw – B13 , B14
Wartski – A72 , A84
Wasserman – B23
Wasserzug – A47 , A84
Waterman – B23
Waters – A82
Watkins – A96
Watt – A84
Wayne – C4
Weber – A55, A56 , B14
Wechsler – A96
Weening – B29
Weidman – B25
Weihermann – B6
Weil – A73 , A85, C10
Weinberg – A96
Weiner – A75, B25
Weingott – A74
Weinstock – A96
Weir – B17
Weisman – A16
Weiss – A97, A108, C6
Weitzensang – A25b , A25c
Wenzerul – B20
Werblin – A67
Werth – A85
Wheeler – A87
White – A25b A25c
Wicks – A9
Wigoder – A7
Wildman – B25
Wilkes – A55, A56, B7
Wilks – A55, A56, B7
Williams – C6
Wilson – A72
Winkler – B1
Winner – A75
Winter – B22, B23, B24
Winternitz – A73, C10
Wiseman – A65
Wittman – A81
Wix – A9
Wixman – A9
Wizanskyi – A67
Wolf – A53 ,A66 , A76 , A91 ,B22, B23 , A92, B25, C5
Wolff – A14
Wolffnender – A76
Wolfson – A67,A72
Wollman – A55, A56,B23
Woolf – A92, A98, B17, B8
Woolley – A84
Workum – B29
Wurtzman – B25
Wyatt – A84
Yach – A9
Yaroshevsky – A13
Yashvin – A87
Yates – A68
Yechie – A57
Younger – A84
Zachariah – A17, A84
Zainfeld – C12, A86
Zalic – A67
Zander – C6
Zanr – C13
Zanville – C1
Zarne – A25c
Zeiller – B1
Zemel – A48
Zev – A96
Zimbler – A24
Zimmerman – A25b, A98
Zissel – B25
Zossenheim – A80 A83, B10
Zwirn – A52
« Medieval Rabbinic Families » – A30

Found by a Jew Watch researcher. This was posted on usenet under alt.politics.nationalism.white, (ourhero, 6/20/1999, 3:07pm) –disclaimer: most seem correct but were not independently verified by www.jewwatch.com research–so be careful in using them without researching it.

[THIS IS A LIST OF THE BILLIONAIRES IN THE WORLD WHO DON'T MIND BEING LISTED IN A PUBLIC FORUM] [ALTHOUGH SOME OF MY GUESSES MAY BE WRONG AS TO WHO IS OR IS NOT JEWISH, I'D GARNER THAT THE MAJORITY OF MY GUESSES ARE CORRECT, AND THAT I HAVE MISSED A FEW ON THIS LIST TOO]

LIST OF BILLIONAIRE JEWS AND SOME NON-JEWS…
Forbes List of World’s Billionaires Sunday, June 20, 1999; 2:42 p.m. EDT
NEW YORK (AP) — The ranking of the world’s richest people as estimated by Forbes magazine, excluding dictators and royalty. Listings include name, home country, wealth in billions of dollars and source of wealth, where available.
1. Gates, William H. III, United States, 90.0, Microsoft [MARANO - HIDDEN JEW - PSEUDO-JEW]
2. Buffett, Warren, United States, 36.0, Berkshire Hathaway [MARANO - HIDDEN JEW - PSEUDO-JEW]
3. Allen, Paul, United States, 30.0, Microsoft [JEW]
4. Ballmer, Steven, United States, 19.5, Microsoft [JEW]
5. Oeri, Hoffman and Sacher families, Switzerland, 17.0, Roche pharmaceuticals [JEW]
6. Anschutz, Philip, United States, 16.5, oil, railroads, telecommunications [JEW]
7. Dell, Michael, United States, 16.5, Dell Computer [JEW]
8. Walton, Alice L., United States, 16.0, inheritance (Wal-Mart Stores)
9. Walton, Helen R., United States, 16.0, inheritance (Wal-Mart Stores)
10. Walton, Jim C., United States, 16.0, inheritance (Wal-Mart Stores)
11. Walton, John T., United States, 16.0, inheritance (Wal-Mart Stores)
12. Walton, S. Robson, United States, 15.8, Wal-Mart Stores
13. Alsaud, Prince Alwaleed Bin Talal, Saudi Arabia, 15.0, investments [CURRUPT GOY-FRONT]
14. Bettencourt, Liliane, France, 13.9, cosmetics [JEW]
15. Albrecht, Theo and Karl and family, Germany, 13.6, retailing [JEW]
16. Li Ka-shing, Hong Kong, 12.7, real estate, telecommunications, diversified
17. Haniel family, Germany, 12.4, pharmaceuticals, diversified [JEW?]
18. Engelhorn, Curt and family, Germany, 12.0, pharmaceuticals [JEW]
19. Thomson, Kenneth, Canada, 11.9, Thomson Corp
20. Lee Shau Kee, Hong Kong, 11.1, real estate
21. Moore, Gordon Earl, United States, 10.9, Intel [JEW?]
22. Anthony, Barbara Cox, United States, 10.6, inheritance (Cox Enterprises)
23. Chambers, Anne Cox, United States, 10.6, inheritance (Cox Enterprises)
24. Kluge, John, United States, 10.5, Metromedia Co. [JEW?]
25. Walker, Jay, United States, 10.2, Priceline.com
26. Bezos, Jeffrey, United States, 10.1, Amazon.com [JEW?]
27. Quandt family, Germany, 9.9, BMW
28. Mulliez, Gerard, France, 9.8, retail
29. Kwok, Walter, Thomas, Raymond, Hong Kong, 9.7, real estate
30. Ellison, Larry, United States, 9.5, Oracle
31. Rausing, Gad, Sweden, 9.0, packaging [JEW]
32. Redstone, Sumner, United States, 8.7, Viacom [JEW]
33. Schwab, Charles, United States, 8.7, discount stock brokerage [JEW]
34. Berlusconi, Silvio, Italy, 8.0, media [CURRUPT MAN AND ALL AROUND SLIME-BALL]
35. Slim Helu, Carlos, Mexico, 8.0, diversified [JEW?]
36. Omidyar, Pierre, United States, 7.8, eBay [JEW?]
37. Takei, Yasuo, Japan, 7.8, consumer finance
38. Turner, Ted, United States, 7.8, Turner Broadcasting [A WEAK-WILLED MOUSE OF A MAN AND A GOY-FRONT]
39. Kerkorian, Kirk, United States, 7.3, investments [JEW]
40. Haefner, Walter, Switzerland, 7.2, computers, cars [JEW]
41. Murdoch, Rupert, United States, 7.2, publishing [MARANO - HIDDEN JEW - OR PSEUDO-JEW]
42. Schwarz, Dieter, Germany, 7.1, retailing [JEW]
43. Boehringer family, Germany, 7.1, pharmaceuticals [JEW]
44. Olayan, Suliman, Saudi Arabia, 7.1, Olayan Investment Co. [ANOTHER SLIMEY GOY-FRONT]
45. Persson, Stefan, Sweden, 7.0, retailing
46. Rausing, Hans, Sweden, 7.0, packaging [JEW]
47. Beisheim, Otto, Germany, 6.8, retailing [JEW]
48. Saji, Keizo, Japan, 6.7, Suntory
49. Schmidt-Ruthenbeck family, Germany, 6.6, retailing [JEW?]
50. Landolt, Pierre and family, Switzerland, 6.4, Novartis [JEW?]
51. Pinault, Francois, France, 6.4, retail [JEW?]
52. SeydouxSchlumberger families, France, 6.4, diversified [JEWS]
53. Son, Masayoshi, Japan, 6.4, software
54. Arnault, Bernard, France, 6.0, luxury goods [JEW?]
55. Tsai Wan-lin and family, Taiwan, 5.9, insurance, financial services
56. Knight, Philip, United States, 5.8, Nike [A REALLY DEPRAVED HUMAN BEING WHO MAY ALSO BE A MARANO OR HIDDEN JEW]
57. Wang, Y.C., Taiwan, 5.8, Formosa Plastics
58. Otto, Michael, Germany, 5.7, retailing [JEW?]
59. Arison, Theodore (Ted), Israel, 5.6, Carnival Corp. [JEW]
60. Defforey family, France, 5.6, Carrefour
61. Haub, Erivan and family, Germany, 5.6, retailing [JEW?]
62. Woeste, Albrecht and Henkel family, Germany, 5.6, chemicals [JEWS]
63. Latsis, Spiro, Greece, 5.4, banking
64. Hopp, Dietmar and sons, Germany, 5.2, software
65. Gerling, Rolf, Germany, 5.1
66. Herz, Gunter and family, Germany, 5.1, consumer products
67. Winnick, Gary, United States, 5.1, investments
68. Arison, Micky, United States, 5.0, Carnival Cruise Lines [JEW]
69. Hewlett, William Redington, United States, 5.0, Hewlett-Packard
70. Kirch, Leo, Germany, 5.0, media [JEW]
71. Piech, Ferdinand and family, Austria, 5.0, Porsche
72. Pritzker, Robert, United States, 5.0, financier [JEW?]
73. Tschira, Klaus, Germany, 5.0
74. Flick, Friedrich Karl Jr., Germany, 4.9
75. Sainsbury family, Britain, 4.9
76. Halley, Paul-Louis and family, France, 4.8, retailing
77. Ito, Masatoshi and family, Japan, 4.8, retail
78. Kinoshita, Kyosuke, Japan, 4.8, consumer finance
79. Scott, Walter Jr., United States, 4.8, construction, telecommunications
80. Skoll, Jeffrey, United States, 4.8, eBay
81. Tsutsumi, Yoshiaki, Japan, 4.8, real estate
82. von Finck, August and family, Germany, 4.8, insurance (Allianz AG) [JEWS AND PART OF THE 'GERMAN NOBILITY']
83. Al-Kharafi, Nasser, Kuwait, 4.7, M. A. Al Kharafi & Sons [SOUL-LESS SLIMEBALLS]
84. Ricketts, J. Joe, United States, 4.7, Ameritrade
85. Wurth, Reinhold, Germany, 4.7
86. Waitt, Theodore, United States, 4.6, Gateway 2000
87. Kuok, Robert, Malaysia, 4.5, diversified
88. Langmann, Hans Joachim, Germany, 4.5, chemicals [JEW]
89. Newhouse, Donald, United States, 4.5, media [JEW]
90. Newhouse, S.I., United States, 4.5, media [JEW]
91. Sabanci, Sakip and family, Turkey, 4.5, conglomerate
92. Cheng Yu-tung, Hong Kong, 4.4, real estate
93. Hostetter, Amos Jr., United States, 4.4, Continental Cablevision
94. Lauder, Leonard A., United States, 4.4, inheritance (cosmetics) [JEW]
95. Lauder, Ronald S., United States, 4.4, cosmetics [JEW]
96. Malone, John, United States, 4.4, cable TV
97. Plattner, Hasso, Germany, 4.4, SAP [JEW]
98. Schmidheiny, Stephan, Switzerland, 4.4, ABB [JEW]
99. Bronfman, Edgar Sr., United States, 4.3, Seagram Co. [JEW]
100. Fisher, Donald, United States, 4.3, The Gap [JEW]
101. Fisher, Doris, United States, 4.3, The Gap [JEW]
102. Jahr, John and family, Germany, 4.3, publishing
103. Reimann family, Germany, 4.3
104. Shigeta, Yasumitsu, Japan, 4.3, software
105. Annenberg, Walter Hubert, United States, 4.2, publishing [JEW]
106. Johnson, Abigail, United States, 4.2, Fidelity Investments
107. McCaw, Craig, United States, 4.2, telephones
108. Perelman, Ronald, United States, 4.2, investments [JEW]
109. Filo, David, United States, 4.1, Yahoo!
110. Al-Hariri, Rafik and family, Lebanon, 4.0, construction, banking
111. Benetton, Luciano and family, Italy, 4.0, apparel
112. Mars, Forrest Sr., United States, 4.0, candy (Mars Inc.) [JEW]
113. Mars, Forrest Jr., United States, 4.0, candy (Mars Inc.) [JEW]
114. Mars, John, United States, 4.0, candy (Mars Inc.) [JEW]
115. Perot, H. Ross, United States, 4.0, electronic data management [GOY-FRONT]
116. Schickedanz family, Germany, 4.0 [JEW]
117. Soros, George, United States, 4.0, money management [JEW AND SUSPECTED MASS MURDERER]
118. Vogel, Jacqueline Mars, United States, 4.0, candy (Mars Inc.) [JEW]
119. Wang, Nina, Hong Kong, 4.0, real estate
120. Yang, Jerry, United States, 4.0, Yahoo! Inc.
121. Bertarelli, Ernesto, Switzerland, 3.9, Ares-Serono
122. Bronfman, Charles, Canada, 3.7, Seagram Co. [JEW]
123. Irving, James, Arthur and Jack, Canada, 3.7, diversified, including Irving Oil
124. Packer, Kerry, Australia, 3.7, Publishing & Broadcasting Ltd.
125. Broad, Eli, United States, 3.6, home building [JEW]
126. Dolan, Charles, United States, 3.6, cable TV [JEW]
127. Johnson, Samuel C., United States, 3.6, S.C. Johnson & Son
128. Matsuda, Kazuo, Japan, 3.6, consumer finance
129. Mori, Akira, Japan, 3.6, real estate
130. Perez Companc, Gregorio, Argentina, 3.6, conglomerate
131. Bass, Lee, United States, 3.5, oil, investments
132. Brost and Funke families, Germany, 3.5
133. Del Vecchio, Leonardo, Italy, 3.5, eyewear
134. Kamel, Saleh, Saudi Arabia, 3.5, Dallah Albaraka
135. Perenchio, A. Jerrold, United States, 3.5, television
136. Botin, Emilio and family, Spain, 3.4, banking
137. Dassault, Serge and family, France, 3.4, aviation
138. von Holtzbrinck, Dieter and family, Germany, 3.4, publishing [JEW AND MEMBERS OF 'GERMAN NOBILITY']
139. Agnelli, Giovanni and family, Italy, 3.3, autos
140. Grosvenor, Gerald Cavendish, Britain, 3.3, real estate
141. Heineken, Alfred, Netherlands, 3.3
142. Ng Teng Fong and Robert, Singapore, 3.3, real estate
143. Schmidheiny, Thomas, Switzerland, 3.3, Holderbank [JEW]
144. Ergen, Charles, United States, 3.2, EchoStar (satellite TV) [JEW]
145. Greenberg, Maurice, United States, 3.2, American International Group [JEW]
146. Huntsman, Jon Meade, United States, 3.2, plastics, chemicals [JEW]
147. Khoo Teck Puat, Singapore, 3.2, investments
148. Kwek Leng Beng, Singapore, 3.2, diversified
149. Mohn, Reinhard and family, Germany, 3.2, media
150. Sturm, Donald L., United States, 3.2, telecommunications
151. Verspieren/ Decoster family, France, 3.2 [JEWS?]
152. Bren, Donald L., United States, 3.1, real estate [JEW]
153. Kipp, Karl-Heinz, Germany, 3.1 [JEW?]
154. Lerner, Alfred, United States, 3.1, MBNA (finance) [JEW]
155. Oshima, Kenshin, Japan, 3.1, finance
156. Wrigley, William, United States, 3.1, Wrigley gum
157. Al Rajhi, Saleh bin Abdul Aziz, Saudi Arabia, 3.0, banking
158. Bass, Sid Richardson, United States, 3.0, investments
159. Goodnight, James, United States, 3.0, SAS Institute
160. Hillman, Henry Lea, United States, 3.0, industrial holdings [JEW?]
161. Iwasaki, Fukuzo, Japan, 3.0, Iwasaki Sangyo
162. Koch, Charles De Ganahl, United States, 3.0, Koch Industries [JEW]
163. Koch, David Hamilton, United States, 3.0, Koch Industries [JEW]
164. Oetker, Rudolf and family, Germany, 3.0, diversified
165. von Siemens family, Germany, 3.0 [PROBABLY MARANOS OR PSEUDO-JEWS ALSO PART OF THE 'NOBILITY']
166. Wonowidjojo family, Indonesia, 3.0, tobacco
167. Crown, Lester, United States, 2.9, diversified [JEW]
168. Ebner, Martin, Switzerland, 2.9, investments [JEW]
169. Mann, Hugo, Germany, 2.9, furniture stores, supermarkets [JEW]
170. Moller, Maersk Mc-Kinney, Denmark, 2.9, shipping
171. Moores family, Britain, 2.9
172. Sorenson, James L., United States, 2.9, medical devices
173. Buffett, Susan Thompson, United States, 2.8, Berkshire Hathaway
174. Koc, Rahmi and family, Turkey, 2.8, Koc Holding [GOY-FRONTS]
175. Kristiansen, Kjeld Kirk, Denmark, 2.8, Lego
176. Mendoza, Lorenzo and family, Venezuela, 2.8, Empresas Polar [MARANOS]
177. Premji, Azim Hasham, India, 2.8, information technology
178. Wexner, Leslie Herbert, United States, 2.8, The Limited [JEW]
179. Bass, Robert Muse, United States, 2.7, investments
180. Davis, Marvin H., United States, 2.7, investments
181. Fentener van Vlissingen family, Netherlands, 2.7, retailing, travel services
182. Hector, Hans-Werner, Germany, 2.7
183. Jacobs, Klaus, Switzerland, 2.7 [JEW]
184. Marcus, Bernard, United States, 2.7, Home Depot
185. Branson, Richard, Britain, 2.6, diversified [JEW]
186. Ermirio de Moraes, Antonio and family, Brazil, 2.6, mining, cement, pulp and paper
187. Goldschmeding, Frits, Netherlands, 2.6 [JEW WHO HAPPENS TO BE INCREDIBLY SINISTER LOOKING]
188. Hsu, Douglas and family, Taiwan, 2.6, Far Eastern Group
189. Ingram, Martha Robinson Rivers, United States, 2.6, inheritance (Ingram)
190. Itoyama, Eitaro, Japan, 2.6, Shin Nihon Kanko
191. Kamprad, Ingvar, Sweden, 2.6, Ikea
192. Naify, Robert Allen, United States, 2.6, movie theaters
193. Takenaka, Toichi and family, Japan, 2.6, construction, civil engineering
194. Ty, George, Philippines, 2.6, banking
195. Brenninkmeyer, Herman and family, Netherlands, 2.5, retailing [JEWS]
196. Faria, Dr. Aloysio de Andrade, Brazil, 2.5, banking
197. Geffen, David, United States, 2.5, entertainment [JEW]
198. Icahn, Carl Celian, United States, 2.5, investments [JEW]
199. Safra, Edmond, Lebanon, 2.5, Republic Bank [JEW]
200. Sahenk, Ayhan and family, Turkey, 2.5, Garanti Bank
201. Simplot, John R., United States, 2.5, potatoes 202. Widjaja, Eka Tjipta, Indonesia, 2.5, pulp and paper, food
203. Bin Mahfouz, Khalid, Saudi Arabia, 2.4, banking, investments
204. Kadoorie, Michael and family, Hong Kong, 2.4, family of merchants
205. Malone, Mary Alice Dorrance, United States, 2.4, inheritance (Campbell Soup)
206. Rockefeller, David Sr., United States, 2.4, investments [MARANOS AND VERY ODD PEOPLE]
207. Schoerghuber, Stefan, Germany, 2.4, services, breweries, construction, real estate [JEW]
208. Taylor, Jack Crawford, United States, 2.4, Enterprise Rent-A-Car
209. Dorrance, John T. III, Ireland, 2.3
210. Dumas, Jean-Louis and family, France, 2.3, Hermes International
211. Foriel-Destezet, Phillipe, France, 2.3, temporary help agency
212. Fukuda, Yoshitaka, Japan, 2.3, consumer finance
213. Louis-Dreyus, Gerard and family, France, 2.3, commodities trading [JEWS]
214. Mantegazza, Sergio, Switzerland, 2.3, travel services
215. Otsuka, Masahito, Japan, 2.3
216. Rocca, Roberto and family, Argentina, 2.3, diversified
217. Sy, Henry and family, Philippines, 2.3, shopping malls
218. Yamaguchi, Hisakazu and family, Japan, 2.3, manufacturing
219. Birck, Michael, United States, 2.2, Tellabs
220. David-Weill, Michel, France, 2.2, finance [JEW]
221. Haas, Peter E. Sr., United States, 2.2, inheritance (Levi Strauss) [JEW]
222. Haffa, Thomas, Germany, 2.2, media, television, merchandising [JEW]
223. Jinnai, Ryoichi, Japan, 2.2, consumer finance
224. Johnson, Edward Crosby III, United States, 2.2, Fidelity Investments
225. Magness, Gary, United States, 2.2, inheritance (Tele-Communications)
226. Mays, L. Lowry, United States, 2.2, Clear Channel
227. Oppenheimer, Nicky and family, South Africa, 2.2, Anglo American Corp., DeBeers [JEWS AND EXCEPTIONALLY BAD GUYS...]
228. Rowling, Robert, United States, 2.2, oil and gas
229. Schmid, Gerhard, Germany, 2.2, MobilCom AG
230. Tan, Lucio, Philippines, 2.2, tobacco, airlines, beer
231. Azcarraga Jean, Emilio and family, Mexico, 2.1, media
232. Dorrance, Bennett, United States, 2.1, inheritance (Campbell Soup)
233. Garza Laguera, Eugenio and family, Mexico, 2.1, beverages, banking
234. Hunt, Ray Lee, United States, 2.1, investments
235. Johnson, Barbara Piasecka, United States, 2.1, inheritance (Johnson & Johnson)
236. Romo Garza, Alfonso, Mexico, 2.1, Empresas La Moderna
237. Wertheimer, Alain, France, 2.1, luxury goods [JEW]
238. Zambrano, Lorenzo and family, Mexico, 2.1, cement
239. Andre, Henri and Eric, Switzerland, 2.0, commodity trading
240. Bloomberg, Michael Rubens, United States, 2.0, Bloomberg Financial Markets [JEW]
241. Bombardier family, Canada, 2.0
242. Bringas, Ricardo Martin and family, Mexico, 2.0, retailing
243. Cisneros, Gustavo and family, Venezuela, 2.0, beverages, media [MARANOS?]
244. Getty, Gordon Peter, United States, 2.0, inheritance (oil)
245. Ho, Stanley, Hong Kong, 2.0, casinos, transport, hotels
246. Lim Goh Tong, Malaysia, 2.0, diversified
247. Lucas, George, United States, 2.0, motion pictures [MARANO OR JUST A VERY DEPRAVED GOY-FRONT]
248. Saba Raffoul, Isaac, Mexico, 2.0, textiles, chemicals, real estate
249. Thurn und Taxis family, Germany, 2.0
250. Thyssen-Bornemisza, Hans Heinrich, Switzerland, 2.0
251. Tisch, Preston Robert, United States, 2.0, Loews [JEW]
252. Arango, Jeronimo, Mexico, 1.9
253. Johnson, Charles Bartlett, United States, 1.9, Franklin Resources
254. Kroc, Joan Beverly, United States, 1.9, McDonald’s
255. Mittal, Lakshmi N., India, 1.9, steel
256. Ofer, Yuli and Sammy, Israel, 1.9, Ofer Brothers Group
257. Oppenheim, Alfred von, Germany, 1.9, banking [JEW]
258. Rothschild family, France/Britain, 1.9, Rothschilds Continuation Holdings [JEWS]
259. Soares dos Santos, Eliseo Alexandre, Portugal, 1.9, retailing
260. Swire, Sir Adrian and family, Hong Kong, 1.9, aviation, real estate, diversified
261. Tisch, Laurence Alan, United States, 1.9, Loews
262. Udvar-hazy, Steven Ferencz, United States, 1.9, International Lease Finance
263. Weston, W. Galen, Canada, 1.9, retailing
264. Yoshida, Tadahiro and family, Japan, 1.9, zippers
265. Batten, Frank, United States, 1.8, media [JEWS?]
266. Bosch family, Germany, 1.8
267. Chen Din Hwa, Hong Kong, 1.8, real estate
268. Chung Ju-yung and family, South Korea, 1.8, automobiles, diversified
269. Davidson, William Morse, United States, 1.8, Guardian Industries
270. Del Pino, Rafael, Spain, 1.8, construction
271. Farmer, Richard T., United States, 1.8, Cintas
272. Fok, Henry, Hong Kong, 1.8, casinos, real estate, hotels
273. Galvin, Robert William, United States, 1.8, Motorola
274. Helmsley, Leona, United States, 1.8, real estate [MARANO - HIDDEN JEW]
275. Kampf, Serge, France, 1.8, computer services [JEW]
276. Koo, Jeffrey and family, Taiwan, 1.8, banking, diversified
277. Lee Kun-hee and family, South Korea, 1.8, electronics, diversified
278. Lowy, Frank, Australia, 1.8, Westfield Holdings [JEW]
279. Marinho, Roberto and family, Brazil, 1.8, media
280. McCombs, Billy Joe (Red), United States, 1.8, auto dealerships, radio
281. Zobel de Ayala, Jaime Augusto II, Philippines, 1.8, real estate, diversified [MARANO]
282. Allen, Herbert A. Jr., United States, 1.7, investment banking [JEW]
283. Blocher, Christoph, Switzerland, 1.7, EMS Chemie [JEW]
284. Carlson, Curtis Leroy, United States, 1.7, trading stamps, hotels
285. Lauren, Ralph, United States, 1.7, Ralph Lauren
286. Lefrak, Samuel Jayson, United States, 1.7, real estate
287. March, Juan and Carlos, Spain, 1.7, investments
288. O’Reilly, Anthony, Ireland, 1.7, Heinz, Waterford
289. Robertson, Julian H. Jr., United States, 1.7, investments
290. Stempel, Ernest E., United States, 1.7, American International Group [JEW]
291. Stern, Leonard Norman, United States, 1.7, real estate [JEW]
292. Suharto family, Indonesia, 1.7, investments
293. Zell, Samuel, United States, 1.7, real estate [JEW]
294. Al Ghurair, Abdul Aziz, UAE, 1.6, banking
295. Angelini, Anacleto, Chile, 1.6
296. Camargo, Dirce Navarro de, Brazil, 1.6
297. Case, Steve, United States, 1.6, America Online
298. Clark, James H., United States, 1.6, Internet investments
299. Fortabat, Amalia Lacroze de, Argentina, 1.6, cement
300. Frere, Baron Albert, Belgium, 1.6, investments
301. Glaser, Robert D., United States, 1.6, RealNetworks [JEW]
302. Hall, Donald Joyce, United States, 1.6, inheritance (Hallmark Cards)
303. Hamilton, Dorrance Hill, United States, 1.6, inheritance (Campbell Soup)
304. Hearst, Randolph Apperson, United States, 1.6, inheritance (Hearst media)
305. Huizenga, Harry Wayne, United States, 1.6, garbage, automobiles, video
306. Kokkalis, Socrates, Greece, 1.6, electrical equipment for PTT
307. Morgridge, John P., United States, 1.6, Cisco Systems
308. Naify, Marshall, United States, 1.6, movie theaters
309. Pratt, Richard, Australia, 1.6
310. Rales, Mitchell, United States, 1.6, Danaher Corp.
311. Rales, Steven, United States, 1.6, Danaher Corp.
312. Rothermere, Lord, Britain, 1.6
313. Sarmiento, Luis Carlos, Colombia, 1.6
314. Schmidt, Karl, Germany, 1.6, banking, brokerage
315. Spangler, Clemmie Dixon Jr., United States, 1.6, investments [JEW]
316. Spielberg, Steven Allen, United States, 1.6, entertainment [JEW]
317. Stephens, Jackson Thomas, United States, 1.6, investment banking
318. Uehara, Shoji, Japan, 1.6
319. Wang, Patrick, Hong Kong, 1.6, micromotor manufacturer
320. Weston, Garry and family, Britain, 1.6, Associated British Foods
321. Azevedo, Belmiro, Portugal, 1.5
322. Bechtel, Riley P., United States, 1.5, Bechtel [JEW]
323. Bechtel, Stephen Davison Jr., United States, 1.5, Bechtel [JEW]
324. Bezos, Miguel A., United States, 1.5, Amazon.com
325. Booth, Franklin Otis Jr., United States, 1.5, Berkshire Hathaway
326. Chang Yung Fa, Taiwan, 1.5
327. Devos, Richard M., United States, 1.5, Amway
328. Flinn, Lawrence Jr., United States, 1.5, United Video Satellite Corp.
329. Fujita, Den, Japan, 1.5
330. Gonda, Louis L., United States, 1.5, International Lease Finance
331. Johnson, Rupert Jr., United States, 1.5, Franklin Resources
332. Liebherr family, Switzerland, 1.5 [JEW]
333. Luksic, Andronico and family, Chile, 1.5
334. McCain, Harrison and family, Canada, 1.5
335. McGovern, Patrick Joseph, United States, 1.5, IDG
336. Nicholas, Peter M., United States, 1.5, medical devices
337. Pohlad, Carl, United States, 1.5, banking
338. Sall, John, United States, 1.5, SAS Institute
339. Sarofim, Fayez Shalaby, United States, 1.5, money management
340. Schroder, Bruno, Britain, 1.5
341. Takizaki, Takemitsu, Japan, 1.5
342. Washington, Dennis, United States, 1.5, mining, railroads
343. Woo, Peter, Hong Kong, 1.5
344. Yamauchi, Hiroshi, Japan, 1.5
345. Abele, John E., United States, 1.4, medical devices [JEW?]
346. Adams, Richard L., United States, 1.4, UUNET
347. Aramburuzabala, Maria Asuncion, Mexico, 1.4
348. Bamford, Anthony, Britain, 1.4
349. Blank, Arthur, United States, 1.4, Home Depot [JEW]
350. Fisher, John J., United States, 1.4, inheritance (The Gap) [JEW]
351. Ford, William Clay, United States, 1.4, Ford Motor
352. Fribourg, Michel, United States, 1.4, Continental Grain [JEW]
353. Goldman, Richard N., United States, 1.4, inheritance (Levi Strauss) [JEW]
354. Gonda, Leslie L., United States, 1.4, International Lease Finance [JEW]
355. Hayek, Nicolas, Switzerland, 1.4
356. Jobs, Steven Paul, United States, 1.4, Apple Computer [JEW?]
357. Littlefield, Edmund Wattis, United States, 1.4, Utah International
358. Mabuchi, Kenichi, Japan, 1.4
359. Marriott, Richard Edwin, United States, 1.4, Marriott hotels
360. Mellon, Paul, United States, 1.4, inheritance
361. Munger, Charles, United States, 1.4, Berkshire Hathaway
362. Nambu, Yasuyuki, Japan, 1.4
363. Peralta, Carlos, Mexico, 1.4
364. Rockefeller, Laurance Spelman, United States, 1.4, investments [MARANOS]
365. Ryan, Patrick George, United States, 1.4, insurance
366. Salinas Pliego, Richardo, Mexico, 1.4 [MARANO]
367. Simmons, Harold Clark, United States, 1.4, investments [JEW]
368. Van Beuren, Hope Hill, United States, 1.4, inheritance (Campbell Soup)
369. Wang, Charles B., United States, 1.4, Computer Associates
370. Weber, Charlotte Colket, United States, 1.4, inheritance (Campbell Soup) [JEW (MARRIED TO ONE)]
371. Ardila Lulle, Carlos, Colombia, 1.3
372. Asper, Israel, Canada, 1.3
373. Bass, Perry Richardson, United States, 1.3, investments
374. Bozano, Julio, Brazil, 1.3
375. Busujima, Kunio, Japan, 1.3
376. Ebbers, Bernard J., United States, 1.3, MCI Worldcom
377. Fukutake, Soichiro, Japan, 1.3
378. Hilti, Michael, Lichtenstein, 1.3
379. Hughes, Bradley Wayne, United States, 1.3, Public Storage Inc.
380. Koplowitz, Esther, Spain, 1.3 [JEW]
381. Lewis, Peter Benjamin, United States, 1.3, Progressive Corp. [JEW]
382. Lindemann, George L., United States, 1.3, cable TV, cellular telephones [JEW]
383. McCaw, Bruce R., United States, 1.3, telephones
384. McCaw, John Elroy Jr., United States, 1.3, telephones
385. McCaw, Keith W., United States, 1.3, telephones
386. Morita, Akio, Japan, 1.3
387. Nakajima, Kenichi, Japan, 1.3
388. Osano, Masakuni, Japan, 1.3
389. Pattison, Jim, Canada, 1.3
390. Rupert, Johann, South Africa, 1.3
391. Smith, Ollen Bruton, United States, 1.3, Speedway Motorsports
392. Troutt, Kenny A., United States, 1.3, Excel Communications [JEW?]
393. Van Andel, Jay, United States, 1.3, Amway
394. Waitt, Norman W., United States, 1.3, Gateway 2000
395. Ambani, Dhirubai, India, 1.2
396. Bass, Edward Perry, United States, 1.2, investments
397. Burkle, Ronald, United States, 1.2, supermarkets [JEW]
398. Butt, Charles C., United States, 1.2, grocery stores
399. Dedman, Robert Henry, United States, 1.2, country clubs
400. Egan, Richard J., United States, 1.2, EMC
401. Field, Frederick Woodruff, United States, 1.2, media 402. Freudenberg family, Germany, 1.2, manufacturing [JEW]
403. Gates, Charles Cassius Jr., United States, 1.2, Gates Corp.
404. Goizueta, Roberto Crispulo, United States, 1.2, inheritance
405. Haindl family, Germany, 1.2
406. Kuo, Terry, Taiwan, 1.2
407. Lin, Barry, Taiwan, 1.2
408. Marshall, E. Pierce, United States, 1.2, oil
409. Matte, Eliodoro, Chile, 1.2
410. McCaw, Wendy, United States, 1.2, divorce
411. Merckle, Adolf, Germany, 1.2
412. Nadar, Shiv, India, 1.2
413. Noboa, Alvaro, Ecuador, 1.2
414. Rainwater, Richard Edward, United States, 1.2, investments
415. Rich, Robert Edward Sr., United States, 1.2, Rich Products Corp. [JEW?]
416. Rogers, Edward (Ted), Canada, 1.2
417. Simon family, Germany, 1.2
418. Taubman, A. Alfred, United States, 1.2, real estate
419. Taylor, Glen, United States, 1.2, printing
420. Toyoda, Shoichiro, Japan, 1.2
421. Tyson, Donald John, United States, 1.2, Tyson Foods
422. Ueltschi, Albert Lee, United States, 1.2, Flight Safety
423. Ziff, Daniel Morton, United States, 1.2, investments [JEW]
424. Ziff, Dirk Edward, United States, 1.2, investments [JEW]
425. Ziff, Robert David, United States, 1.2, investments [JEW]
426. Anselmo, Mary, United States, 1.1, PanAmSat
427. Arrillaga, John, United States, 1.1, real estate
428. Birla, Kumar Mangalam, India, 1.1
429. Chace, Malcolm Green III, United States, 1.1, inheritance
430. Chearavanont, Dhanin, Thailand, 1.1, agribusiness (CP Group)
431. Cook, William Alfred, United States, 1.1, catheters
432. Diehl, Karl and family, Germany, 1.1
433. Diniz, Abilio and family, Brazil, 1.1
434. Emmerson, Archie Aldis (Red), United States, 1.1, Sierra Pacific
435. Lee Hon Chiu, Hong Kong, 1.1
436. Rochling family, Germany, 1.1
437. Santo Domingo, Julio Mario, Colombia, 1.1
438. Stroeher family, Germany, 1.1
439. Al-Fahim, Mohammed, United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi), 1.0
440. Champalimaud, Antonio, Portugal, 1.0
441. Cutrale, Jose and family, Brazil, 1.0
442. Ecclestone, Bernie, Britain, 1.0
443. Fisher, Robert J. , United States, 1.0, inheritance (The Gap) [JEW]
444. Ford, Josephine, United States, 1.0, inheritance (Ford Motor)
445. Godrej, Adi, India, 1.0
446. Goldsbury, Christopher, United States, 1.0, salsa [JEW]
447. Golisano, B. Thomas, United States, 1.0, payroll services (Paychex)
448. Hartono, Budi and family, Indonesia, 1.0, tobacco
449. Heraeus family, Germany, 1.0, diversified
450. Hinduja brothers, India, 1.0
451. Kimmel, Sidney, United States, 1.0, apparel [JEW]
452. Knauf family, Germany, 1.0, construction materials
453. Koplowitz, Alicia, Spain, 1.0 [JEW]
454. Lee family, Singapore, 1.0
455. Lewis, Joseph, Britain, 1.0 [JEW]
456. Liem Sioe Liong, Indonesia, 1.0
457. Said, Jamie and Jose, Chile, 1.0
458. Schneider, Donald, United States, 1.0, trucking [JEW]
459. Sidhu, Sanjiv, United States, 1.0, software
460. Sobrato, John Anthony, United States, 1.0, real estate
461. Tiong Hiew King, Malaysia, 1.0
462. Vidigal, Gaston, Brazil, 1.0
463. Werhahn family, Germany, 1.0, diversified [JEW]
464. Yeoh, Francis, Malaysia, 1.0
465. Zuckerman, Mortimer, United States, 1.0, real estate, media [JEW]
Copyright 1999 The Associated Press

Jews on Stage, Screen, Musicians, Artists, Etc.

Stage, Screen, Musicians, Artists, Writers, etc…

Allen, Woody – Comedian, Actor, Director, Producer (real name: Allan Konigsberg)
Avital, Mili – Israeli actress (extremely beautiful), U.S. debut: Stargate
Beck – Musician
Berlin, Irving – Composer of « White Christmas »
Biafra, Jello (Singer of American HC punk band Dead Kennedys)
Bialik, Mayim – Actress (Blossom)
Borgnine, Ernst (Effron Borgnine) – an actor
Brooks, Albert – Actor, Director (real name: Albert Einstein)
Brooks, Mel – Actor, Director, Comedian, Writer
Bullock, Sandra – actress [Jewish?]
Cantor, Eddie – Vaudeville Singer, Dancer
Cass, « Mama » (Liz Cohen) – an actress
Cherry, Ruben (A man who raised Elvis in public)
Chessler, Deborah (Shirley Reingold)
Chomsky, Naom – an American philosopher
Cohen, Leonard — Bohemian Song Writer
Crystal, Billy – Actor, Comedian
Davis, Jr., Sammy – Black Singer, Actor, Dancer (died)
DeCarlo, Joe – Comedian
DeNero, Robert – Actor [Jewish Mother]
Deutscher, Isaac – an author (biography of « Stalin »)
Dreyfuss, Richard (Oscar Winning Actor)
Duchovny, David – Co-star of the hit show The X-Files
Duritz, Adam lead singer/songwriter for Counting Crows
Dylan, Bob – Musician
Escher, M. C. – Artist, Explorer of the Infinite
Feuer, Aaron Neal – wrestler, talmud scholar, debate champ
Ford, Harrison – Actor (Jewish Mom, see interviews in cosmopolitan/playboy)
Frankel, Mark – Actor
Freed, Alan (first radio star in 50´s to play Rock n’ Roll)
Geller, Sarah Michelle – Actress (Buffy the Vampire Slayer TV)
Geller, Rudy – Magician who Bends Spoons & Levitates Objects
Gershwin, George – composer (Rhapsody in Blue)
Goldblum, Jeff – Actor
Goldwyn, Samuel – Director, Executive at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Gordon, Tony (Manager UK punk band Sham 69)
Gere, Richard – Actor
Gifford, Cathy Lee Epstein – Talk Show Hostess
Himmelman, Peter – Musician (and son-in-law to B. Dylan)
Hoffmann, Gaby
Keitel, Harvey (Actor: Pulp Fiction, The Piano, etc)
Kirschner, Mia – Actress/Exotica
Knopfler, Mark – Dire Straits
Jeremy, Ron – Porn Star
Joel, Billy – Musician, Winnner of Grammy Awards
Jolsen, Al – Singer, Mummer, Cantor
Klein, Calvin – Fashion Designer
Lee, Michelle – Actress – Knots Landing
Louis, Julia – Actress
Marcell, Bibi – Klezmer Singer extraordinaire
Marley, Bob – Reggae Artist (father was Jewish, mother negro)
Martins, Luciano Costa – brazilian musician (mother mulatta, father indian/jewish)
Marx, Groucho – Comedian
Marx, Harpo – Comedian
Mayer, Louis B. – Founder & Director at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Meyers, Ari – Actress / Kate and Allie
Minelli, Liza – Singer/Actress
Neuwirth, Bebe – Lilith on Cheers
Newman, Paul – Actor
Newton John, Olivia – Australian Pop Singer
Nimoy, Leonard – Actor (Star Trek’s ‘Spock’)
Owens, Ronn – San Francisco/Los Angeles Talk Show Host
Patinkin, Mandy – Actor (Chicago Hope)
Peck, Gregory – an actor
Perlman, Itzhak – World-Renowned Violinist
Portman, Natalie – actress
Raffi – childrens’ entertainer
Reiser, Paul – Mad About You
Reudor – Cartoonist,author, creator of comic strip and books featuring The Doodle Family
Rhodes, Bernie (the first manager of The Clash)
Richards, Michael – Seinfeld
Rivera, Geraldo – Talk Show Host
Roth, David Lee – Van Halen Rocker
Ryder, Winona – Actress
Savalas, Telly – an actor (died)
Sandler, Adam – Comedian
Schlessinger, Dr. Laura – radio therapist
Seagal, Steven – action movie star, Under Siege, etc.
Seinfeld, Jerry – Comedian
Server, Josh – actor on the show All That
Seymour, Jane – Actress (father is Jewish)
Shatner, William – Actor (Star Trek’s Captain ‘James T. Kirk’)
Shiraz – Israeli supermodel(pic on top model directory)
Shue, Andrew – Actor (Melrose Place)
Silver, Josh (keyboard player in goth metal band Type-O-Negative)
Silverstone, Alicia – Actress, Clueless Star
Simon, Paul – Musician
Sioux, Siouxie (female singer of British punk/goth band Siouxie & Banshees)
Singer, Isaac Bashevis – Writer (Yiddish)
Slash – Guitarist in Guns and Roses (Saul Hudson)
Smith, Raphael – Composer and Scriptwriter (‘Search for Bokkie Rosenthal’)
Sondheim, Stephen – Broadway lyricist/composer
Spacek, Sissy – an actress
Spielberg, Steven – Director
Sprinkle, Annie – Porn star and performance artist
Spungen, Nancy (girlfriend of Sex Pistols´s basist Sid Vicious) (died)
Steinman, Jim – Composer for Meat Loaf, Bonnie Tyler, Celine Dion
Stern, Howard – king of all media
Stewart, Jon – Comedian
Streisand, Barbara – director, singer, producer
Ustinov, Peter – an actor
Williams, Robin – Actor (Said he was Jewish on « Oprah »)
Yetnikoff, Walter (ex-manager of Michael Jackson)
Zuehra Elfassia – Famous Singer – Morocco
Mel Brooks – Actor, Director, Producer
Jacob Freedman — WBZC’s Sunday Morning Klezmer DJ
Iggy Pop, musician
Julianna Margulies – ER Actress
Lisa Kudrow – TV Star-Friends
Geddy Lee –lead singer and bass player of the band Rush
Lauren Bacall – Actress
Jeff Chandler – Actor
Lori Beth Denberg – actress on the show All That
Harvey Fierstein – actor, writer
Claude Berri – French film director
Bruce Boxleitner – actor
Joey Ramone – Lead singer of the Ramones
Noah Wyle – actor, E.R
Ofra Haza – Israeli Singer
Eddie Vedder – lead voaclist for Pearl Jam
Ellen Barkin – Actress
Lisa Bonet – ex-wife of Lenny Kravitz
Danny Kaye – philanthropist, song-and-dance man
DINAH SHORE- SINGER — FATHER WAS RABBI
Jack Benny (Benjamin Kubelsky – real name)
Lou Reed – Musician
Paul Stanley – singer/guitarist player for Kiss, real name Stanley Eisen
Scott Wolf – Party of Five
Dominika Peczynski – TV star (Dominikas Planet), member of Swedish dance band Army Of
Lovers (Crucified, Isrealism)
Henry Winkler – Actor (‘The Fonze’ on ‘Happy Days’)
Bob Hopskins – Roger Rabitt, Cotton Club, ex-kibbutznik
Fat Mike – Singer, guitarist and songwriter for NOFX
Pat Benatar – famous singer
Yasmine Bleeth – actress (father Jewish)
Alan Rickman – Actor (Sense and Sensibility, Die Hard, Robin Hood Prince Of Thieves)
David Oistrakh – Violinist
Gene Wilder – Actor
Debbie Friedman – songwriter and singer
Gary Dell’Abate – Howard Stern’s Producer (Baba Booey!)
Brian Austin Green -
Elizabeth Shue – Karate Kid, Back to the Future II & III, Leaving Las Vegas, The Saint, etc…
Mordechai Richler – Famous Montreal writer
Jerry Walker – Disc Jockey, ABC Radio Network
Shemp Howard (Horowitz) one of the Three Stooges
Rita Hayworth (Rita Cansino) Source: Debrett’s Goes to Hollywood (Cansino family Spanish
Sephardim)
Walter Matthau – Comedian, actor
Stepfanie Kramer – actress /Hunter
Uri Geller – Spoon-bending Magician
Kirk Douglas – Actor
Jean-Pierre Barda – actor, TV star member of Swedish dance band Army Of Lovers (Crucified,
Isrealism)
Elie Weisel – Author and Nobel Laureate
Pauly Shore – actor
Rodney Dangerfield – Comedian, Actor, real name Jack Cohen
Lenny Bruce – comic
Sarah Jessica Parker – Actress
Elvis Presley – Jewish maternal grandparent
(Jerome) Curly Howard (Horowitz) – one of the Stooges
Dinah Manoff – actress\empty nest
Mike Diamond – Musician (Beastie Boys)
Chaim Goldberg – World renowned artist of the Shtetl Culture. see site
Melanie Chartoff – actress
Sara Silverman – commedienne
Sophie Marceau – french actress Braveheart daughter of Marcel
Howie Mandel – Comedian
Carrie Fisher – Actress: Star Wars’ Princess Leia
Phil Ochs – Topical Folk Singer of ‘s
Howard Ashman – lyricist Little Shop of Horrors, Disney animated features
Debra Winger – Actress
Clare Carey – actress, coach
Kevin Kline – Actor, Best Supporting Oscar in A Fish Called Wanda
Lenny Kravitz – singer, guitarist
Harry Houdini – World’s Most Famous Magician and Escape Artist
Neil Diamond – Musician, Singer, Actor
Morie Amsterdam
Dustin Hoffman – Actor
Barry Horowitz: real name, professional wrestler in the WWF & WCW
Goldberg: name: Bill Goldberg, professional wrestler, WCW Champion
Raven: name: Scott Levy, professional wrestler, former WCW Champion
Dean Malenko, professional wrestler, former WCW champion
Jon Lovitz – Actor, comedian (Saturday Night Live, The Critic)
Isaac Asimov – world famous sci-fi writer
Susanna Hoffs – Singer in the Bangles
DiDi Conn – Actress
Christine Lakin – Step by Step
Herman Wouk – Author of War and Rememberance and other great epic novels
Gilda Radner – Comedian, Saturday Night Live
Jason Alexander — Actor (George Castanza on ‘Seinfeld’)
Joseph Gordon – Levitt – actor on rd Rock From The Sun
Bette Midler – Actress/Singer
Michael Landon – Little House On The Prairie (Eugene Orowitz – real name)
Al Jolson – Singer, actor
Paula Prentiss – actress Jewish?
Robert Redford – Actor. Describes himself as ‘half Jewish’.
Alan Jay Lerner – Lyricist (My Fair Lady)
Leslie Ann Warren – Actress Jewish?
Jonathan Silverman – actor/single guy
Marc Chagall – Painter, visual artist, Other site
David Harari- Bunghole Extradorinaire
Boris Karloff
Gene Simmons – singer/bass player for Kiss Israeli/Turkish, real name Haim Witz (or Gene
Klein?)
Jeremy Priven? – actor on Ellen
Joan Collins – Actress and Socialite Jewish?
Jerry Lewis – Comedian, Actor, Director
Gilbert Gottfried – Comedian
Jonny Clegg – South african musician Jaluka and Savuka
Hank Azaria – Cartoon voices in Simpsons and starred in Birdcage
Gilad Gelfond and David Cygielman- Rappers
Michael Jackson – ABC Talk Radio Host
Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. – actor
Larry Fine – one of the Three Stooges
David Janssen – actor
Jakob Dylan – lead singer of The Wallflowers and son of the great Bob Dylan
Don Diamont – actor Young and Restless
Irving Berlin — songwriter & writer of musicals (God Bless America, White Christmas, There’s
No Business Like Show Business)
Marcel Marceau – Famous French mime
John Banner – Actor (Schultz from Hogan’s Heroes) Jewish?
Aaron Lebedev – famous Yiddish singer and actor
MAX FELIX-ACTOR AND RADIO PERSONALITY-ARGENTINA
George Burns – Comedian, Actor (Real name: nathan birnbaum)
Randy Newman – Composer performer (‘Toy Story’ soundtrack)
Heddy Lamarr- actress, Delilah in Samson and…
Isaac Stern – Famous Violinist
TORI SPELLING
Jan Murray – comedian
David Helfcott – Musican
Roberta Peters – singer Metropolitan Opera
Goldie Hawn
Lawrence Hershon- little in the middle but he got much back
Allan Sherman – Singer/songwriter, humorist
Jamie Gertz — actress
Harpo Marx – Comedian (Marx Brothers)
Lorraine Bracco – Actress (Goodfellas)
Brett Gurewitz – owner of Epitaph records and former guitarist for Bad Religion
diane venora – chicago hope
Bruno Walter – German conductor and student of Gustav Mahler. Had to change his name.
Giselle Fernandez (mother is Jewish)
Jenna Leigh Green – actress on Sabrina The Teenage Witch
Robert Goulet-Singer (Real Name: Robert Applebaum)
Naomi Shemer — composer to Yerushalayim shel zahav
Stuttering John Melendezbaum – He looks as good as he talks!
Jeff Goldman – actor
katey segal – actress/singer married w/children
Neil Gaiman – Author (Sandman, Neverwhere)
Adam Sandler – Comedian/Actor
Isaac Mizrahi – Fashion Designer
Brooke Langton – actress (Samantha on Melrose Place)
Leonard Bernstein — composer (West Side Story)
Peter Riegert – actor, Crossing Delancey
Gina Gershon – actress/Showgirls
Joel Grey – Broadway Actor (Emcee, Cabaret)
Joy Division (at least Peter Hook, Stephen Morris and Bernard Sumner, Ian Curtis?)
Ed Asner, Mr. Grant on The Mary Tyler Moore Show
Dennis Prager – radio talk host, essayist, moralist
Jerry Springer – Talk show host
Kenny G – Musician
Steve Lawrence – singer, skeptic, husband of Edie Gorme
Jonathan Taylor Thomas – real name Jonathan Weiss
Zero Mostel, actor, comedian, painter
Stephen Schwartz — lyricist/composer
Richard Dreyfus – Actor
Jamie Luner – actress she was on the show Savannah
Jessica Tandy – actress, Driving Miss Daisy
Ari Telch, mexican actor
Joe Cocker – famous singer israeli/german
Barry Manilow – Musician, Singer
Beverly Sills – Opera Star(Real name: Beverly Silberman)
Theodore Bikel – actor / Fiddler on the Roof
Kathie Lee Gifford – (father was Jewish Epstien)
Sonia Benezra – Quebecer Talk Show host
Swoozie Kurtz – actress/Sisters Jewish?
The Greaseman (Doug Tracht) Nationally known radio shock jock
Shel Silverstein Children’s author
Sandy Becker – late children’s TV show host
melissa gilbert – actress
Jeff Beck – Guitarist
Louise Rainer-fine actress s and s
Amy Irving – actress
steven weber – actor (wings)
Dorothy Lamour – Actress
Michael T. Weiss – TV actor (The Pretender)
David Geffen – Dreamworks, Owns Geffen Records ( Israeli )
Donald Fagen – Steely Dan singer/composer
Nina Gordon – Musician, Veruca Salt
Moe Howard – one of the Three Stooges
Roseanne Barr – Comedian
Nelly Sachs – poet, Noble prize in literature
Stanley Kubrick- Director of  » and ‘A Clockwork Orange’
Elliot Gould – Actor from Bay Parkway Brooklyn
Jeffrey Meyer – Yankee Hero
Suzanne Pleshette-Costar of The Bob Newhart Show
Fran Drescher – Actress (from The Nanny)
Julie Kavner – actress, voice of Marge Simpson
Effi – Israeli Hot Head ( MTV’s Road Rules)
Joan Rivers – Comedian/writer/jeweler/actress
Scott Simon – host NPR’s Saturday Weekend Edition, broadcast journalist
Rhea Perlman – Actress
Mara Wilson – child actress in Miracle on th St, Mrs. Doubtfire
Jim Bradley – Dog Trainer
Alan King – CNN king of talk
Barry Levinson – ‘Diner’ Director
Melissa Joan Hart- Mother’s father devout orthodox Jew
Ken Wahl – Wiseguy star Jewish?
Jerry Herman – Composer of Hello Dolly!
Larry Adler – world famous harmonica player
Lorne Green – Bonaza star
Dan Blocker – actor, Bonanza
Fred Astaire (Fredrik Austerlitz – real name) Jewish?
Peter Sellers – Actor,Comedian
Ron Silver – Actor/Director
Perry Farrel – ne Bernstein. Musician, Porno for Pyros
Stan Getz – Jazz Saxophonist
Roman Polanski – Director
Super Dave Osborne – Comedian. Real name: Bob Einstein.
Tom Arnold – actor
Maury Chaykin – Actor -
Molly Ringwald – Brat Pack Actress
Jenna Von Oy — actress who played six on blossom Jewish?
Paula Abdul – famous singer (Mother is French canadian Jew)
Phoebe Snow – Singer
Lorne Michaels – T.V. Producer (created Saturday Night Live)
michael mills (born Milstein) – cellist, brain surgeon, comedian, petty bureaucrat
David Copperfield – Magician
Lacey Chabert – actress on Party of Five
Barry Sisters – famous Jewish duet
Werner Klemperer (Klink on Hogan’s Heroes, son of Otto K.)
Mel Blanc – Best-Known Cartoon Voices
Monty Hall – game show host
Soupy Sales – comedian
Leslie Howard – British actor, in Gone With The Wind, Killed as Pilot in WWII for Britain
Jo Amar – Famous Singer – Morocco
Tony Curtis (Bernard Schwartz – real name)
Pinky Lee(Pincas Levy)–Children Entertainer of the ‘s
Marc Bolan (Marc Feld) – UK singer: T. Rex Frontman
Sally Jessy Raphael-T.V. talk show hostess, (real last name: Lowenthal)
Marla Sokoloff – actress
Richard Beymer – ‘West Side Story’ – actor
Geena Davis – actress
Jonathan Larson-composer (Rent)
Ira Gershwin — lyricist
Matt Lauer – NBC Today Show
Richard Avedon – Photographer
Brent Spiner – Data character on Star Trek Next Generation
Zeppo Marx – Comedian (Marx Brothers)
Matthew Broderick – Actor. Jewish Mom
Yehudi Menuhin, world class Violonist
Tim Burton – Brilliant Director
brian bloom – actor
Michael Bolton – Singer
Art Garfunkel – Musician
Bruce Springsteen – singer/songwriter (Dutch/Jewish) evidence anyone?
Beatrice Arthur – Actress (Dorothy, Golden Girls)
Hillel Slovak – Late guitarist for Red Hot Chili Peppers
Victor Borge (Borge Rosenbaum) Pianist and Humourist
Mike Wallace – Television journalist
joey slotnick – actor/single guy
Joe T Turri – Famous NY house music producer
Harry Reems- ‘Big’ porn star of the ‘s
Cindy Margolis- Model and Cyberpinup
Fyvush Finkel – Actor/Entertainer – Picket Fences
Jennifer Grey – Actress (Baby, Dirty Dancing)
justine bateman – actress
clio goldsmith actress
Totie Fields – comedienne
Bernie Bernstein – Musician, Punk Band,’Hector’
Matityahu Glazerson – Author of Mystical Books/Composer
Dinah Shore – singer and TV star
Marat Galperin – athlete, entertainer, and regulator.
Wolf Blitzer – CNN Journalist
Peter Lorre – ne Ladislav Loewenstein, Actor
Ben Stiller – Actor/Director
craig t. nelson actor-coach
Yaasha Heifitz – Famous Violinist
Robby Benson Robert Segal-actor/director
Giora Fiedman – klezmer musician
Richard Kaufman (Ricky The K) – Disc Jockey
Brody Stevens – Comedian and Cable Access TV host in Seattle
Judd Nelson – Actor, Suddenly Susan, The Breakfast Club
Tina Louise – Actress (Gilligan’s ‘Ginger’ – origin of the Hebrew word ‘Jinji’)
larry david writer-producer
Keith Moon – The Who ( Reputedly Jewish )
james spader – actor Jewish?
Elsa Morante, Italian author
Barbara Walters – US television broadcaster
Irwin Chusid- Writer, Record Producer, Radio Personality and Bon Vivant
donna karan – designer
Lawrence Harvey – born Skikne – actor
Judy Kuhn – Broadway Actress (Voice of Pocahontes)
Danielle Harris – Actress
sara gilbert actress-roseanne
patricia wettig – actress-thirtysomething
Leah Remini – actress , sitcom Fired Up
Ricki Lake – talk show hostess
Steven Spielberg – producer, director
Andrew Norden – Pre-Medical lover of women
John Garfield – actor
melanie mayron – thirtysomething
Pinchas Zuckerman — violinist
Garson Gershon Kanin – actor
Cloris Leachman – actress
Franz Kafka – author
Francesca Neville – Shakespearean actress
Arnold Schoenberg – Composer
Daniel Jonah Goldhagen – author
Gary Schandling – Comedian
Mark Reizen – Great Russian bass, « probably the greatest bass voice Russia ever produced »
mike ogulnick – one on one sports radio network anchor
Burt Ward – actor, Robin from Batman Jewish?
Audrey Landers – actress
James Concord Douglas
Estelle Getty – Actress (Sophia, Golden Girls)
Matthew Kuchta — first porn star with inch penis
Harlan Ellison-Science fiction writer
Morley Safer – Television journalist ( Minutes)
Jack Carter – Comedy
Bill Graham – Late rock promoter extrodinaire
Howie Morris – comedian (Your Show of Shows)
audrey hepburn
Sophie Tucker Abuza – performer  »last of the red hot mamas’
Pee Wee Herman (Paul Rubens)
Paul Auster – author and poet
Steven P. Greenberg – songwriter (Funkytown)
paul michael glazer – actor/director starsky and hutch
Country Joe McDonald – singer (mother)
Robert Downey Jr. – Actor Jewish?
jeffrey archer author
Neil Simon – Broadway playwright
Jonathan Mostow – Screenwriter and movie director
David Harari- Film Maker
Peggy Lipton – Mod Squad Actress From Lawrence N Y
Debra Winger actress
Buddy Hackett – Actor/Comedian
Mark Dixon – Counts cars in Nissan in Sunderland,UK
Neil Sedaka – Singer
Al Cohn – famous saxophone player now deceased
George Segal – actor
Arlo Guthrie, Woody Guthrie’s son, mother Marjorie was Jewish
Richard Rogers – Composer
Carolyn Summerlin-Comic/Concert Pianist
amy brenneman actress
Joe Dytko–the first founder of the turrles
Judd Hirsh actor-Taxi
Stan – South Park (Comedy Central) character (Wed. pm EST)
Philip Roth – Author
Jerry Orbach- Briscoe on Law and Order
Alan Alda – actor Jewish?
Al Kooper – Founder, Blood Sweat and Tears
Rodd Keith (real name:Rod Eskelin) song-poem auteur
Matt Fraiberg – owner Guardian Alarm
Chico Marx – Comedian (Marx Brothers)
Chaim Potok – Author
David Broza –Israeli singer/songwriter
Mr. Rogers – TV star… plays with little kids
Are Thue-Jones – Founder of Jew-Tang
Camille Pisarro – Artist
Kathy Levine – QVC Hostess
audrey hepburn actress
Jessica Savitch – NBC News’ Former Golden Girl
Peter Mark Richman – Actor/writer/artist
adam arkin actor/chicago hope
Marilyn Michaels – Impressionist
Alan Menken — composer
george jessel – Toastmanster General
Dani Behr – S.African/British presenter(Giggs’ girl)
Yasha Heifetz – Violinist
Lorne Greene – Actor
Pamela Anderson – Playboy model (born Joan Goldstein)
Gustav Mahler – Composer
Phoebe Cates-Costar of Fast Times at Ridgemont High (Real last name: Katz) Jewish?
Judy Blume – Children’s author
Bronco Billy Anderson-silent film cowboy star
Richard Benjamin – actor and director
Charles Bronson – Movie Star
Joey Bishop – comic
MCA (Adam Yauch)- Rap musician, Beastie Boys
Josef Schmidt, Rosa Raisa, Leonard Warren, opera singers
Norm Crosby- Standup comic
James Caan – (Actor) Rollerball etc.
Emma Samms – actress on Dynasty Jewish?
Louise Wener – Frontwoman Britpop band Sleeper
Omri Katz – actor
Richard Lewis – Comedian
Adam Sandler-A GUY THAT WRITES SONGS FOR COOL JEWS!
michael fishman actor-roseanne
Barbara Amiel – writer
Walter Mathau-Actor and Comedian
Norman Greenbaum – ‘Spirit in the Sky’ musician
Joanna Going – actress
Otto Klemperer – Orchestral Conductor
Randy West – Porno Star
Ralph Lauren
Paul Mazursky – Director, beautiful, meaningful films
Ed Asner – actor
Mark Knopfler – Dire Straits lead vocal and guitarist
Richartd Belzer-actor/comedian
Eddie Cantor – Singer, actor
max weinberg – drummer, bruce springstein, conan o’brien
Mike Nichols – Director ( The Graduate, Catch , The Birdcage )
Patrick Bruel – French Singer
Yaakov Agam – modern painter/sculptor
Rowan Atkinson(?)- Comedian (Mr. Bean, Voice of Zazu in Lion King) Jewish?
Salim Hallali – Famous Singer – Morocco
Benny Goodman – King of Swing
danny jacobson writer/producer
Jean Jacques Goldman, french musician et singer
Adam Duritz – lead singer of Counting Crows
Paul Cohen – Quebecer guitarist
Joan Lunden, real last name Blunden
saul rubinek actor
michael wolf musician
Marty Feldman – actor, comedian
Dave Ehrman – actor
ADRIAN KAPLAN – South African actor
Maurice Schwartz – major figure in Yiddish Theatre
Corey Feldman – Actor
Milton Berle – Comedian
Madeline Kahn – actress (Clue, Nixon)
Matthew Bratter – Musician, Daisy’s Red Gravy Train
Donna Karan – designer
Justine Frischman – Frontwoman Britpop band Elastica
sally field – actress Jewish
Arthur Fiedler – Former Boston Pops Conductor
Laurence Tolhurst – Original drummer of The Cure
Brett Sommers – The Match Game
Stanley Kubrick-movies director (clockwork orange,the Shining…)
Richard Tucker – Great hazzan and operatic tenor
Buddy Rich – worlds greatest drummer
Richard Simmons- Live-it, health guru
Aaron Copland – Composer of Appalachin Spring and other great classical music
George Solti-conductor (Chicago Symphony)
Maury Yeston- Musical composer of shows like Nine, Phantom and Titanic
gabriela karteris -
Irving Layton – Canadian poet
Gary Lewis – Rock Singer ( Jerry’s Son )
Ernst Lubitsch- Polish film Director of classic To Be Or Not to Be
Don Adams – agent , Maxwell Smart
Oscar Levant – pianist
Arturo Jimenez – Columbian Real Estate Magnate
Jan Peerce (Pinchus Perlmutter) – great operatic tenor
Mike Gordan-Bass for Phish
Joe Elliot- Def Leppard lead singer
ken olin actor\thirtysomething
David Horowitz – T.V. Personality
Phil Glasser- Actor- An American Tail (Fievel)
Debbie Gibson – Singer Jewish?
Wallace Shawn- actor (Princess Bride, Toy Story, Clueless)
Moshe Weinberg (Vainberg) Russian composer and contemporary of Shostakovitch. Relatively
unknown in USA but popular in Former USSR.
Simone Signoret – French actress (‘Diabolique’)
Clea Lewis – actress/ Audrey on Ellen
Saul Zaentz – Producer ( One flew over…, Amadeus, The English Patient )
Rachel Rosenthal – Los Angeles-based performace artist
Richard Belzer – Comedy
Will Self – British writer (mother)
Roger Hannin – French actor
Fritz Lang – German director of classics as Metropolis and The Vampire of Dusseldorf
Dr. Laura Schlesinger – Radio host and author
rena sofer actress
David ‘Dudu’ Fisher – Popular Israeli Singer and Cantor
Vic Tayback-T.V. Costar of Alice
Daniel Day Lewis, British actor (Jewish mother)
Graham Gouldman – member of cc, ‘s pop songwriter
Dina Meyer – Actress-appears in upcoming film ‘Dragonheart’
Abe Vigoda – Fish From Barney Miller
Felix Mendelssohn, composer
Marcel Proust – Second most important writer (after Kafka) this century
Mark Volman co-founder of the turtles
Yul Brynner – definitely Jewish screen actor
arye gross – actor
Michael Gelman – producer of Regis and Kathie Lee
Rain Pryor – actress daughter of Richard, mom Jewish
howard kaylan co-founder of the turtles
David Cronenberg – Canadian director/writer (The Fly)
David Birney – actor-St. Elswhere Jewish?
Rina Mor – Messinger – Israeli Miss Universe -
Randy Spelling – actor son of Aaron Spelling and brother of Tori Spelling
kim zimmer actresss/guiding light
Carl Reiner – Comedian
Mike Bloomfield – Blues Guitarist
Lee Grant – actress/director
Sam Wolff – Mayor Elect/Atlanta (Rabbi Cheamcheese)
Alicia Markova – Ballet dancer (nee Alice Marks).
S. J. Perelman – Writer – Screenplays for Marx’ Comedies: Monkey Business; Horse Feathers, etc
Yuri Rasovsky – Peabody Award-winning radio dramatist of the s and s.
Edward G. Robinson-Actor(Realname Emmanuel Goldenberg)
Anouk Aimee – French actress (‘A Man and a Woman’)
Enrico Macias Algerian-French jew Famous?
Melissa Rosenberg – Joan Rivers’ daughter/Host E! Entertaiment
Jennifer Jason Leigh
Joely Fisher – actress/Ellen. Half-sister of Carrie.
Mitul Patel – Jewish/Indian actor
Adam Yauch – Musician (Beastie Boys)
Mark Bomer-Jewish Activist and Historian
Pincas Zuckerman
Joe Belgrade – stage and screen actor
Elliot Goldenthal – Movie Composer – Batman and Robin and others
Kent Brockman – TV anchor on The Simpsons Kenny Brockelstein
Henri Bergson – noble prize winner (literature)
Stan Getz – world famous saxophonist
Jim Shapiro – Musician, Veruca Salt
Arthur Koestler – author
Kurt Weil – composer (Three Penny Opera)
Jennifer Jason Leigh – actress
Mark Walberg – Game Show Host(The Big Date)
Al Waxman – actor / Cagney and Lacey
Max Fleischer – Animation Producer (Betty Boop, Popeye, etc.)
Julius Lester – author and professor Jewish?
David Halberstam – Author
Kirk Douglas, nee Isadore Demsky
Fritz Reiner, George Szell, conductors
Joe Besser: one of the three stooges, for a while.
Ronn Owens -San Francisco/Los Angeles Talk Show Host
Lorraine Newman – Saturday Night Live
Aaron Freeman – Chicago radio talkshow host
Stephen Evans – Writer/Director/Actor
Helen Hunt (Father Jewish; Mad About You)
Albert Cohen, French language author
Josh Niehaus – Musician/entertainer/player
kinky friedman -country singer and mystery author
Felix Mendelssohn – composer
Todd Suchman, Styx drummer
Laurin Sydney – Showbiz Today CNN
Michael Kinsley — syndicated columnist
Robert Merrill – Opera Singer
Jeff Daniels – actor Jewish?
Jerry Stiller – Mr. Costanza and Ben’s dad
Helen Shapiro – British singer
Justine Frischmann – lead singer of well known UK indie band Elastica
David Steinberg – comedian/director
Steven Tyler – lead singer in the music group Aerosmith
jackie mason
Shecky Greene – comic
Harvey Korman-Comedian, Costar of The Carol Burnett Show
June Allyson Ella Geisman – actress
Harrison Ford – one Jewish parent
Alain Boublil – Lyricist of Miss Saigon
Sakari Topelius – Old finnish national fairy-teller
Ringo Starr – Beatles drummer.
Isaac Mizrachi — fashion designer
Jack Klugman – Oscar from The Odd Couple
Paul McKellar-Nazi Hunter, Nationally recognized lectur on Holocaust events.
Fanny Brice – comedian
Doc Severenson – Tonight Show
Jessica Lundy – actress (Hope and Gloria)
Alan Wilder – keyboards player of Depeche Mode
Andrew ‘Dice’ Clay – Comedian, Actor. Real name is: Andrew Silverberg
Nina Rodzynek – Musician
Justin Wilson- Mais, Cher, ANOTHER famous Cajun
Aaron Rosand, concert violinist
Jennifer Doctorovich – theater actress in Houston ,Texas
Jack Spector – Disc Jockey
Joanna Gleason (daughter of Monty Hall) actress
Elliot Gould- actor, M.A.S.H.
Jon Stewart- Hilarious Jew
Pittsburgh Pete – Radio Actor
Jerry Bock – Composer( Fiddler On The Roof, She Loves Me plus more)
john stossel /
Ross Martin- actor(TV’s ‘The Wild, Wild West’).Real name Martin Rosenblatt.
Lee Konitz – musician (jazz saxophonist)
Charles Grodin – actor/writer
Dan Futterman- Actor (The Birdcage)
Michael Ovitz – Disney
Charles Orange – Poet
Ben Elton – comedian and writer.
Arthur Schnitzler – Viennese playwright, novelist and doctor
Leslie Stahl – Sixty Minutes
Laura Shaff – Bon Vivant, Girl About Town
Debbie Goad – Writer (Answer Me!)
Haim Topol – Actor (Fiddler on the Roof)
Helena Bonham-Carter–her mother is a Rothschild
Hans Rosenthal — showmaster
Don Black – lyricist of Sunset Boulevard
Laura Bertam, actress on the Disney Channel’s ‘Ready or Not’
Sid Ceasar – Your Show Of Shows
Jamie Lee Curtis (Father is Jewish)
Robert Clary – Actor (LeBeau from Hogan’s Heroes)
Steven Adler-ex drummer for guns n roses
Michael Tucker – Actor, LA Law etc.
Arlene Dahl – Actress
Linda Rondstat -Singer Jewish grandparents
Suzy Mamann Greenberg – Producer of Seinfeld and some other NBC shows
Mick Jones – Musician from the Clash/B.A.D. — mother Jewish
Rick London (London’s Times Cartoon force.supernews.com in Mississippi
Sid Caesar – comedian
Steve Guttenberg – Actor
Jay Diamond – Radio Talk Show Host (used to be on WABC)
Lorenzo Lamas – Actor ( Jewish Mom )
Hy Berkawitz – Owner of Rogers Dept.store in Grand Rapids MI
Bruno Schulz- writer
Adam Faith – British singer
Christopher Lambert – actor (father)
Jackie Kallen – manager of James Toney
Barbara Hershey (Herzstein)- actress- one-time hippie/flower child, now likes her lips to be big!
Sasha Mitchell – Actor (Step by Step, Kickboxer )
Sam Levinson – humorist/TV panelist
Ann B. Davis – Actress (Alice in The Brady Bunch)
paula zahn – broadcast journalist cbs
Ramblin’ Jack Elliot-folk singer/guitar player
Wendy Mallick – actress ( mostly sitcoms)
Carnie Wilson – former singer (wilson phillips), former talk show host, and daughter of beach boy
brian wilson (mother marilyn rovell is Jewish)
Arnold Stang – Film Actor
chevy chase -actor comedian
Carly Simon – Singer
Jackie Mason – Comedian
Martin and Charlie Sheen
Ken Berry-T.V. star-Mayberry R.F.D., F Troop
Rob Reiner – Comedian and Movie Director
Totie Fields – Comedienne
Steve Levy — (ESPN-Sportscenter)
Pope John Paul II -He’s the spitting image of my Galitzyaner grandfather
Richard Salwitz – aka Magic Dick, Musician J Geils
Milton Berle – comedian
Chuck Barris – Creator Of The Dating Game
Ian Ziering – actor,
Gene Barry – starred on TV Bat Masterson
Adam Rich – Eight Is Enough
jane kaczmarek actress
Linda (Epstein) Eastman – Paul Macartney’s wife
Rona Barret ( Bernstein ) – Gossip Reporter
paul shaffer musician-letterman show
Red Aaron Buttons – comic
Ivan Reitman – Canadian director – meatballs
Tori Spelling – Donna in Beverly Hills
Shelley Berman – comedian
Yves Montand – real name Ivo Livi, famous french singer
Florence Henderson – Brady Bunch, singer
Lyle Waggoner-Comedian and former costar of The Carol Burnett Show
Allen Funt – Host of ‘Candid Camera’
Woody Strode – black man from spartacus
Alfons Halim — yeah… this one is surely Jewish.
Jeff Chandler — ‘s movie star
Tony Kushner- Playwright (Angels in America)
Stephanie Powers – Actress
Buzz Aldrin – former US astronaut
Samy Elmaghribi – Famous Singer – Morocco
Art Buchwald – author and columnist
Jonathan Brandis – actor
William Goldman – screenwriter (The Princess Bride)
Walter Lippman – journalist/ founded the New Republic
Josef Szigeti, violinist
Rob Cohen, Director Horror Films
David Helfgott – Brilliant Australian pianist
Jerry Seinfeld — comedian, tv star
Haim Topol – actour
Dani from Cradle Of Filth (Mother is Ethiopian,Father is Jewish)
Andrew Mark Berman – Actor that was on The Wonder Years and other shows
max weinberg – drummer for bruce springstein, conan o’brien
Lawrence Harvey – Famous actor
Michael Berrin – M.C. Search formally of rd Bass
Arlene Sorkin – Caliope Jones On Days Of Our Lives
Gene Wilder, actor, Silver Streak, Gilda Radner’s husband
David Schwimmer – Actor (Ross on ‘Friends’)
King Diamond – american singer (Mercyful Fate)
Herschel Savage – Porn Star
Julie Kanver- voice of Marge Simpson
Jenna Jameson – porn star/mother teresa protege/wife of SQS
Shelley Winters Shirley Schrift – actress
Tony Randall (Leonard Rosenberg – real name)
Jerry Orbach-actor
sylvia sydney – actress
Jay Black – Jay And The Americans
Samuel Avital – Founder, Boulder Mime Theatre
Dustin Diamond – screech from saved by the bell
Mircea Crisan (Kraus?) romanian entertainer
Paulette Goddard – famous movie actress of the past
Trevor Rabin – Yes
David Gahan – Lead for Depeche Mode
Sydney Rome- Famous Actress
Arnold Schoenberg, famous composer
Josef Von Sternberg – Actor/Director
Robert Clary – actor (Hogan’s Heros)
Joel and Ethan Coen – producer, director, writers (Raising Arizona)
fred savage actor-wonder years
Jackie Vernon- comedian
Liv Tyler – actress daughter of Steven Tyler
Mitzi Gaynor – Actress, Dancer, Singer
Neriah Davis- porn star
Mark Feuerstein – actor (comedy Fired Up)
Courtney Love – America’s sweetheart
Mickey Hart – Drummer for Grateful Dead (also Mystery Box)
Bess Myerson – first Jewish Miss America
Carole King – nee Klein. Songwriter
Herschel Bernardi – actor
Moe Kauffman – Canadian jazz great
Michele Landsberg – newspaper columnist and Jewish Womens’ activist
tony goldwyn – actorghost
Melissa Manchester – Singer
Shlomo Mintz – violinist
Mark Moran – Talk Show Host
Shaun Weiss – Kid Actor(Heavyweights,Mighty Ducks +)
Ross Gelman-actor,comedian,adult entertainer
Vladimir Horowitz – Pianist
Ron Leavitt – Married With Children Creator/Producer
Jason Marsden – actor
Jack Gilford – Comedian/Actor
Serge Koussevitzky – conductor
dianne weist actress
Michel Berger, french composer and singer (tycoon)
Barry Sonnenfeld – director Get Shorty, Addams Family
ron rifkin – actor
Sheldon Harnick – Lyricist (Fiddler On the Roof, She Loves Me plus more)
Lee Zurik (CBS Sports Anchor)
Mr. G – WPIX New York weatherman
Selma Diamond – late gravelly voiced actress from Night Court
Polly Draper – actress (Thirtysomething) Jewish?
Dorothy Rothschild Parker – author and Algonquin wit
Joshua Redman – saxaphonist, Jewish mom
Malcolm McLaren–manager/impresario of the Sex Pistols
Allen Garfield (Goorwitz) – actor
Zohra Lampert – actress
Peter Wolf – Musician
David Susskind – producer
Dan Greenburg – author (‘How to be a Jewish Mother’)
Sheldon Leonard – late actor/producer
michael lembeck – actor/director
Sonny Fox – children’s TV producer/host
Stuart Pankin – former host of HBO *Not Necessarily the News
Bruno Bauer – conductor
Sherwood Schwartz – Creator Of Gilligans Isle
Renee Taylor – Actress (The Nanny) Jewish?
Paul Muni – Actor(Realname Muni Weisenfreund)
Shalom Aleichem-Yiddish Writer
Emma Lazarus – poet (‘Give me your tired, your poor,..’ from the Statue of Liberty)
Jonathon Lipnicki – child actor/ Jerry Maguire
Alan Gratzer and Kevin Cronin-musician of REO Speedwagon
Doug Feiger – Musician, The Knack
John Leguizamo-Colombian actor/comedian (Jewish?)
Menahem Golan – Israeli producer/director
Phobe Levy Pember –Confederate Civil War Heroine
Gregg Woodman – The Sidewinder
Jean-Luc Godard- filmmaker
Rick Moranis actor
kim greist – actress: chicago hope/homeward bound
Anthony Newley – singer/composer/actor
Kitty Carlisle-panelist on What’s My Line (real last name: Conn)
Claude Rains – Actor (Casablanca)
David Mamet – director-writer (The Verdict, Hoffa)
Allen Ginsberg-all time greatest American poet
Artur Rubenstein – piano virtuoso
Andy Kaufmann – taxi-comic
Dina Sfat, Brazilian actress
William Daniels – actor St. Elswhere
Jerry Ohrbach – Actor
David Milch – Co-producer/writer of NYPD Blue
Bill Pullman – actor Jewish?
Yaphet Kotto – famous actor
Adam Horowitz – Musician (Beastie Boys)
Amos Elon – Israeli writer and journalist
Lisa Edelstein – actress/Relativity
Boris Pasternak – Russian writer
Camryn Manheim – actress (The Practice)
Rick Rubin – Record producer/Def jam co-founder
Andy Ackerman – producer/director (Cheers, Frasier, Seinfeld)
Eddie Fisher – Singer
Georges Bizet-composer of Carmen, Symphony in C
Clifford Odetts-playwright (Golden Boy)
Michael Rappaport – actor
Eugene Ormandy- conductor (purveyor of the Philadelphia sound)
rob schneider – actor/comedian
Roy Lichtenstein- painter
Artur Rubinstein- pianist
John Rubinstein- actor (Family; son of Artur)
Jessica Walter- actress
J.D. Salinger- author (Catcher in the Rye)
F. Murray Abraham- actor (Amadeus)
Sam Jaffe- actor (Ben Casey)
Norman Lear – All In The Family Creator
Marvin Hamlisch – composer of A Chorus Line
EdIsaiah Wynn – actor
Peter Green – Blues guitarist, founder of Fleetwood Mac
Gummo Marx – Comedian (Marx Brothers)
Marianne Faithful – singer, girlfriend of Mick Jagger
Steven Lovy – writer/director of Circuitry Man
Richard Dix – famous movie actor of the twenties and thirties
Mickey Cohen – Gangster
Florenz Ziegfeld – theatrical producer
dan lauria – actor/wonder years
Carl Bernstein – author and journalist
richard masur – actor
Don Rickles – Comedian
joseph papp public theatre
Harold Prince – Broadway Director (Phantom Of The Opera, Cabaret, and many more)
Benjamin Mor – Benyad from the rap group Blood of Avraham
D. Saevitz – Mazik from the fap group Blood of Avraham
Max Aranoff (sp?), violist of the Curtis String Quartet
Goldie Hawn – Actress
Primo Levi – Writer(Holocaust Survivor)
Adam Goldberg – actor (TV-Relativity, Movies-Higher Learningunfortunetlyand The Prophecy)
Shimi Tavori – Outstanding Israeli Singer and Performer
Stephen R. Kuntz – famous attorney at law
Karl Haas-pianist, conductor, acclaimed host of Adventures in Music
Polly Bergen – Actress
hal linden hal lipshitz actor
Arthur Miller – Writer (Death of a Salesman)
Beverly Sills–opera singer and director
Al Jolson–singer and actor
Daniel Stern – Actor
Carly Simons -singer
Fredrick Loewe – Composer( Camelot, Gigi, My Fair Lady, Brigadoon)
John Rubenstein – actor
Tom Bosley – Mr. C. on Happy Days Jewish?
Roberta Peters — Opera Singer
John Garfield — ‘s movie star
Mark Banks – South African comedian
Susan Strasberg, daughter of Lee, stage and screen actress
Betty Friedan – author/ feminist
Stanley Drucker World-ranked clarinetist, NY Philharmonic Orchestra since
Deborah Raffin – Actress
Kevin Pollack – actor
Theda Bara – Silent Actress, original ‘vamp’
Natalio Finkelstein – famous violinist in tango orchestras- Argentina
Norman Corwin – pionerr writer, producer, director of American radio drama
Paul Rubin – Comedian and…
Alan Rachins – LA Law
Fania Fenelon — singer, author, Holocaust survivor;*Playing for Time* is her autobiography
Max Weinberg – drummer
Lee Strassberg – Actor
Larry Storch – F Troop Actor
Jeannie Becker – Fashion Television
Phil Silvers – Sgt. Bilko
Kenny G – World renowned Musician(sax)
Daniel Ash and Kevin Haskin – musicians from Bauhaus, British goth band
Billy Wilder – Director (Sunset Boulevard- the movie)
Josh Niehaus – Musician/Entertainer
Yaki Margulies – Well known artist in sea-town
Pierre Monteux – Orchestral Conductor
Mel Tilles–Country and Western singer
Rita Rudner – commedienne
Faye Kellerman – author,wife of jonathan
Herb Edelman – Police Chief on ‘Murder She Wrote’
Chip Zien – Broadway actor (Falsettos, Into The Woods)
Leonard Bernstein – composer, conductor
Bruce Adler – singer, dancer, comedian
Yascha Heifetz – violinist
Abigail Van Buren – dear abby
Peter Falk – actor (TV’s ‘Columbo’)
Robert ‘Mutt’ Lange- owner Flood/Mute records (Depeche Mode)
Martin Gore- songwriter (Depeche Mode)
Stacy Earl- singer
Josh Meisels — marathon runner
Bill Maher – comedian
maeve kinkead actress-guiding light
Jule Styne – composer of Gypsy
Yarema Hutsaliuk – famous American/French writer
Louie Nye (Neistat) – comedian
david mamet- pulitzer winning playwright
Abigail Van Buren (Dear Abby)-advice columnist
Ralph Bakshi- cartoon director (Fritz the Cat, Cool World)
Lindsey Crouse – actress (Daniel)
Judy Cavitez-actress
Greg Hetson – guitarist for Bad Religion and the Circle Jerks
Jerome Kern – composer of Show Boat
Matt Groening – Creator of the Simpsons
ben savage actor
Robert Lansing – Actor
Claude – Michel Schonberg- composer of Les Mis
Sidney Lumet – Film Director
DENISE KATRINA SMITH(aka Vanity) -mother is jewish
Mark Rothko – Abstract Expressionist Painter
Jane Wiedland – Member of the Go-Gos.
Al Cooper – Musician
roxanne hart actress-chicago hope
Rod Serling – Twilight Zone Creator Jewish?
Ethel Merman – ethel zimmerman performer
Herb Alpert – musician and mogul (Russian Jewish)
Abe Vigoda — Fish on Barney Miller
Sue Mengers – Agent
David Brenner Comedian
Edward G. Robinson – actor
Paul Muni – Actor (‘Louis Pasteur’, ‘Fugitive from a Chain Gang’)
Boris Thomashevsky – Actor (Yiddish theater)
Walter Mosley Writer (mother is Jewish)
Dictators-’s NYC punk rock pioneers-Handsome Dick Manintoba (Richard Blum) Andy Shernoff
Ross (The Boss) Friedman Scott(Top Ten) Kempner Richie Teeter
Ted Koppel – television newscaster (ABC Niteline)
Goldy Hawn-actress, First Wives Club
Zachary Hines – son of Gregory and Jewish wife
Adam Sandler- Comedian, songwriter
Erynn Hubbard – actress/comedian
Dr. Ruth – Famous Sex Therapist
Alexander Kipnis – Opera Singer
Emanuel List – Opera Singer
Marie Rappold – Opera Singer
Barbra Streisand-actress, singer
Rita Shane, Norman Mittelmann, Met opera
Jerome Kern, Frank Loesser, Bway composers
Gregor Piatigorsky, Emanuel Feuermann, cellists
Josef Szigeti, Mischa Elman, violinists
Thomas Shlamme – director
Franz Kafka
Joel Grey, actor
Georgia Brown, actress
Judy Holliday, actress
nora ephron – writer/director
Morris Carnovsky, actor
Goddard Lieberson, President of Columbia Records
Adolph Green, lyricist
Bonnie Franklin – Actress
Moira Shearer – famous actress now deceased
Chaim Topol — singer and actor
Robbie Kreieger – Doors guitarist
Bruce ‘Cousin Brucie’ Morrow- great ‘s+’s NYC disc jockey
Richard Hell-punk rocker-Television Heartbreakers Voidoids
Jonathan Silverman – Actor
Mike Diamond – (Mike D.) band member of Beastie Boys
Adam yauch – (MCA) band member of Beastie Boys
Adam Horowitz – (Adrock) band member of Beastie Boys
Amos Oz – Israeli writer philosopher
Silvio Santos- Brazilian humorist
Leo Genn-Famous British actor(Quo Vadis)
Duncan Renaldo – Tv’s Cisco Kid (born in Roumania)
Efrem Zimbalist Sr.- World-class violinist
Ricardo Cortez -Film actor (born Jacob Krantz)
Francesca Annis -British actress
Douglas Fairbanks Sr.- Silents star (real name Ulman)
Stuart Whitman- Film actor
Larry Gelbart – Mash producer
Jack Benny, comedian
Alan Klein – briefly manager of both The Beatles and The Stones
Joel Siegel – film critic ABC
Bernard Kalb – CNN Host of ‘Reliable Sources’
hart bochner actor-director
Armin Shimerman- ‘Quark’ on Deep Space Nine
Jonathan Larson – composer of the musical RENT
Matt Groening – Genius Creator of The Simpsons
gary david goldberg – producer
Barbara Walters – Journalist
Shalom Harlow – model need confirmation of being Jewish?
Frank Hope- From Oddville he is the host on the show.
Joseph Brodsky – Winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature,
Natasha Lyonne- jewish actress
Claire Bloom – Actress
Sydney Pollack – Director/Producer
Katrina Neville- soprano- star of Penn State Opera Theatre
Patricia Richardson actress/home improvement
Henry Jaglom – Director of off-beat films
Amy Heckerling – director-writer (Fast Times at Ridgemont High
Arthur Rubinstein – Pianist
Sarah Berhardt – famous French actress-early ‘s
jason bateman – actor
Isaac Babel – Writer
Nathanael West (Nathan Weinstein) – Writer – Miss Lonelyhearts; The Day of the Locust,
Shari Lewis – Children’s Entertainer
All the members of The J.Geils Band except for J.Geils
Lisa Loeb – Singer with band Nine Stories (spelling?)
David Schwimmer-in Friends
jessica hecht actress-single guy
Bert Bachrach – popular American composer
Aaron Abel-singer
Serge Gainsbourg-French comoser and singer
Larisa Oleynik – Secret World of Alex Mack
Gertrude Berg – actress (TV’s ‘The Goldbergs’)
Oscar Hammerstein – deceased composer of Broadway musicals
Gene Siskel – film critic (Siskel and Ebert)
Arthur Hiller (director of Love Story)
David Notowitz – Film producer, writer, editor
paul kossoff, guitarist english group free
Barbara Bach – Ringo’s Wife Jewish Father
Syl Sylvain – Member of New York Dolls
Shmuel Yosef Agnon – Writer, Nobel Prize Winner
Judy Landers – actress
Linda Lavin – TV Show Alice
OPHELIE WINTER FRENCH ACTRESS AND SINGER
alan arkin actor-father of adam
Elmer Bernstein – musician (composer/conductor)
Daniel Benzali – Actor (The Series: Murder One)
Jill Clayburgh-Actress (An Unmarried Woman, Silver Streak)
Brett ‘Da Hit Man’ Moses – Proprietor of Atlanta’s Tattletales
Rod Steiger – actor (Oscar Winner) Jewish?
Wendy Liebman – commedienne
mel baron — hero in WW
Estelle Harris – Yiddish actress plays George’s Mom on Seinfeld
Larry Floyd Matthews – Country singer/accordianist
Norm Crosby – comedian
beck-musician
Lena Brenner-story teller
Bill Dana – comedian
Al Levine — WBLI/NY DJ JEWISH?
Manfred Mann – musician
The King Ad Rock (Adam Horovitz)- rap musician, Beastie Boys
Harry James – bandleader (husband of Betty Grable)
Dave Katz – Lead singer of Ekoositk Hookah
Tristan Tzara ( real name Sami Rosenstein ) – french poet (-); begginer of the Dadaist Movement
of arts.
Al Lewis – TV Show The Munsters
António José da Silva, o Judeu – Portuguese playwriter, his work is the most important collection
of portuguese dramatic theatre of XVIIIth cent. Killed by the Inquisition.
Harold Pinter — English actor and playwriter; founder of the ‘absurd theatre’.
Kim Iglinski – Israeli top-model, discovered in Paris with y/o.
H. Leivick — Russian poet: ‘The Golem’
Steve Lawrence — popular singer-real name Sidney Liebowitz
mitterrandestein french actor
Michel Boujenah – famous french actor
Arthur Hiller – director (silver streak et. al. )
Louise Lasser – Mary Hartman
Eric Johnson — solo artist (guitarist)
Gabriel Kaplan – Comic/welcome back kotter
Henny Youngman – Comedian
Malcolm Gets – actor (Richard on Caroline in the City)
Earl Pomerantz- executive producer for the Larry Sander’s Show, Major Dad, (the old) Cosby
Show
Carol Connors – Wrote theme song for Rocky
Alexey Sayle – Comedian
Jean Claude Van Damme Mother is Jewish
Susan St. James – Actress
Mick Green – Rock guitarist with the Pirates (was Johnny Kidd and the Pirates)
Greg Wise – actor
Max Miller – English music hall comedian.
Bud Flanagan – English music hall star.
Ruby Wax – comedienne.
Gustav Mahler – composer.
Mendel Feibush – famous Yiddish character actor
Jack Rosenthal – playwrite
Horst Buchholst – actor (one of the Magnificent Seven).
Maureen Lipman – comic actress.
Brian Epstein – impresario (Beatles manager).
Harry Rabinowitz – conductor.
Alfie Bass – comic actor.
Warren Mitchell – actor.
Frankie Vaughan – singer.
Anthony Sher – actor.
Bob Monkhouse – comedian.
Leslie Howard – actor
Leslie Gore – singer
Ronald Harwood – Born in South Africa as Horwitz( playwright)
Harry James – bandleader
Melvyn Douglas – actor
David Helfcott – classical pianist/child prodigy
Artie Shaw – bandleader
Bob Hoskins – Oscar winning actor : got an Oscar for ‘Mona Lisa’.
Alma Cogan – singer
Taylor Dayne – Singer
Donald Weilerstein, former first violinist of Cleveland String Quartert
Norman Corwin – American radio dramatist
Viola Spolins – inventor of theater games
Paul Sills – founding director of Second City
Bernie Sahlins- founding producer of Second City
Wayne and Shuster – comedians
Ritz Brothers – comedians
Tony Martin – singer
Marty Balin – singer, Jefferson Airplane (father)
Gwyneth Paltrow – Movie Star(Emma,Seven)(father is Jewish)
Marlee Matlin- Deaf actress-Picket Fences
Saul Bellow – Novelist
Janet Leigh-Movie Star (Psycho,Bye Bye Birdie), mother of Jamie Lee Curtis Jewish?
Sarah Bernhardt – actress
Robbie Robertson – singer, The Band (father)
Vic Morrow – actor
calvin trillin – writer
Grace Lee Whitney – actress who portrayed Yeoman Rand on ‘Star Trek’ -

http://www.geocities.com/area/zone//

Nichols and May – comedians
Smith and Dale – comedians
Rachel Lipman – Emmy winning tv writer (‘Rugrats’,'Hey Arnold’,…)
Rob Morrow – actor
Peter Bogdanovich – director
Maury Povich – Talk show host
Alan Rosenberg – Actor in LA Law and Cybill
Claude Lelouch – French film director
Bert Lahr – comedian
Freddie Prinz – comedian (mother)
Carl Reiner – comedian
Laura Nyro – singer
Molly Picon – actress
eugene levy actor/sctv
Fred Levine–Psychologist
Mary Livingstone – comedian
Mel Blanc – cartoon voice
marlee matlin actress-picket fences
Helen Reddy – singer (converted)
Anne Revere – actress
Lilli Palmer – actress
John Forsythe (John Freund) Actor
Bob Saget – Comedian, Host of America’s Funniest Home Videos
Kate Capshaw – actress
Joan Micklin Silver – director, writer (Hester Street, Crossing Delancey)
Steve Goodman – singer
Michael Douglas (Kirk’s son) Actor
Ezequiel Antar
Sonia Benezra- french talk show host in montreal
Jason Hervey – costar of the wonder years
Victor Borge – comedian
Susan Cabot – actress
Carmel Myers – actress
Leo Gorcey – actor
Billy Halop – actor
Ben Harris- Scholar Extraordinaire
Michael Krugman – author of Generation Ecch
adam wyle actor-picket fences
Donne Pescow – Angie T V Show
Bruce Morrow (Cousin Brucie) – Disc Jockey
Jerome Robbins – choreographer, director
Albert Suissa – Famous Singer – Morocco
Jules Dassin – film director
Michael Stoyanov – actor he played Tony Ruso on the show Blossom
Murray Kaufman (Murray The K, The Fifth Beatle) – Disc Jockey, WINS
Aaron Spelling – famous TV producer/ daughter Tori on
Barbara Sokol – Grease
Jerzy Kosinski – Novelist
john byrne (born Bronowski) – wanker
tony cowley (born Kaulish) – also a wanker
Barry Miller – Saturday Night Fever
yaphet kotto- capt. g on HOMICIDE
Chris Isaac – Musician, mother is Jewish
Bob Vila – Home-improvement Giant
Harry Ellis Dickson – Former Boston Pops Conductor
Juan Valdez – Columbian coffee guy (born John Feldenstein)
Carol Kane – Actress
Joel Silver – Producer ( Die Hard I,II,III etc. )
Mort Sahl – Comedy
Emil Gilels – Concert Pianist
Jeannie Berlin – Actress
Tony Parisi — …of the Village People (cowboy)
Seth Polzer — famous shepherd from Isreal
Martin Landau – actor
Brad Ray — famous pin-up boy and rap star
Justin Miller — first male to receive breast implant
Paul Whiteman, Early big jazz band conductor
Richard Starkey – Ringo Starr – Former Beatle
bugsy siegal-gangster
The Beastie Boys – rap group, all Jewish
jonathon wolfe musician
Michael Buchmann Silver-actor (DA on NYPD Blue)
Israel Horowitz – Playwright
Jennifer Rubin – actress/Screamers
Kirka Babitzin – Finnish singer
Rachel Miner – actress/Guiding Light and is also in the Anne Frank play
Pat Nash – real name-Jacob Goldberg — Famous Israeli Singer and Cantor — Yiddish writer/actor
(Three Penny Opera)
mark moses – actor/single guy
Marilyn Bergman – Songwriter
Mel Torme – singer, actor, songwriter (The Christmas Song)
Maxim Gorgi – Russian writer
Jaime Alissa Yoss – Gymnast extrordinaire, Indy car driver
Martin Mull – Comedy
LEIBER and STOLLER-composers,producers,writers,HOUND DOG, STAND BY
ME,JAILHOUSE ROCK)
Kerry King,Jeff Hanneman-Guitarists for Slayer
cass elliot (Elizabeth cohen) singer of the mammas and the papas
Bob Rivers-Morning Radio host
josh mostel – actor-son of zero mostel
Phyllis Newman – Actress
Sandra Bernhard – Comedian, Actress
Carol Leiffer – commedienne,writer/Seinfeld
John Taylor – Bass of Duran Duran jewish?
James L Brooks – Producer
Anton LaVey-Founder of The Church Of Satan (real name is Howard Levey)
Marilyn Manson-Teenie bopper pop star (Warner is real name)
Edward G Robinson tough guy actor deceased
Tracy Pollan – Actress, wife of Michael J Fox
Shlomo (sp?) Mintz, concert violinist
jonathan kellerman – best selling author
Paul Stanley and Gene Simmons-Musicians for rock band KISS
Mike Stern – Jazz guitarist
Jackie Mason – ordained Rabbi and Comedian
Jonathan Taylor Thomas- Home Improvement
Adam Arkin- actor
Leon Askin – actor, director (General Burkhalter in Hogan’s Heroes)
Paul Shaffer- CBS ORCHESTRA , LATE SHOW
piper laurie rosetta jacobs – actress
Sidney Sheldon – best selling author
Barbara Walters-(Baba Wawa)-ABC TV interviewer
Dyan Cannon-actress currently on Ally McBeal
George Gershwin — composer
Barry Horowitz—Pro Wrestler
Randy ‘Macho Man’ Savage–Pro Wrestler
Fred Savage – Young actor from Wonder Years
Maya Plisetskaya – Russian balet dancer
Missy Yager – is currently in the Anne Frank play on broadway
Natanya Ross – Actress ‘Secret World Of Alex Mack’
Meredith Bishop – Actress ‘Secret World Of Alex Mack’
Marion Ross – Actress ‘Brooklyn Bridge’ and ‘Happy Days’
Steve Reich, American composer of minimalist music
Alana Ubach – Actress ‘Brady Bunch movie’ and ‘Airborne’
Philip Glass, American composer of minimalist music
Michael Tilson-Thomas, Conductor classical music , grandson of Tomashefsky, Yiddish actor
Andre Previn, former jazz pianist, now classical conductor
Juice Newton – Country/pop singer-Queen of Hearts (real last name:Cohen)
Harold Pinter, British playwrite
Sir Gorge Solti, Conductor – especially opera
Ronnie Scott, British jazz saxophonist, founder of Ronnie Scott’s Club
Daniel Barenboim, Conductor and pianist
Hermione Gingold, Actress – parents married by British Chief Rabbi !
Warren Mitchell, British actor – especially TV.
James Levine, Conductor
Stephen Perkins – Drummer, Jane’s Addiction
Steven Bochco – Producer of NYPD Blue, L.A. Law, Hill Street Blues
Jose Lewgoy, Brazilian actor ( Kiss of the Spider Woman)
Dyan CannonSamille Diane Friesen – actress
Ted Coppel – from ABC news (Broadcaster)
Barbara Walters – / News Broadcaster
Sally Jesse Rapheal – Talk show host
Michael Nyman, Composer – wrote music for film ‘The Piano’
Jeremy Isaacs, was director Royal Opera House, Covent Garden
Peter Schaffer, British playwright
Jonathan Miller, British opera director,doctor.
Arnold Wesker, British playwright
Arhur Miller, playwright – once married to Marilyn Munroe
Michael Roll, British pianist
Robert Rietti, British actor
Bernard Levin, British writer, newspaper columnist
Chaim Bermant, British humorous writer, newspaper columnist
Kyra Sedgwick – Star of Phenom,Miss Rose White (mother is Jewish)
John Steinbeck – Famous American Literature Author (i.e. Flight) of the th Century from Salinas,
California.
Richard Kind – actor (Mad About You, Spin City)
Leslie Nielsen, actor (Airplane, Mr. Magoo)
Robert Crumb, s/s cultural cartoonist
Liz Sheridan – actress (plays Jerry’s mom on Seinfeld)
Mike Wallace ( Minutes)
Buck Henry – Comedian/Writer/co-creator of Get Smart
Lee Strasberg – acting teacher
Lynn Samuels – Radio talk show host, WABC radio
Sam Levene – stage and screen actor
Michael Tilson Thomas, Conductor, Grandfather was famed Yiddish actor Boris Tomashevski
Michael Gross- Actor (Family ties)
ROD STEIGER ACTOR
Maurice Sklar- violinist, plays for Benny Hinn
Red Skelton-Comedian and former T.V. variety show host
Larry Kramer- AIDS activist/Playwright (The Normal Heart, The Destiny of Me)
Scarlett Levine — Huggies Commercial Star
Brian Epstein – Manager of The Beatles
Harry Shearer – Cartoon Voices on Simpsons/Comedian
Shawn Michaels- Pro wrestler
Sally Kellerman – actress/Mash
richard marx singer/musician
Alex Bendersky- A russian-jewish poet
Caroline Schreiber-singer and actress
Daniel Wayne Matthews – Interstate Commerce Commissioner
Jeffrey Katzenberg – Producer ( Dreamworks )
William Finn- composer (Falsettos)
Didi Pickles – mother of Tommy on the Rugrats
Aaran Tan – Lead singer and guitarist for rock band Phoenix
Aaron Bharatan – ex-Metallica guitarist and former guitarist for Phoenix
Jon Cryer – actor ,Pretty in Pink, The Famous Teddy Z
Richard Dreyfuss – JAWS Actor
Lee Cobb – famous actor
Phil Spector – Record Producer, famous for The Wall of Sound
MELISSA MANCHESTER – Singer-Songwriter-Actress
Leo Rosten -author Joys of Yiddish
Joshua Bell, concert violinist
Bruce Kulick – Guitarist from KISS
Elsa Zylberstein – french actress (played in Mina Tannenbaum)
Anita Diamant – author
Leonid Kogan – world class violinist
Peter Strauss – actor (‘Rich Man, Poor Man’)
Rebecca Goldstein – author/Mazel
jackie zeman – actress/general hospital
Jascha Brodsky, first violinist of the Curtis String Quartet
Jim Rome – sports talk show host
Michael Zaslow – Roger Thorpe on The Guiding Light
Jim Bleyer – writer
Michelle Tractenberg – actress in the movie Harriet The Spy
Kari Wuhrer-Salin – MTV hostess, B movie actress and hot piece of ass
JOHNNY RIVERS-MUSICIAN
Cy Coleman – Composer (Sweet Charity, City Of Angels)
Cindy Margolis – Beautiful blonde supermodel
Brian Feldman – he could be famous
Shalom Secunda-Composer wrote by meir bist du shane
Assaf Bernstein- top young israeli filmmaker
Amadeo Modigliani – Artist
Delmore Schwartz – Poet (th Cent)
Richard Kline – actor(Three’s Company)
Eli Wallach – actor (The Magnificent Seven)
Danielle Fishel –actress
Jamie Luner – Actress, Savannah
Chris Brunecz -comedian (King of Late Night)
RICK MORANIS – ACTOR
Harold Robbins – ne Rubin. Best selling author
Chaim Soutine – Fauvist painter; friend of Modigliani
Jawaad Backstaber-owner of % of shops in FMT,Cal.
Carrie Fisher- author, actress (Star Wars)
Bageleatin’ Backstaber-controls of Hollywood
Bloodsucking Richman-Wealthiest Jew alive( studios)
Charlie Chaplin
Lloyd Bochner–Canadian Shakespearean actor, also in Naked Gun /, father of Hart Bochner (my
cousin)
Steve Page–lead singer of the Barenaked Ladies (also my cousin)
Al Eisen– Flushes guy, father of Paul Stanley
Andy Kaufman–Latka on Taxi (have you heard about this one?)
Allan Greenspan–entertainer? (yup, he’s a concert violinist by trade)

The Truth at Last
The Jewish hand in our violent entertainment

Home Page Site Index Book Mart TAL Archives

JEWISH STARS OVER HOLLYWOOD
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Do Movies And TV Promote Un-American Propaganda ? by Dr. Ed Fields
The Committee on Un-American Activities investigated communist infiltration of the
motion picture industry in 1947. Actor Larry Parks confessed that he had been a
member of a secret Communist Party Cell in Hollywood whose task was to insert Marxist themes into the movies. He revealed that Jewish actor John Garfield was also a member of this cell.
The studios were forced to  » blacklist  » Garfleld who never appeared in another film. Still the dark forces which control Hollywood also banned Parks. Later the infamous
« Hollywood Ten » film writers were sentenced to prison for contempt of Congress. They had refused to answer questions about their pro-communist propaganda work. Nine of the ten were Jews!

Stars Who Fought Communism
John Wayne organized a group of Christian actors to fight against the Red stranglehold over Hollywood in support of the House Committee. Wayne formed the  » Motion Picture Alliance for The Preservation of Amerlcan Ideals. » He was joined by Hedda Hopper and Charles Coburn (who became a leading member of the Mississippi White Citizens Councils). Other members included actors Ward Bond, Robert Taylor and Adolphe Menjou. On the other side, opposing the House Committee and supporting the communist writers were Humphrey Bogart, Clifford Odetts, Lauren Bacall, June Havoc and Danny Kay (all Jews!) Marxism – A Racial Movement « An Empire of Their Own – How The Jews Invented Hollywood »is a book by Neal Cabler available from your hookstore. Gabler tells the story of a group of Jewish refugees who fled Russia when it was under the Christian Czars because they banned such « Jewish business practices  » as money-lending at usurious interest rates.
These « persecuted » Russian Jews included Marcus Loew who founded Loews Pictures, Louis B. Mayer and Samuel Goldwyn started Metro-Goldwyn Mayer (MGM). Barney Balaban launched Paramount and Harry Cohen formed Columbia Pictures. William Fox started Twentieth Century Fox. The four Jewish brothers, Jack, Samuel, Albert and Harry Warner who departed Poland only six years earlier formed Warner Brothers.

The Cleveland Plain Denier of April 24, 1988 in an article by Don Robertson described
these Russian Jews as: « in the 1930s the Group Theater was based in New York City and was directed by film director Lee Strassberg, playwright Clifford Odetts and actor John Garfield. The Group Theater was an interesting bunch and produced a lot of left-wing plays… At the same time those people were limited by their origins usually urban, Jewish and believers in the Stalinist brand of Communism.  »

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Who Rules Hollywood And TV Today?
How can CBS-TV be totally controlled by the Jew Larry Tisch when it has 24 million
shares of common stock-outstanding worth $4.66 billion? The answer is that Tisch and his Loew’s Inc. bought 25% of the CBS stock. Often a 10% to 20% stock holding in a large company gives one total control. Tisch has turned CBS into an all-Jewish run firm! He named the Jew Howard Stringer ~resident and Jeff Sagansky entertainment head – he determines what you will view each night on CBS. ABC-TV is headed by Leonard
Goldenson with Stu Bloomberg in charge of quot; »entertainment.  »

NBC-TV president is Leonard Grossman with Irvin Segelstein as vice-president. In 1980 they named the 31year-old Jew Brandon Tartikoff as « president of entertainment. « No wonder the public is spoon-fed nothing but pro-Zionist propaganda – promoting Israel – damning the Germans – attacking Christianity – slandering White southerners and ridiculing anti-Communists?

Who Controls Hollywood Today?
The Jewish Post And Opinion of December 6, 1974 states: « Jews dominate Hollywood
today as they did in its infancy, The Jewish presence in Hollywood is a historic fact, A
majority of the producers and directors are Jewish while the Writers Guild is practically 70% to 100% Jewish! »
What happens when non-Jews buy a film company? The Jews maintain control because it is « The Deal » in Hollywood which brings in the BIG MONEY! Buying the film story,
signing stars to contracts, (who are under Jewish agents) and the distribution of the film to Jewish owned theater chains like Odeon. You had better be in solid with the Jews if you want to make money.

November 16, 1989, the Japanese Sony Corp. bought Columbia Pictures and Tri-Star
films. They immediately agreed to pay the all-time record sum of half-a-billion to two
young Jews to run the studios. They are Jon Peters and Peter Guber to whom Sony paid $200 million for their production company and each received $50 million as a signing
bonus plus $2.75 million each for five years!

Universal Pictures is 100% Jew controlled with Lew Wasserman as chairman of MCA
(the parent company). Universal president is Sidney Sheinberg with Thomas Pollack as
film head. Their most anti-White movie is « Do The Right Thing » and their most anti-
Christian film is « The Last Temptation of Christ. »

Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer is run by the half-Jew Alan Ladd, Jr. (his mother being the Jewess Sue Carroll). He released the anti-South African film « Cry Freedom.  » Paramount Pictures president is the Jew Mel Harris with Martin Davis chairman and Deborah Rosen as communications director.

Fox TV is owned by the Jew Barry Diller which presents « Married- With Children. « This is condemned by Rev. Donald Wildmon’s American Family Assn. « for portraying explicit sex, profanity and anti-Christian themes.  »

The Name Changers
The Jewish Hollywood moguls long ago decided that it would help them make more money if the general public viewed films as being « Christian. » In fact, they personally wanted to blend in with the Gentile community. Thus Samuel Goldfish changed his name to Goldwyn and Cecil B. de Mille insisted that he was a Gentile until his death when a Rabbi officiated at his funeral. Every single one of the original Jewish developers of the movie industry divorced their Jewish wives and married beautiful Christian starlets.
This includes Louis B. Mayer, Samuel Goldwyn, Jack Warner, David O. Selznick and
Harry Cohen. They gave orders to the numerous Jews they made « stars » to change their Jewish names to Christian sounding ones. This has also included a lot of « nosejobs » for both Jewish male and female stars. Here are but a few who followed this road to stardom.

Adopted Christian Name ……….Real Jewish Name
Joey Adams ………………………… Joseph Abramowitz
Eddie Albert ………………………….Eddie Heimberger
Woody Allen………………………… Allen Konigsberg
Lauren Bacall ……………………… Joan Perske
Jack Benny …………………………. Benny Kubelsky
Milton Berle ……………………….. Milton Berlinger
Ernest Borgnine …………………….Effron Borgnine
George Burns ……………………… Nathan Birnbaum
Joan Blondell……………………….. Rosebud Blustein
Joyce Brothers ……………………..Joyce Bauer
Mel Brooks ………………………… Melvin Kaminsky
Joey Bishop ………………………… Joey Gottlieb
Charles Bronson ………………….. Charles Buchinsky
Rona Barrett …………………………Rona Burnstein
Cyd Chrisse ………………………….Tula Finklea
Tony Curtis …………………………. Bernie Schwartz
(daughter is Jamie Lee Curtis)
Joan Crawford …………………….. Lucille Le Sueur
Dyan Cannon ………………………. Samile Friesen
Kirk Douglas ………………………. Isadore Demsky
(son is Michael Douglas)
Bob Dylan …………………………….Robert Zimmerman
Rodney Dangerfield ………………Jacob Cohen
Douglas Fairbanks, Jr. …………. Douglas Ullman
Joel Grey ……………………………. Joel Katz
(father of Jennifer Grey)
Elliott Gould …………………………..Elliott Goldstein
Zsa Zsa Gabor ……………………….Sara Gabor
John Garfield ……………………….. Jules Garfinkle
Judy Garland ………………………… Frances Gumm
Paulette Goddard ………………….. Paulette Levy
Eydie Gorme…………………………. Edith Gormezano
Cary Grant ……………………………. Larry Leach
Lorne Green …………………………..Chaim Leibowiz
Judy Holliday ………………………… Judith Tuvin
Leslie Howard ……………………….. Leslie Stainer
Buddy Hackett ………………………. Leonard Hacker
Jill St. John ……………………………. Jill Oppenheim
Danny Kaye……………………………. David Kominsky
Alan King ………………………………. Irwin Kniberg
Larry King………………………………..Larry Zeiger
Tina Louise……………………………… Tina Blacker
Ann Landers……………………………..Esther Friedman
(Abigail Van Buren is her sister.)
Dorothy Lamour ……………………… Dorothy Kaumeyer
Miehael Landon ……………………… Mike Orowitz
Steve Lawrence ………………………. Sidney Leibowitz
Hal Linden………………………………. Hal Lipshitz
Jerry Lewis ……………………………. Joseph Levitch
Karl Maiden ……………………………Maiden Sekulovitch
Ethel Merman ………………………… Ethel Zimmerman
Jan Murray ……………………………. Murray Janofsky
Walter Matthau ……………………… Walter Matasschanskayasky
Lilly Palmer ……………………………. Maria Peiser
Jan Pierce………………………………. Pincus Perelmuth
Roberta Peters…………………………Roberta Peterman
Eleanor Parker……………………….. Ellen Friedlob
Joan Rlvers …………………………….Joan Molinsky
Tony Randall ………………………… Sidney Rosenberg
Edward G. Robinson ……………… Emanuel Goldenberg
Dinah Shore ………………………….. Fanny Rose
Shelly Winters ………………………. Shirley Schrift
Gene Wilder………………………….. Jerome Silberman
More Jewish Stars Over Hollywood
There are hundreds of other Jews in Hollywood « stardom » – far too numerous to list
them all here. However the following are Jews whom many think are Gentiles: Ed Asner, Bea Arthur, Gene Barry, Richard Benjamin, Kevin Costner, Lee J. Cobb, Joan Collins, Richard Dreyfus, Ted Danson, Peter Falk (Columbo), Eddie Fisher, Harrison Ford, Richard Gere, Betty Grable, Sharon Gless, Steven Segall Dustin Hoffman, Monty Hall, Amy Irving, Jack Klugman, Leonard Nimoy, Ken Olin, Ron Perlman, George Segel, William Shatner, Peter Strauss, Rod Steiger, Jane Seymour, Barbara Walters, Debra Winger, and Bruee Willis.
The following are half-Jewish, Joan Collins, Goldie Hawn, Paul Newman, Robert DeNiro and Geraldo Rivera.

Jews in the music field include, Billy Joel, Barry Manilow, Tony Martin, Bette Midler,
Barbara Streisand and Ringo Starr.

Here are but a few in the field of »comedy » which is 90% Jewish dominated! Roseanne
Barr, David Brenner, Sid Caesar, Richard Dawson, Don Adams, Norm Crosby, George Jessel, Alan King, Carl Reiner, Don Rickles, Martha Reye, Garry Shandling, Henry
Winkler and David Letterman.

How The Jews Stole Thomas Edison’s Motion Picture Invention
Thomas Edison was the greatest inventor who ever lived with over 2,000 inventions
patented including the electric light, the phonograph and the motion picture machine.
In 1903 the four Warner brothers bought a used Edison Kinetoscope projector for $1,000 and repaired it. They began showing what they called the « magic lantern pictures » on the walls in beer halls. 1909 Edison’s General Film Co. sued Warner Brothers for violating their copyright to the motion picture machine and forced them to close their company. At that time, the Warners and other Jews were making illegal films in Brooklyn. They fled Edison’s private detectives for Los Angeles where lax laws let them steal the film business away from Thomas Edison.
Later this same skullduggery occurred once again. Two Christian inventors. Lee De
Forrest and Theodore Case, came up with the « talking machine » sound system. The same Jewish producers also stole this invention and the Jew Al Jolson came out with the first « talkie » film –  » The Jazz Singer.  »

Propaganda The Goal of Hollywood It is of GREAT interest that Jack Warner’s very first feature film in 1918 was a vicious anti-German melodrama called « My Four Years In Germany; », it accused the Germans of all kinds of atrocities which were later proven to be war time propaganda. It seems as though the Jews have ALWAYS harbored a hatred for the German people!

Anti-American, Anti-White Movies « Winds of War  » and  » War and Remembrance  » were produced by Universal which lost $20 million yet more anti-German pro-holocaust films are coming. Robert Mitchum. star of the series, told Esquire Magazine that he doesn’t even believe in the holocaust story! Facts prove that while 1.3 million Jews may have died of starvation, typhus, etc. not one single Jew was ever gassed. (According to The Leuchter Report!)

There have been three versions of « Mississippi Burning » but nothing about the
assassination of Jackson, Miss. White Christian school teacher Mrs. Kathy Ainsworth.
Her murder was financed by $79,000 furnished by New Orleans Jewish Anti- Defamation League head, A. I. Botnik. (According to Los Angeles Times, 2/13/1970). Columinist Pat Buchanan asks « When will Hollywood present a film on the new racism in which primarily black crime holds an entire nation hostage? »

Col. Charles Lindbergh. speaking on nationwide radio In 1941 stated: « The Jews greatest danger to this country lies in their large influence and ownership of our motion pictures and the press! »

« So Proudly, We Hail »by CBS and Jew director Lionel Chetwynd is a lying and vicious attack upon Tom Metzger and David Duke!

« The Stick Wife » by Universal is about the 1963 Birmingham church bombing starring
Jessica Lange playing Bob Chambliss wife. It is a total lie! Your editor covered that trial and Chamhliss was positively innocent.

« Glory » by Columbia and written by I.incoln Kirstein has a Negro regiment from Mass. practically winning the Civil War.

« Born on The Fourth of July  » by Universal damns our Vietnam War Veterans as being guilty of inhuman atrocities while the Viet Cong are presented as absolute innocents.

Unending Anti-White Hate Movies Bruce Willis (Jewish) slaughters « German Terrorists » right and left in « Die Hard. »

Harrison Ford (Jew) burns Germans alive in both « Indiana Jones  » movies.

« Howard Beach – Making A Case For Murder  » is yet another NBC film designed to
instill « self-hate » within White people, directed by the Jew Kenneth Kaufman.
Columnist Pat Buchanan says that 9 out of 10 interracial crimes are committed by
blacks against Whites. When will we see this on TV?

Singer Paula Abdul has claimed to be Spanish, Puerto Rican and Lebanese. However, the Montreal Gazette, May 8, 1992 states that she is Jewish and her real name is Paula Rykiss from Winnipeg.

Propaganda Goals Outlined
Our Film Folk, a column by Herbert Luft, appears only in Jewish publications. His
description of the 1982 Academy Awards applies to all such events: « Jews award Jews
for Jewish theme movies! Reds glorified the Soviet Revolution, Chariots of Fire instilled a guilt feeling in Gentiles for discrimination against Jews. Genocide was best
documentary on the German Holocaust of Jews.  » In the film « Holocaust » both Poles and Ukranians are described as « worse than Nazies. » In « The Eye » the French betray the Jews during World War II.
In the famous Playboy Magazine interview of Jan. 1979, actor Marlon Brando explains
this phenomenon:  » You’ve seen every single race besmirched, but you never saw an
unfavorable image of the Kike because the Jews were ever so watchful for that. They
never allowed it to be shown on screen! »

No film maker dares to be critical of Jews, Israel or Zionism. A Jewish male must be
referred to as’a nice Jewish boy. » a young girl is an « American Jewish Princess. » Jew
musicians are always’talented, » writers « gifted, » painters « sensitive, » doctors « brilliant. » Jew millionares « philanthropic and visionary. » Hollywood Molds Minds

Millions of innocent Christian Americans have been victimized by pro-Zionist and pro-
Communist film propaganda. They do not realize the Jew « name changers » have used
subtle and very sophisticated stories to manipulate the mjnds of our people. No nation
can long remain free while such a powerful medium is totally controlled by alien Jews
whose loyalty is to Zionism first.
Order Extra Copies of Truth Tract No. 2. for your friends, relatives and fellow workers–. Help us distribute millions of copies. 5 for $1 …30 for $5… 75 for $10 …200 for $25 Subscribe Today to America’s . Oldest Patriotic newspaper carrying. the truth about Hollywood . and « Suppressed News » on similar subjects.
THE TRUTH AT LAST

Famous Jews – Activists
Politicians/Government, Leaders, Activists, People with a Cause

Moses – Jewish National Liberator and Law Giver
Jesus — the Christian ‘Messiah’
Shimon Peres – Prime Minister of Israel
Steven Shafir – President Northwest Canada Region AZA
Golda Meir – Prime Minister of Israel
Menachem Begin — Prime Minister of Israel — Israel’s Greatest Freedom Fighter
David Ben Gurion – Israeli Prime Minister
Yitzhak Rabin – Prime Minister of Israel, Other Site]
Gen. Beauregard – Southern Gen. in the Civil War
Benjamin Netanyahu — Prime Minister of Israel
Henry Kissinger — ‘Ran the US for a while’.
RUTH GOLDMAN STEIN-LABOR ACTIVIST FROM BOSTON
Paco Giuliano – Laosian Foreign Minister and avid zionist
Leon Trotsky – Leader of the Red Army
Menachem Mendel Schneerson z/l – The Lubavitcher Rebbe
Irv Rubin – National Chairman Jewish Defense League
Joseph Lieberman — Orthodox Jewish Senator from Connecticut.
Netanyahu, Yonatan – Israeli soldier, leader of raid on Entebbe, killed in action there, .
Elie Wiesel – Nobel laureate and Chairman of ‘The President’s Commission on the Holocaust’
Theodore Herzl – father of modern zionism
Alan Greenspan – Federal Reserve Board Chairman
Moshe Dayan – Israeli military leader
Henry Sobel, Rabbi and leader of the Brazilian Jewish community
Vladimir (Zeev) Zhabotinsky – Famous Zionist
Baruch Spinoza – Philosopher
Rabbi Avi Weiss — World Famous Activist
SETH ETAN DUBIN – children’s rights lobbyist
Emma Goldman – US Anarchist
Sidney Reilly – (Sigmund Rosenberg) Famous(!) English Secret Agent – the REAL James Bond!
Barbara Boxer – California Senator
Andrea Dworkin – Radical Feminist, Author, ‘Anti-Zionist’
Jack Ruby – Murderer of Lee Harvey Oswald
Noam Chomsky – Famous ‘Anti-Zionist’
Judah P Benjamin – Sec of State of Confederacy in US civl war
Meir Kahane – Jewish Defense League Founder
Joshua Ben Nun – Leader of the Conquering Hebrews, after Egypt.
Rivka – One of the Jewish Matriarchs
Ed Koch – former Mayor of New York
Simon Wiesenthal – Nazi-hunter
Boruh Yeltsin- Russian President
George Soros – Philanthropist
Abraham – concept of g-d worshipped by billions
Gloria Steinem – leader of s womens movement
Arlen Spector – U.S. Senator and former presidential candidate for Republicans
Abbie Hoffman — sixties activist
Madeline Albright – Sec. of State, Jewish grandparents.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg – Executed as Soviet spies
Bob Rae – former Premier for Ontario
Rabbi Aryeh Levin — Rabbi of the Prisoners
Aaron Copland – Composer of Appalachian Spring and other great classical music
Susan Weikers-Volchok – first woman to serve as National Campaign Chairman of State of Israel
Bond Organization
Dennis Prager – Talk Show Host, Author
Charles Ancer – Ex-President South African Union of Jewish Students
Michael Lerner – Author/activist
Karl Marx – Father of Marxism
Albert Einstein – German scientist and peace activist
James Bolger – New Zealand Prime Minister
Madeline Albright – Secretary of State
Vladimir Zhirinovsky – Russian Ultra-Nationalist (real name: Eidelstein)
Ronnie Kasrils – South Africa Deputy Defense Minister
Bill Davis – former Premier of ONTARIO, CANADA
William Cohen – Secretary of Defense
Hugo Gryn – Rabbi, leader of British Reform Jewry
Barry Goldwater – Ariz. Pol. Important Conservative
Rabbi Marvin Antelman, Cheif Justice of the Supreme Rabbinic Court which excommunicated
Henry Kissinger, author of book, To Eliminate the Opiate.
Bruno Kreisky — former Austrian leader
Haym Salomon – Major Financier of American Revolutionary Army/Never got paid back
Benjamin Disraeli – Prime Minister of Great Britain
Robert Rubin – Treasury Secretary
Abba Eban – Israeli Statesman.
Janusz Korczak (Herschel Goldschmitt) – ran orphanage in Warsaw Ghetto
Earnestine Rose — Civil War Abolitionist
Maxim Litvinov – USSR Foreign Minister
Jonathan Pollard-U.S. Naval analyst; supplied vital info to Israel
Paul Bromberg – Mayor of Bogota, Colombia ….
Bob Briscoe and Ben Briscoe – father and son Lord Mayors of Dublin
Gloria Allred – lawyer, feminist leader
Harvey Milk – st gay coucil member in san fran.
Judah P. Benjamin – Secretary of State – US Confederacy
Nilton Bonder, Brazilian rabbi and author
Kahina – Jewish Berber queen who bravely fought against Arab invaders in th c.
Theodor Herzel – Father of Zionism
William Roth- Senator (R) Delaware, Avid Tax cutter
Ariel Sharon – Famous General, now senior Israeli gov’t official.
Meir Har-Tzion–Legendary Israeli commando
Richard Holbrooke – Fmr. Ass. Sec. of State-Helped draft Dayton Accords
Alberto Nasser – President of Brazilian Jewish Community
Dennis Ross – Chief Middle East Negotiator
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich (orig. Nikolai Ulyanov)- Father of Soviet Union one Jewish grandparent]
Malcolm Hoenlein Exec Vp Conf of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
Raphael Semmes – Sec US Navy/Admiral Confederate Navy
Louis Brandeis-First Jew to appointed to US Supreme Ct.
Rafael Levi – He is the best in the west!
The Baal Shem Tov
Milton Katz – Architect of the Marshall Plan
Israel B.Rasgon Admiral of the Black Sea fleet.Executed
Shoshana Cardin – First woman to serve as Chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major
American Jewish Organizations
Rahm Emmanuel – Clinton advisor
Joseph Trumpeldor – famous Zionist, founder of Tel Hai, only Jewish officer in tsarist Russia
Betty Friedan – Feminist Icon
Hon. Herb Gray, MP, Solicitor General of Canada
helen Suzman – south african politician and defender of human rights
Aaron Aaronson – Agronomist and NILI Chief
Howard Metzenbaum – former U.S. Senator, Ohio
Rashi- th century Talmud and Bible commentator
Carl Levin – U S Senator
Letty Cottin Pogrebin – Feminist author, co-founder of Ms. Magazine
Diane M. Trippel – Computer Free Speech Activist
Bela Abzug – Senator
Warren Rudman – Former U S Senator Jewish?]
Walther Rathenau – Weimar Rep. Foreign Minister
Jacob Javits – U S Senator From New York
Stefan Zweig – Austrian writer and peace activist
Yevgeny Primakov – Russia’s Foreign Minister
Samuel Scheps, born in , in Lodz. Head of the Palestinian Office -, Basle-Geneva. Rescued Jewish
lifes, sent survivors to Eretz Yisrael.
Cardinal Lustiger – Archbishop of Paris, France; converted to Catholicism during World War II.
Brete Harte – th Cent. American Author
Gershom Scholem – Professor, Author of Kabbalistic studies
Zvi Koren — director-general of the Ministry of Industry and Trade
Barney Frank – Dem Congressman, Massachusetts
Ayn Rand (Alissa Rosenbaum) – Writer, philosopher
Susan Weikers Volchok – first woman to serve as National Chairman of Israel Bonds
John Deutsch – Former C I A Director
Banff Sheinkopf Schulman – Hockey Player/ WWF Champion (featherweight class)
Ytzhak Shamir – Former Prime Minister of Israel
Stew Albert – sixties radical (stewa@aol.com)
George Steiner – professor of literary studies
Aryeh Kaplan – Kabbalistic author
Adm. Hyman Rickover – Father of the US Nuclear Navy
David Marshal – Singapore’s First Chief Minister
Herbert Lehman – Former governor of New York State
Dianne Feinstein – Senator from California
Jerry Rubin – sixties radical
Alan Dershowitz – Lawyer, Author, Jewish Activist
Samuel Dash – Senate Watergate Committee Counsel
Douglas Ginsberg- sixth Jew appointed to US Supreme Ct- rejected by senate for smoking pot
Bill Handel – Talk show host and Lawyer
Steven Breyer – Current Supreme Court Justice
Joseph Lashinsky – Agent for NILI in WWI
Jerry Rubin – radical sixties leader
Louis Moses Gomez, early th cent. Indian trader, Parnass of NY Shearith Israel, Philanthropist
Arthur Goldberg – Former U N Representative
Caspar Weinberger – Secretary of Defense under Reagan (Jewish ancestry)
Samuel Gompers – th Cent. American Labor Leader
HaRav Moshe Tzvi Neria — Founder of Bnei Akiva, Knesset Member
Abraham Joshua Heschel- Civil Rights activist and theologian
Martin Indyk — American embassador to Israel
Madeleine May Kunin — former governor of vermont; deputy secretary of the U.S. Department of
Education
Mel Lastman – mayor of NORTH YORK, Ontario
Michael Yoss-bagel baron of Atlanta
Benjamin Cardozo- second Jew appointed to US Supreme Court
Joe Slovo – South African Housing Minister
Ezer Wiezman, Israeli president
paul findley former Illinois Congressman
PIERRE MENDES – FRANCE, French Prime Minister -
Charles Schumer- Congressman; next governor of NY
Hyman Rickover – father of the nuclear navy
Albert Shanker – Teachers Union Head
Jean Amery–writer, philosopher, atheist, and Holocaust survivor
Abe Fortas – Supreme Court Justice
Ambassador Martin Indyck First Jewish Ambassador from the U.S. to Israel
Rosa Luxemburg – early Communist philosopher and agitator
Mel Lastman- Mayor of Toronto, Canada
Robert Reich – Labor Secretary
Elizabeth Glaser-AIDS activist, founder of Pediatric AIDS Foundation, late wife of Paul Michael
Glaser
Leon Blum — former leader of France
Milton Schapp – Former Governor Of Pa.
Diane Feinstein – mayor of San Francisco, congresswoman
Warren Rudman – former U.S. Senator from New Hampshire
Felix Frankfurter- third Jew appointed to US Supreme Court
Peter Hettmann – brilliant american investor
Lord Montefiore – Wealthy Anglo-Jewish Aristocrat
Sidney Yates – Illinois Congressman
Bruce Herman – Asst. to Traveling Secretary, Yankees
john monash – australian brigadier at gallipoli
Richard Oppenheimer-Inventor of A-bomb and murderer of millions
Sir Moses Montefiore – English philanthropist ( th cent.)
Rav Avraham Yitzchak HaKohen Kook – First Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel
Spinoza, philosopher
Leon Trotsky, political revolutionary
James Laxer, Political Scientist and social activist
Jerzy Fitelberg – Composer
Ralph Milliband, British political scientist and social activist
Malcolm Rifkind – British Foreign Minister – Former Scottish Secretary
Eugenia Levy Phillips — Confederate spy and activist
Grzegorz Fitelberg – Composer, Conductor, Violinist
Russ Feinberg- US Senator from Wisconsin
Sha’oul Dayan – Chief Rabbi Judge of Morocco
Miltiades Evert – Greek politician
Yehuda Amichai – leading literary figure in israel and poet of international reputation.
Felix Dzersinskij – Founder of the KGB
Alan D. Wapner – Ontario, California City Councilman
Stanley Mosk, California State Supreme Court Justice
David Peterson – former liberal Premier of Ontario
Richard Posner – Cheif Judge of the Sevent Circuit
Samuel Gompers-th Cent. American Labor Leader
GOL Jean, former belgian vice primer minister
Franz Werfel – Austrian Political Writer of the thirties
Arthur Burns – Former Chairman Of The Fed Reserve
Jay Sekulow – Pat Robertson’s Constitutional Lawyer
Ed Rendell – Mayor of Philadelphia
Carol Berman – Chair NY State BD. of Elections and former NY State Senator
Hersh Tzinowitz — Jewish leader in India after WWII
David Garth – Political Media Advisor
Rabbi Solomon Funk- famous writer
Herb Gray – Canadian Deputy Prime Minister
Samuel Berger – Chair. National Security Council
Bernard Sanders – Independent Congressman from Vermont
Primo Levi – Italian Holocaust Memoirist and Chemist
Adam Michnik – Poland’s famous anti-commie dissident
Jonathan Sacks, British Chief Rabbi
Walter Benjamin – Jewish-German philosopher
Arlen Specter–U.S.Senator from Pa.
Richard Stone – Former Senator From Florida
Herbert Kohl – U S Senator
Julius Klein, Lt. General, U. S. Army th cent
Russ Feingold (not Feinberg) Senator from Wisconsin
Former Chief of U.S. Naval Operations: Admiral J. Boorda
Uriah P. Levy, Commodore US Navy in the ‘s, perhaps our Dreyfuss
Janet Jagan – President of Guyana
Edward Levi – Former U S Attorney General Under Ford
Milton Friedman- Nobel Lauriate in Economics, Founder of Chicago School of Economics
Irving Kristol- Famous early Neo-Conservative
Norman Podhoretz- Early Neo-conservative, longtime editor of Commentary
Bill Kristol- Irving’s Son, Editor of the Weekly Standard, ex-cheif of Staff for VP Dan Quail
Ludwig Wittgenstein – one of the most prominent modern philosophers
Paul Wellstone – Senator From Minnesota
Marquess of Reading – Foreign Secretary and Viceroy of India
Abraham Beame – Former NYC Mayor
Rabbi Alexander Goode Gave his life onUSS Dorchester so others could live one of the Chaplins
Cardinal Lustiger – convert reached top level of Catholic hierarchy in France
Mary Fisher-Aids Activist
Kurt Eisner – German revolutionary,
Raymond Trousson, Belgium Royal Academy
Serge Gainsbourg, french singer
Martha Neumark-one of the first women to seek rabbinic ordination
David Levy – Likud Leader born in Rabat Morocco
Bela Kun – leader of pre-wwii Hungarian revolution
Harold Brown – Secretary of Defense in Carter Administration
Arthur Goldberg- forth Jew appointed to US Supreme Ct
Frank Lautenberg – U.S. Senator, New Jersey
Chaim Solomon: financed the American Revolution
Eamon de Valera: Early IRA (Sinn Fein) activist (Founder? Mother Jewish)
Jeremy Rifkin – Famous Paranoid Technophobe
Perry Ferrel (last name Bernstein) — lead singer Janes Addiction
Daniel Yulee (Levee) 1st senator from Fla. J.C. Calhoun’s right hand man.

Top: Jewish Leaders: Executives

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Adam Citroen – « Founder of Citroen, the car company »
Andrew Grove – CEO Intel
Andrew S. Grove – CEO of Intel Corp.
Baron Philippe de Rothschilde – Famous wine maker
Ben and Jerry – Ice Cream makers from Vermont
Beny Alagem – CEO and president of Packard Bell Electronics
Calvin Klein – Famous clothing designer
Estee Lauder – Cosmetics company owner
Ivan Boesky – Sleazy son of a Russian-Jewish immigrant. Got caught and is rotting in jail for stockmarket fraud.
Joel M. Kupferman – President Interamerican Car Rental
Larry Ellison – CEO Oracle Corp
Louis Blaustein – Owner of the first gas station in Baltimore (1910)
Pau Allen – Co-Founder of Microsoft Corp.
Ralph Lauren – Famous Clothes Designer (Real name is Ralph Livshitz)
Ronald J. Kupferman – CEO and President Global Software Inc.
Vidal Sassoon – Hair care product company ownert

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Top: Jewish Leaders: Attorneys

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Alan Dershowitz – « Lawyer, Author, Jewish Activist (unless of cource a Jew is killed in a high profile case) »
Barry Scheck – Another low life from the OJ defense team
Barry Tarlow – Represented Bernhard Goetz and Courtney Love.
David Codikow – NYC’s top music biz lawyer, works with Marilyn Manson
Gloria Allred – The feminist lawyer who enjoyed dressing in all red clothing on talk shows before it got trite
Marcia Horowitz Clark – The inept prosecutor
Peter Neufeld – First we kill all the lawyers….’
Robert Shapiro – The only OJ Lawyer with the slightest bit of dignity (although not much)
Roy Cohn – Joe McCarthy’s attack dog prosecutor.

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Top: Jewish Religions: Christianity: Penetration of The Christian Organizations: Pope John-Paul II’s Hinted Jewish Background & Birth

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CLICK HERE FOR THE JEW WATCH NEWS RELEASE ON THE OUTING OF THE POPE …

IS THE POPE JEWISH?

The early years: an unhappy childhood

by John Christensen

Archived for research purposes under « fair use » provisions of the copyright law from http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/ where it appeared on July 26, 2004.

(CNN) — Pope John Paul II was Karol Jozef Wojtyla … became the Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Christ, Successor of St. Peter, Prince of Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, Sovereign of Vatican City – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

Why the Pope’s Mother, Emily Katz, is Likely of Jewish Descent

(CNN) — Friends in Wadowice, a town of 8,000 Catholics and 2,000 Jews 35 miles southwest of Krakow, called Wojtyla « Lolek. » Lolek was born in 1920, the second son of Karol Wojtyla (voy TIH wah) Sr., a retired army officer and tailor, and Emilia Kaczorowska Wojtyla, a schoolteacher of Lithuanian descent. [And most likely Jewish, her Anglocized name being "Emily Katz." Her wedding picture shows typical Jewish facial features.] – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

Emily Katz’s Picture

[Notice the Jewish facial characteristics of the Pope's Mother, Emily Katz, who was born "Emilia Kaczorowska." According to CNN, the Pope's friends were mostly Jewish. Evidently, the rest of his father's family disowned the Pope's father for marrying Emily Katz. Note: This picture is placed here under "fair use" of the copyright law for scholarly research only. It could be found at the CNN site as of July 27, 2004 when this revealing information was archived on www.jewwatch.com. -- Jew Watch Notes ]

The Pope’s Family Friends were mostly Jewish.
Jerry Kluger, a Jewish Boy, Is His Life Long Friend

(CNN) — The Wojtylas … did not share the anti-Semitic views of many Poles. One of Lolek’s playmates was Jerzy Kluger, a Jew who many years later would play a key role as a go-between for John Paul II and Israeli officials when the Vatican extended long-overdue diplomatic recognition to Israel. – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

(CNN) — Kluger told The New York Times that he spent many afternoons sitting in the kitchen next to the Wojtylas’ coal stove listening to Lolek’s father tell stories about Greece, Rome and Poland. –– John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

(CNN) — Lolek, in turn, went to the (Jewish) Klugers’ 10-room apartment overlooking the town square and listened to music performed by a string quartet composed of two Jews and two Catholics. – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

(CNN) — « The people in the Vatican do not know Jews, and previous popes did not know Jews, » Kluger told the Times. « But this pope is a friend of the Jewish people because he knows Jewish people. » – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

(CNN) — Indeed, Wojtyla became the first pope to visit a synagogue and the first to visit the memorial at Auschwitz to victims of the Holocaust. In ending the Catholic-Jewish estrangement, he called Jews « our elder brothers. » – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

Pope Participated in Jewish Oriented Activities such as Theatre Groups,
Singing, Poetry Reading, and Literary Discussion Groups

(CNN) — He also joined an experimental theater group and participated in poetry readings and literary discussion groups. Friends say he was an intense and gifted actor, and a fine singer. – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

Pope John-Paul II Faced Deportation in Poland by the Germans,
Probably Because he was of Jewish Descent,
So He Took a Difficult Laborer’s Job in a Stone Quarry
to Escape Deportation and Imprisonment.

Question: Why would this happen if he were not Jewish?

(CNN) — After the Germans invaded Poland, he escaped deportation and imprisonment in late 1940 by taking a job as a stone cutter in a quarry. – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

To Blend In With Christians and Not be Deported,
The Jewish Pope-To-Be Studied for the Priesthood Starting in 1943

(CNN) — A few months later, in February of 1941, Wojtyla’s 61-year-old father died, leaving his dream of seeing his son commit to the priesthood unfulfilled. The pope has said that his father once told him, « I will not live long and would like to be certain before I die that you will commit yourself to God’s service. » – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

(CNN) — It was another 18 months, however, before Wojtyla began studying at an underground seminary in Krakow and registered for theology courses at the university. – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/ [Note: The Pope did not study for the priesthood until after the Germans had controlled Poland for 2-3 years and after his father had died. This might perhaps be consistent with a mixed family atmosphere and lends more weight to the concept of having a Jewish mother along with Jewish friends as he grew up. -- JEW WATCH NOTE.]

The Pope Worked in a War Chemical Plant to Escape 1944 Deportation

(CNN) — He continued his studies, acted and worked in a chemical plant until August of 1944. – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

The Pope Took Refuge in the Archbishop of Krakow’s Residence in 1944

(CNN) — But when the Germans began rounding up Polish men, Wojtyla took refuge in the archbishop of Krakow’s residence, and remained there until the end of the war. – John Christensen at CNN SPECIAL BIOGRAPHY on the Pope’s Early Years, http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/pope/bio/early/

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Top: Jewish Leaders: Jewish Mafia – Jewish Underworld

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An Encyclopedia of Jewish Mafia Articles in the Domestic and Foreign Press (Click Here) …

Jewish Mafia Leaders

Anton LaVey – Real last name Levy. Founder of the Church of Satan, author and organist. Played the devil in the movie « Rosemary’s Baby ».
Bugsy Siegel – Creator modern day Las Vegas
David Berkowitz – The Son of Sam who enjoyed taking advice from canines
Dutch Schultz – Underworld figure
Ethel Rosenberg – Solviet spy who with her husband got sentenced to death
Hymie Weiss – Al Capone’s arch enemy
Jack Ruby – The person who murdered Lee Harvey Oswald
Joel Rifkin – New York Serial Killer
John Gotti Jr. – Technically a Jew as his mother is Jewish.
Julius Rosenberg – Famous Soviet spy who was executed
Lepke Buchalter – New York gangster
Meyer Lansky – Mob Boss
Yigal Amir – The person who murdered Yitzhak Rabin

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Top: Jewish Leaders Folder: The Rothschild Internationalist-Zionist-Banking-One World Order Family

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The Rothschild Dynasty & The Worldwide Conspiracy
Rothschilds Control British Finance Via War Loans
Mayer Rothschild’s Famous Statement
Lionel Nathan de Rothschild’s Castle Garden
Lord Lionel Rothschild & The Balfour Declaration
Lord Rothschild Sworn Into House of Lords
The House of Rothschild (1934) Movie
Jewish Newsgroup Discussions

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Mayer Rothschild’s Famous Statement of World Manipulation

 » Let me issue and control a nation’s money, and I care not who writes its laws. »

Meyer Rothschild International Banker top of page

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Rothschilds Gain Control of British Finance Via War Loans

« When the conflict with France ended the House of Rothschild was in control of British fiance and was the official banker of the British Government. This odd financial octopus was acknowledged to be in some respects the greatest power on the earth and was acknowledged by some writers as the « Sixth Great Power of Europe » (page 68 The Empire of « The City » , 1946 E. C. Knuth, Milwaukee Wisconsin). top of page

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BALFOUR DECLARATION& LIONEL ROTHSCHILD: top of page

a brief but official statement of the British government in 1917 expressing sympathy with Zionist aspirations to establish a Jewish homeland in the Land of Israel. The statement was released in the form of a letter from Lord Balfour, the British Foreign Secretary, to Lord Lionel Rothschild, a supporter of the Zionist movement. It said: « His Majesty’s Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people and will use the best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. » The statement became a milestonein Zionist history. top of page

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The Alien Grip on Our
News and Entertainment Media Must Be Broken

Who Rules America?

By the Research Staff of National Vanguard Magazine
PO Box 330, Hillsboro, West Virginia 24946 USA. FAX# 304-653-4690

There is no greater power in the world today than that wielded by the manipulators of public opinion in America. No king or pope of old, no conquering general or high priest ever disposed of a power even remotely approaching that of the few dozen men who control America’s mass media of news and entertainment.

Their power is not distant and impersonal; it reaches into every home in America, and it works its will during nearly every waking hour. It is the power that shapes and molds the mind of virtually every citizen, young or old, rich or poor, simple or sophisticated.

The mass media form for us our image of the world and then tell us what to think about that image. Essentially everything we know — or think we know — about events outside our own neighborhood or circle of acquaintances comes to us via our daily newspaper, our weekly news magazine, our radio, or our television.

It is not just the heavy-handed suppression of certain news stories from our newspapers or the blatant propagandizing of history-distorting TV « docudramas » that characterizes the opinion-manipulating techniques of the media masters. They exercise both subtlety and thoroughness in their management of the news and the entertainment that they present to us.

For example, the way in which the news is covered: which items are emphasized and which are played down; the reporter’s choice of words, tone of voice, and facial expressions; the wording of headlines; the choice of illustrations — all of these things subliminally and yet profoundly affect the way in which we interpret what we see or hear.

On top of this, of course, the columnists and editors remove any remaining doubt from our minds as to just what we are to think about it all. Employing carefully developed psychological techniques, they guide our thought and opinion so that we can be in tune with the « in » crowd, the « beautiful people, » the « smart money. » They let us know exactly what our attitudes should be toward various types of people and behavior by placing those people or that behavior in the context of a TV drama or situation comedy and having the other TV characters react in the Politically Correct way.

Molding American Minds
For example, a racially mixed couple will be respected, liked, and socially sought after by other characters, as will a « take charge » Black scholar or businessman, or a sensitive and talented homosexual, or a poor but honest and hardworking illegal alien from Mexico. On the other hand, a White racist — that is, any racially conscious White person who looks askance at miscegenation or at the rapidly darkening racial situation in America — is portrayed, at best, as a despicable bigot who is reviled by the other characters, or, at worst, as a dangerous psychopath who is fascinated by firearms and is a menace to all law-abiding citizens. The White racist « gun nut, » in fact, has become a familiar stereotype on TV shows.

The average American, of whose daily life TV-watching takes such an unhealthy portion, distinguishes between these fictional situations and reality only with difficulty, if at all. He responds to the televised actions, statements, and attitudes of TV actors much as he does to his own peers in real life. For all too many Americans the real world has been replaced by the false reality of the TV environment, and it is to this false reality that his urge to conform responds. Thus, when a TV scriptwriter expresses approval of some ideas and actions through the TV characters for whom he is writing, and disapproval of others, he exerts a powerful pressure on millions of viewers toward conformity with his own views.

And as it is with TV entertainment, so it is also with the news, whether televised or printed. The insidious thing about this form of thought control is that even when we realize that entertainment or news is biased, the media masters still are able to manipulate most of us. This is because they not only slant what they present, but they establish tacit boundaries and ground rules for the permissible spectrum of opinion.

As an example, consider the media treatment of Middle East news. Some editors or commentators are slavishly pro-Israel in their every utterance, while others seem nearly neutral. No one, however, dares suggest that the U.S. government is backing the wrong side in the Arab-Jewish conflict and that it served Jewish interests rather than American interests to send U.S. forces to cripple Iraq, Israel’s principal rival in the Middle East. Thus, a spectrum of permissible opinion, from pro-Israel to nearly neutral, is established.

Another example is the media treatment of racial issues in the United States. Some commentators seem almost dispassionate in reporting news of racial strife, while others are emotionally partisan — with the partisanship always on the non-White side. All of the media spokesmen without exception, however, take the position that « multiculturalism » and racial mixing are here to stay, and that they are good things.

Because there are differences in degree, however, most Americans fail to realize that they are being manipulated. Even the citizen who complains about « managed news » falls into the trap of thinking that because he is presented with an apparent spectrum of opinion he can escape the thought controllers’ influence by believing the editor or commentator of his choice. It’s a « heads I win, tails you lose » situation. Every point on the permissible spectrum of public opinion is acceptable to the media masters — and no impermissible fact or viewpoint is allowed any exposure at all, if they can prevent it.

The control of the opinion-molding media is nearly monolithic. All of the controlled media — television, radio, newspapers, magazines, books, motion pictures — speak with a single voice, each reinforcing the other. Despite the appearance of variety, there is no real dissent, no alternative source of facts or ideas accessible to the great mass of people that might allow them to form opinions at odds with those of the media masters. They are presented with a single view of the world — a world in which every voice proclaims the equality of the races, the inerrant nature of the Jewish « Holocaust » tale, the wickedness of attempting to halt the flood of non-White aliens pouring across our borders, the danger of permitting citizens to keep and bear arms, the moral equivalence of all sexual orientations, and the desirability of a « pluralistic, » cosmopolitan society rather than a homogeneous one. It is a view of the world designed by the media masters to suit their own ends — and the pressure to conform to that view is overwhelming. People adapt their opinions to it, vote in accord with it, and shape their lives to fit it.

And who are these all-powerful masters of the media? As we shall see, to a very large extent they are Jews. It isn’t simply a matter of the media being controlled by profit-hungry capitalists, some of whom happen to be Jews. If that were the case, the ethnicity of the media masters would reflect, at least approximately, the ratio of rich Gentiles to rich Jews. The preponderance of Jews in the media is so overwhelming, however, that we are obliged to assume that it is due to more than mere happenstance.

Electronic News & Entertainment Media
Continuing government deregulation of the telecommunications industry has resulted, not in the touted increased competition, but rather in an accelerating wave of corporate mergers and acquisitions that have produced a handful of multi-billion-dollar media conglomerates. The largest of these conglomerates are rapidly growing even bigger by consuming their competition, almost tripling in size during the 1990s. Whenever you watch television, whether from a local broadcasting station or via a cable or a satellite dish; whenever you see a feature film in a theater or at home; whenever you listen to the radio or to recorded music; whenever you read a newspaper, book, or magazine — it is very likely that the information or entertainment you receive was produced and/or distributed by one of these megamedia companies.

The largest media conglomerate today is AOL-Time Warner, created when AOL bought Time Warner for $160 billion in 2000. The merger brought together Steve Case, a Gentile, as chairman of AOL-TW, and Time Warner chairman Gerald Levin, a Jew, as the CEO. Although AOL-TW isn’t (yet) run entirely by Jews, the effect of this blend of leadership between a White capitalist whose biggest concern is money and a racially conscious Jew will be gradually to increase the Jewish influence within AOL. Steve Case won’t complain when Gerald Levin begins hiring mostly Jews to fill key positions beneath him because Case’s own profits won’t be affected. After Case dies or retires, the Jews will have complete control at AOL.

Before the merger, AOL was the largest Internet service provider in America, and it will now be used as an online platform for the Jewish content from Time Warner.

Time Warner, Inc., with 1997 revenues of more than $13 billion, was the second largest of the international media leviathans when it was bought by AOL. Levin, chairman and CEO of Time Warner, had bought Turner Broadcasting Systems in 1996 from Ted Turner, who had been one of the few Gentile entrepreneurs in the media business. Ted Turner, as the company president, became the number three man at AOL-TW, after Case and Levin.

When Ted Turner, the Gentile media maverick, made a bid to buy CBS in 1985, there was panic in media boardrooms across the nation. Turner had made a fortune in advertising and then had built a successful cable-TV news network, CNN, with over 70 million subscribers. Although Turner employed a number of Jews in key executive positions in CNN and had never taken public positions contrary to Jewish interests, he is a man with a large ego and a strong personality and was regarded by Chairman William Paley and the other Jews at CBS as uncontrollable: a loose cannon who might at some time in the future turn against them. Furthermore, Jewish newsman Daniel Schorr, who had worked for Turner, publicly charged that his former boss held a personal dislike for Jews.

To block Turner’s bid, CBS executives invited billionaire Jewish theater, hotel, insurance, and cigarette magnate Laurence Tisch to launch a « friendly » takeover of the company, and from 1986 until 1995 Tisch was the chairman and CEO of CBS, removing any threat of non-Jewish influence there. Subsequent efforts by Turner to acquire a major network were obstructed by Levin’s Time Warner, which owns nearly 20 percent of CBS stock and has veto power over major deals. When his fellow Jew Sumner Redstone offered to buy CBS for $34.8 billion in 1999, Levin had no objection.

Thus, despite being an innovator and garnering headlines, Turner never commanded the « connections » necessary for being a true media master. He finally decided if you can’t lick ‘em, join ‘em, and he sold out to Levin. Ted Turner is in one respect a reflection of Steve Case. Both of these White men are capitalists with no discernible degree of racial consciousness or responsibility. In July 2001, AOL Time Warner announced that yet another Jew, Walter Isaacson, formerly the editorial director of Time, Inc., will become the new chairman and CEO of CNN News Group, which oversees the news empire that Ted Turner built.

Time Warner’s subsidiary HBO is the country’s largest pay-TV cable network. Until the purchase in May 1998 of PolyGram by Edgar Bronfman, Jr., Warner Music was America’s largest record company, with 50 labels, the biggest of which is Warner Brothers Records. Warner Music was an early promoter of « gangsta rap. » Through its involvement with Interscope Records (prior to Interscope’s acquisition by MCA), it helped to popularize a genre whose graphic lyrics explicitly urge Blacks to commit acts of violence against Whites.

In addition to cable and music, Time Warner is heavily involved in the production of feature films (Warner Brothers Studio, Castle Rock Entertainment, and New Line Cinema) and in publishing. Time Warner’s publishing division (editor-in-chief Norman Pearlstine, a Jew) is the largest magazine publisher in the country (Time, Sports Illustrated, People, Fortune).

The second-largest media conglomerate today, with 1997 revenues of $23 billion, is the Walt Disney Company. Its chairman and CEO, Michael Eisner, is a Jew. The Disney empire, headed by a man described by one media analyst as « a control freak, » includes several television production companies (Walt Disney Television, Touchstone Television, Buena Vista Television) and cable networks with more than 100 million subscribers altogether.

As for feature films, the Walt Disney Motion Pictures Group, under Walt Disney Studios, headed by Joseph E. Roth (also a Jew), includes Walt Disney Pictures, Touchstone Pictures, Hollywood Pictures, and Caravan Pictures. Roth founded Caravan Pictures in January 1993, and it is now headed by his fellow Jew Roger Birnbaum. Disney also owns Miramax Films, run by the Weinstein brothers, Bob and Harvey, who have produced such ultra-raunchy movies as The Crying Game, Priest, and Kids.

When the Disney Company was run by the Gentile Disney family, prior to its takeover by Eisner in 1984, it epitomized wholesome, family entertainment. While it still holds the rights to Snow White, the company under Eisner has expanded into the production of a great deal of so-called « adult » material.

In August 1995, Eisner acquired Capital Cities/ABC, Inc., which owns the ABC Television Network, which in turn owns ten TV stations outright in such big markets as New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Houston. In addition, it has 225 affiliated stations in the United States and is part owner of several European TV companies.

ABC’s cable subsidiary, ESPN, is headed by president and CEO Steven Bornstein, who is a Jew. The corporation also has a controlling share of Lifetime Television and A & E Television Networks cable companies, with 67 million subscribers each. ABC Radio Network owns 26 AM and FM stations, again in major cities such as New York, Washington, and Los Angeles, and has over 3,400 affiliates.

Although primarily a telecommunications company, Capital Cities/ABC earned over $1 billion in publishing in 1997. It owns seven daily newspapers, Fairchild Publications (Women’s Wear Daily), Chilton Publications (automotive manuals), and the Diversified Publishing Group.

Number three on the list, with 1997 revenues of just over $13 billion, is Viacom, Inc., headed by Sumner Redstone (born Murray Rothstein). Viacom, which produces and distributes TV programs for the three largest networks, owns 13 television stations and 12 radio stations. It produces feature films through Paramount Pictures, headed by Jewess Sherry Lansing. Redstone acquired CBS following the December 1999 stockholders’ votes at CBS and Viacom.

Working for Redstone as CBS’s chief executive is a Jew named Melvin A. Karmazin. He is the boss and biggest individual shareholder of the company that owns the CBS Television Network, 14 major-market TV stations, 160 radio stations, the Country Music Television and the Nashville Network cable channels, and a large number of outdoor advertising assets.

Viacom’s publishing division includes Simon & Schuster, Scribner, The Free Press, and Pocket Books. It distributes videos through over 4,000 Blockbuster stores. It is also involved in satellite broadcasting, theme parks, and video games.

Viacom’s chief claim to fame, however, is as the world’s largest provider of cable programming, through its Showtime, MTV, Nickelodeon, and other networks. Since 1989 MTV and Nickelodeon have acquired larger and larger shares of the juvenile television audience. The first quarter of 2001 was the 16th consecutive quarter in which MTV was rated as the #1 cable network for viewers between the ages of 12 and 24. Redstone, who actually owns 76 per cent of the shares of Viacom, has offered Beavis and Butthead as teen role models and currently is the largest single purveyor of race-mixing propaganda to White teenagers and sub-teens in America and in Europe. MTV Networks plans to acquire The Music Factory (TMF) from the Dutch media and marketing group Wegener. TMF distributes music to almost 10 million homes in Holland and Belgium. MTV is expanding its presence in Europe through new channels, including MTV Dance (Britain) and MTV Live (Scandinavia). MTV Italy is active through Cecchi Gori Communications. MTV pumps its racially mixed rock and rap videos into 210 million homes in 71 countries and is the dominant cultural influence on White teenagers around the world.

Nickelodeon, with about 65 million subscribers, has by far the largest share of the four-to-11-year-old TV audience in America and also is expanding rapidly into Europe. Most of its shows do not yet display the blatant degeneracy that is MTV’s trademark, but Redstone is gradually nudging the fare presented to his kiddie viewers toward the same poison purveyed by MTV. As of early 2001, Nickelodeon was continuing a nine-year streak as the top cable network for children and younger teenagers.

Another Jewish media mogul is Edgar Bronfman, Jr. He headed Seagram Company, Ltd., the liquor giant, until its recent merger with Vivendi. His father, Edgar Bronfman, Sr., is president of the World Jewish Congress. Seagram owned Universal Studios and Interscope Records, the foremost promoter of « gangsta rap. » These companies now belong to Vivendi Universal.

Bronfman became the biggest man in the record business in May 1998 when he also acquired control of PolyGram, the European record giant, by paying $10.6 billion to the Dutch electronics manufacturer Philips. With the revenue from PolyGram added to that from MCA and Universal, Bronfman became master of the fourth largest media empire, with annual revenues around $12 billion. One especially unfortunate aspect of the PolyGram acquisition was that it gave Bronfman control of the world’s largest producer of classical music CDs: PolyGram owns the Deutsche Grammophon, Decca-London, and Philips record companies.

In June 2000, the Bronfman family sold Seagram to Vivendi, a French utilities company led by gentile Jean-Marie Messier. The combined company, Vivendi Universal, will retain Edgar Bronfman, Jr., as the vice chairman of the new company, and he will continue to be in charge of its entertainment division. The strategy for this merger seems to mirror that of AOL-Time Warner: infect and wait. Vivendi Universal will pay off the debts it assumed in the merger by selling Seagram’s alcohol business, retaining its media empire.

With two of the top four media conglomerates in the hands of Jews, and with Jews in executive charge of the remaining two, it is difficult to believe that such an overwhelming degree of control came about without a deliberate, concerted effort on their part.

What about the other big media companies?

Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation, which owns Fox Television Network, 20th Century Fox Films, and Fox 2000, is the fifth largest megamedia corporation in the country, with 1997 revenues of over $11 billion. It is the only other media company that comes even close to the top four. Murdoch is a Gentile Australian, but Peter Chernin, who is president and CEO of Fox Group, which includes all of News Corporation’s film, television, and publishing operations in the United States, is a Jew. Under Chernin, as president of 20th Century Fox, is Laura Ziskin, a Jewess who formerly headed Fox 2000. Jew Peter Roth works under Chernin as president of Fox Entertainment. News Corporation also owns the New York Post and TV Guide, and they are published under Chernin’s supervision. Murdoch told Newsweek magazine (July 12, 1999) that he would probably elevate Chernin to CEO of News Corporation, rather than allow the company to fall into the hands of his own children, none of whom are younger than their late twenties. It is hard to imagine a Jew giving a major media corporation to a Gentile underling when he has children waiting in the wings. For his part, Chernin was quite candid: « I get to control movies seen all over the world. . . . What could be more fun? »

Most of the television and movie production companies that are not owned by the largest corporations are also controlled by Jews. For example, New World Entertainment, proclaimed by one media analyst as « the premier independent TV program producer in the United States, » is owned by Ronald Perelman, a Jew who also owns Revlon cosmetics and who offered a job to Monica Lewinsky when Bill Clinton was trying to keep her quiet.

The best known of the smaller media companies, DreamWorks SKG, is a strictly kosher affair. DreamWorks was formed in 1994 amid great media hype by recording industry mogul David Geffen, former Disney Pictures chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg, and film director Steven Spielberg, all three of whom are Jews. The company produces movies, animated films, television programs, and recorded music. Considering the cash and connections that Geffen, Katzenberg, and Spielberg have, DreamWorks may soon be in the same league as the big four.

It is well known that Jews have controlled most of the production and distribution of films since shortly after the inception of the movie industry in the early decades of the 20th century. When Walt Disney died in 1966, the last barrier to the total Jewish domination of Hollywood was gone, and Jews were able to grab ownership of the company that Walt built. Since then they have had everything their way in the movie industry.

Films produced by just the four largest motion picture companies mentioned above — Disney, Warner Brothers, Paramount (Viacom), and Universal (Seagram) — accounted for two-thirds of the total box-office receipts for the year 1997.

The big three in television network broadcasting used to be ABC, CBS, and NBC. With the consolidation of the media empires, these three are no longer independent entities. While they were independent, however, each was controlled by a Jew since its inception: ABC by Leonard Goldenson; NBC first by David Sarnoff and then by his son Robert; and CBS first by William Paley and then by Laurence Tisch. Over periods of several decades these networks were staffed from top to bottom with Jews, and the essential Jewishness of network television did not change when the networks were absorbed by other corporations. The Jewish presence in television news remains particularly strong.

NBC provides a good example of this. The executives at NBC recently were shuffled among the key positions. Andrew Lack, who had been chief of the network’s news division, ascended to become its president and chief operations officer. Neal Shapiro, who had been producing Dateline NBC, moved into Lack’s old job. Jeff Zucker, who had been producing the Today show, was promoted to NBC entertainment president (a job that apparently was created for him), and Jonathan Wald moved into Zucker’s old spot after shoving aside Michael Bass, who had been filling in for Zucker with Today. Some time ago, Wald became the producer of the NBC Nightly News, taking the position from Jeff Gralnick. When Wald moved to Today, Steve Capus took over as Tom Brokaw’s producer. It is not known at this time whether Capus is a Jew or not, but everyone else is.

A similar preponderance of Jews exists in the news divisions of the other networks. For example, in February 2000, Al Ortiz moved to head the « Special Events » coverage at CBS, making gentile Jim Murphy the executive producer of The CBS Evening News with Dan Rather — and the only exception that we know of to an otherwise solidly Jewish cadre of television news producers. The new CBS Early Show, which replaced CBS This Morning, had an internal shakeup in which three producers were fired, ostensibly for not being « aggressive » enough. One wonders whether they were also not Jewish enough. The shakeup did not, however, affect the outgoing executive producer Al Berman, who transferred to a new job as a program developer, and Steve Friedman has become the executive producer of the Early Show.

Paul Friedman is still the executive producer of ABC World News Tonight with Peter Jennings. Rick Kaplan, once an executive at ABC, moved to CNN in 1997, where he became the president of CNN/USA.

The Print Media
After television news, daily newspapers are the most influential information medium in America. Sixty million of them are sold (and presumably read) each day. These millions are divided among some 1483 different publications (this figure is for February 2000). One might conclude that the sheer number of different newspapers across America would provide a safeguard against minority control and distortion. Alas, such is not the case. There is less independence, less competition, and much less representation of majority interests than a casual observer would think.

In 1945, four out of five American newspapers were independently owned and published by local people with close ties to their communities. Those days, however, are gone. Most of the independent newspapers were bought out or driven out of business by the mid-1970s. Today most « local » newspapers are owned by a rather small number of large companies controlled by executives who live and work hundreds or even thousands of miles away. Today less than 20 percent of the country’s 1483 papers are independently owned; the rest belong to multi-newspaper chains. Only 104 of the total number have circulations of more than 100,000. Only a handful are large enough to maintain independent reporting staffs outside their own communities; the rest must depend on these few for all of their national and international news.

The Associated Press, which sells content to newspapers, is currently under the control of its Jewish managing editor, Michael Silverman, who directs the day-to-day news reporting and supervises the editorial departments. Silverman had directed the AP’s national news as assistant managing editor since 1992. He was promoted to his current job in 2000. Silverman reports to Jonathan Wolman, also a Jew, who is executive editor for the AP.

In only 47 cities in America are there more than one daily newspaper, and competition is frequently nominal even among them, as between morning and afternoon editions under the same ownership. Examples of this are the Mobile, Alabama, morning Register and afternoon Press-Register; and the Syracuse, New York, morning Post-Standard and afternoon Herald-Journal — all owned by the Jewish Newhouse brothers through their holding company, Advance Publications.

The Newhouse media empire provides an example of more than the lack of real competition among America’s daily newspapers: it also illustrates the insatiable appetite Jews have shown for all the organs of opinion control on which they could fasten their grip. The Newhouses own 30 daily newspapers, including several large and important ones, such as the Cleveland Plain Dealer, the Newark Star-Ledger, and the New Orleans Times-Picayune; Newhouse Broadcasting, consisting of 12 television broadcasting stations and 87 cable-TV systems, including some of the country’s largest cable networks; the Sunday supplement Parade, with a circulation of more than 22 million copies per week; some two dozen major magazines, including the New Yorker, Vogue, Mademoiselle, Glamour, Vanity Fair, Bride’s, Gentlemen’s Quarterly, Self, House & Garden, and all the other magazines of the wholly owned Conde Nast group.

This Jewish media empire was founded by the late Samuel Newhouse, an immigrant from Russia. When he died in 1979 at the age of 84, he bequeathed media holdings worth an estimated $1.3 billion to his two sons, Samuel and Donald. With a number of further acquisitions, the net worth of Advance Publications has grown to more than $8 billion today.

The gobbling up of so many newspapers by the Newhouse family was in large degree made possible by the fact that newspapers are not supported by their subscribers, but by their advertisers. It is advertising revenue — not the small change collected from a newspaper’s readers — that largely pays the editor’s salary and yields the owner’s profit.

Whenever the large advertisers in a city choose to favor one newspaper over another with their business, the favored newspaper will flourish while its competitor dies. Since the beginning of the last century, when Jewish mercantile power in America became a dominant economic force, there has been a steady rise in the number of American newspapers in Jewish hands, accompanied by a steady decline in the number of competing Gentile newspapers — primarily as a result of selective advertising policies by Jewish merchants.

Furthermore, even those newspapers still under Gentile ownership and management are so thoroughly dependent upon Jewish advertising revenue that their editorial and news reporting policies are largely constrained by Jewish likes and dislikes. It holds true in the newspaper business as elsewhere that he who pays the piper calls the tune.

Three Jewish Newspapers
The suppression of competition and the establishment of local monopolies on the dissemination of news and opinion have characterized the rise of Jewish control over America’s newspapers. The resulting ability of the Jews to use the press as an unopposed instrument of Jewish policy could hardly be better illustrated than by the examples of the nation’s three most prestigious and influential newspapers: the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post. These three, dominating America’s financial and political capitals, are the newspapers that set the trends and the guidelines for nearly all the others. They are the ones that decide what is news and what isn’t, at the national and international levels. They originate the news; the others merely copy it. And all three newspapers are in Jewish hands.

The New York Times, with a September 1999 circulation of 1,086,000, is the unofficial social, fashion, entertainment, political, and cultural guide of the nation. It tells America’s « smart set » which books to buy and which films to see; which opinions are in style at the moment; which politicians, educators, spiritual leaders, artists, and businessmen are the real comers. And for a few decades in the 19th century it was a genuinely American newspaper.

The New York Times was founded in 1851 by two Gentiles, Henry J. Raymond and George Jones. After their deaths, it was purchased in 1896 from Jones’s estate by a wealthy Jewish publisher, Adolph Ochs. His great-great-grandson, Arthur Sulzberger, Jr., is the paper’s current publisher and the chairman of the New York Times Co. The executive editor is Joseph Lelyveld, also a Jew (he is a rabbi’s son).

The Sulzberger family also owns, through the New York Times Co., 33 other newspapers, including the Boston Globe, purchased in June 1993 for $1.1 billion; twelve magazines, including McCall’s and Family Circle with circulations of more than 5 million each; seven radio and TV broadcasting stations; a cable-TV system; and three book publishing companies. The New York Times News Service transmits news stories, features, and photographs from the New York Times by wire to 506 other newspapers, news agencies, and magazines.

Of similar national importance is the Washington Post, which, by establishing its « leaks » throughout government agencies in Washington, has an inside track on news involving the Federal government.

The Washington Post, like the New York Times, had a non-Jewish origin. It was established in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins, purchased from him in 1905 by John R. McLean, and later inherited by Edward B. McLean. In June 1933, however, at the height of the Great Depression, the newspaper was forced into bankruptcy. It was purchased at a bankruptcy auction by Eugene Meyer, a Jewish financier and former partner of the infamous Bernard Baruch, industry czar in America during the First World War.

The Washington Post is now run by Katherine Meyer Graham, Eugene Meyer’s daughter. She is the principal stockholder and the board chairman of the Washington Post Co. In 1979 she appointed her son Donald publisher of the paper. He now also holds the posts of president and CEO of the Washington Post Co. The newspaper has a daily circulation of 763,000, and its Sunday edition sells 1.1 million copies.

The Washington Post Co. has a number of other media holdings in newspapers (the Gazette Newspapers, including 11 military publications); in television (WDIV in Detroit, KPRC in Houston, WPLG in Miami, WKMG in Orlando, KSAT in San Antonio, WJXT in Jacksonville); and in magazines, most notably the nation’s number-two weekly newsmagazine, Newsweek. The Washington Post Company’s various television ventures reach a total of about 7 million homes, and its cable TV service, Cable One, has 635,000 subscribers.

In a joint venture with the New York Times, the Post publishes the International Herald Tribune, the most widely distributed English-language daily in the world.

The Wall Street Journal, which sells 1.8 million copies each weekday, is the nation’s largest-circulation daily newspaper. It is owned by Dow Jones & Company, Inc., a New York corporation that also publishes 24 other daily newspapers and the weekly financial tabloid Barron’s, among other things. The chairman and CEO of Dow Jones is Peter R. Kann, who is a Jew. Kann also holds the posts of chairman and publisher of the Wall Street Journal.

Most of New York’s other major newspapers are in no better hands than the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. In January 1993 the New York Daily News was bought from the estate of the late Jewish media mogul Robert Maxwell (born Ludvik Hoch) by Jewish real-estate developer Mortimer B. Zuckerman. The Village Voice is the personal property of Leonard Stern, the billionaire Jewish owner of the Hartz Mountain pet supply firm. And, as mentioned above, the New York Post is owned by News Corporation under the Jew Peter Chernin.

News Magazines
The story is pretty much the same for other media as it is for television, radio, films, music, and newspapers. Consider, for example, newsmagazines. There are only three of any importance published in the United States: Time, Newsweek, and U.S. News & World Report.

Time, with a weekly circulation of 4.1 million, is published by a subsidiary of Time Warner Communications, the new media conglomerate formed by the 1989 merger of Time, Inc., with Warner Communications. The CEO of Time Warner Communications, as mentioned above, is Gerald Levin, a Jew.

Newsweek, as mentioned above, is published by the Washington Post Company, under the Jewess Katherine Meyer Graham. Its weekly circulation is 3.1 million.

U.S. News & World Report, with a weekly circulation of 2.2 million, is owned and published by the aforementioned Mortimer B. Zuckerman, who also has taken the position of editor-in-chief of the magazine for himself. Zuckerman also owns the Atlantic Monthly and New York’s tabloid newspaper, the Daily News, which is the sixth-largest paper in the country.

Our Responsibility
Those are the facts of media control in America. Anyone willing to spend a few hours in a large library looking into current editions of yearbooks on the radio and television industries and into directories of newspapers and magazines; into registers of corporations and their officers, such as those published by Standard and Poors and by Dun and Bradstreet; and into standard biographical reference works can verify their accuracy. They are undeniable, and when confronted with them Jewish spokesmen customarily will use evasive tactics. « Ted Turner isn’t a Jew! » they will announce triumphantly, as if that settled the issue. If pressed further they will accuse the confronter of « anti-Semitism » for even raising the subject. It is fear of this accusation that keeps many persons who know the facts silent.

But we must not remain silent on this most important of issues! The Jewish control of the American mass media is the single most important fact of life, not just in America, but in the whole world today. There is nothing — plague, famine, economic collapse, even nuclear war — more dangerous to the future of our people.

Jewish media control determines the foreign policy of the United States and permits Jewish interests rather than American interests to decide questions of war and peace. Without Jewish media control, there would have been no Persian Gulf war, for example. There would have been no NATO massacre of Serb civilians. There would be no continued beating of the drums for another war against Iraq.

By permitting the Jews to control our news and entertainment media we are doing more than merely giving them a decisive influence on our political system and virtual control of our government; we also are giving them control of the minds and souls of our children, whose attitudes and ideas are shaped more by Jewish television and Jewish films than by parents, schools, or any other influence.

The Jew-controlled entertainment media have taken the lead in persuading a whole generation that homosexuality is a normal and acceptable way of life; that there is nothing at all wrong with White women dating or marrying Black men, or with White men marrying Asian women; that all races are inherently equal in ability and character — except that the character of the White race is suspect because of a history of oppressing other races; and that any effort by Whites at racial self-preservation is reprehensible.

We must oppose the further spreading of this poison among our people, and we must break the power of those who are spreading it. It would be intolerable for such power to be in the hands of any alien minority, with values and interests different from our own. But to permit the Jews, with their 3,000-year history of nation-wrecking, from ancient Egypt to Russia, to hold such power over us is tantamount to race suicide. Indeed, the fact that so many White Americans today are so filled with a sense of racial guilt and self-hatred that they actively seek the death of their own race is a deliberate consequence of Jewish media control.

Once we have absorbed and understood the fact of Jewish media control, it is our inescapable responsibility to do whatever is necessary to break that control. We must shrink from nothing in combating this evil power that has fastened its deadly grip on our people and is injecting its lethal poison into their minds and souls. If we fail to destroy it, it certainly will destroy our race.

Let us begin now to acquire knowledge and to take action toward this necessary end.

Owners, managers, and corporate relationships change from time to time, of course. All of the names and other data in this report have been checked carefully and are accurate as of July 2001.
For more information about National Vanguard Books or the National Alliance visit http://www.natvan.com or http://www.natall.com.

National Vanguard Books, P.O. Box 330 Hillsboro, WV 24946.

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Top: Jewish Terrorists: Mossad

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Mossad’s Checkered Past – LA Times
Victor Ostrovsky – Mossad Spy & Author
Mossad’s Blunders – LA Times
Mossad Agent Arrested as Spy by Swiss
Switzerland Catches Mossad Spies
Swiss Say 6 Mossad Spies Involved
Syria Says Mossad Bombed Bus
Syrian Papers Accuse Mossad Bus Bombing
Alleged Details on Mossad Bus Bombs
‘Shin Bet’ Murder Agency Scandals
Mossad Caught in Lies Plus the Mossad Course Entitled « The Lie as Art »
Mossad’s CIA Spy – Pollard in LA Times
Norway Seeks Mike Harari Ex-Mossad in Lillehammer Murder
Mossad Under Scrutiny – NPR Report
Mossad Theft of 50 Canadian Passports
Mossad-ADL JFK Assassination Theory
Former Mossad Agent In Drug Smuggling
Lebanon Sentences Mossad Agent to Death
Israeli Nuclear Whistle Blower Captured By Mossad Using Sex Trick Asked to be Freed by Norway

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Mossad’s Checkered Past Home Edition., Los Angeles Times, 02-27-1998, pp A-16, top of page

Previous incidents involving the Israeli spy agency:

* Sept. 25, 1997: Mossad agents try but fail to assassinate Hamas official Khaled Meshaal in Amman, Jordan. Two agents are caught and released in a prisoner swap that forces Israel to release Sheik Ahmed Yassin, a key Hamas leader.

* April 24, 1991: Four Mossad agents are arrested for attempting to install listening devices in the Iranian Embassy in Nicosia, Cyprus. The agents are released shortly after standing trial.

* November 1987: The London newspaper the Mail on Sunday reveals the identity of a Mossad agent who had infiltrated a PLO cell in London. The agent is arrested on suspicion of murdering a Palestinian cartoonist and is banished from the country.

* July 1973: In an attempt to avenge the deaths of Israeli athletes slain during the 1972 Olympics, Mossad agents kill an innocent Moroccan waiter in Lillehammer, Norway. Five of the 15 agents involved in the operation serve sentences in Norwegian jails.

* 1963: Two Mossad agents are arrested in Bern, Switzerland, on charges of intimidating a family member of a German scientist who had been offered a job developing missiles for Egypt. The operatives are released a few months later. top of page

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VICTOR OSTROVSKY MOSSAD BOOK CONTROVERSY:

AS ISRAEL TRIES TO SMOTHER HIS BOOK, A FORMER MOSSAD SPY SPILLS SOME DARK SECRETS OF THAT SHADOWY SERVICE People, 10-01-1990, pp 105. top of page

Victor Ostrovsky stops and stiffens as he spots a young couple passing on an Ottawa street. He watches until they are safely out of sight.  »I know when I am being followed, » says the former agent of Mossad, the Israeli intelligence service.  »I have been trained to know. If there are 15 people on me, I can tell. I can see the patterns developing. I can detect it. But I have a limit. If they put one extra agent on me, I can’t tell anymore. It’s past my limit. » Then Ostrovsky, who recently outraged the Israeli government with his book By Way of Deception, an alleged expose of some of Mossad’s dirtiest little secrets, smiles ruefully and says,  »The trouble is, they know my limit. »

Although a high Israeli source insists the book is a fraud, Ostrovsky, 40, claims he has been under round-the-clock surveillance by Mossad for weeks and that the offices of the Canadian publisher of the book he co-authored with newspaperman Claire Hoy were illegally entered. The Israeli government also obtained a court order temporarily outlawing the book in Canada and — briefly — in the United States, arguing that its publication would endanger agents in the field. But a four-judge appeals panel in the U.S. quickly overturned the temporary restraining order that had been granted the Israelis after an unusual late-night legal petition, saying that Israel’s argument was groundless. Since then By Way of Deception has been  »leaping off the shelves, » according to Ostrovsky’s American publisher.  »We’ve never experienced anything like this, » says St. Martin’s Press President Roy Gainsburg, who reports that 255,000 copies of the book are in print after a first printing of only 42,000 and that bookstores are clamoring for more.

Among Ostrovsky’s more shocking allegations are that Mossad failed to share with the U.S. detailed intelligence that might have averted the 1983 suicide bombing of the Beirut Marine barracks that killed 241 U.S. servicemen; that Israeli agents in New York City bugged conversations between former U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young and ambassadors from Syria and Kuwait; and that Mossad promiscuously assassinated enemy agents.  »What’s striking is the wealth of detail, » says David Ignatius, who covered the Middle East for the Wall Street Journal, of the book.  »He didn’t make it all up. » The U.S. government has not commented officially on these charges, though a spokesperson for the State Department said unofficially that the Israelis would have been smarter to ignore the book.

The author is inclined to agree.  »((Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak)) Shamir went against all his advisers when he ordered legal action against me, » says Ostrovsky, who is living with his wife, Bella, 40, and his two daughters, Leeorah, 16, and Sharon, 20, in a rented house on the outskirts of Ottawa in his native Canada.  »If they wanted to give me publicity, they couldn’t have planned it better. »

Israeli authorities have acknowledged that Ostrovsky — a former naval commander and weapons specialist — did work for the highly regarded Israeli secret service from 1984 until 1986 but downplay his importance and question his motives.  »He was very junior — a clerk, » says one Mossad source, adding that Ostrovsky was also  »very left-wing and very hungry for money. »

Ostrovsky shakes his head at such claims.  »It is an old story, » he says.  »They want to destroy my reputation. But the fact is that last week, two ((Israeli)) agents showed up at my door and offered me any amount of money, any amount at all, if I would not publish the book. If I was interested in money, wouldn’t I take it from them? I don’t care about money. I wrote the book to attack a runaway organization. They ((Mossad)) are costing Israel friends, and more than any other weapon, Israel needs friends. »

Ostrovsky comes from prickly Zionist roots and spent his youth shuttling between Israel and his father’s native Canada. His father, Syd Osten (anglicized from Ostrovsky), flew fighter planes during Israel’s War of Independence; his mother, Mira, drove supply trucks for the Israeli Army. They divorced when Victor was a child, and both began to spend time back in North America, leaving their son in Israel in the care of his grandparents.  »My grandfather was an auditor, » Ostrovsky recalls.  »Very honorable. He would not get me a job, although he knew many people in the labor unions. So I got a good job on my own. He made me quit because it might look like he got me the job. I got another job. They called me the Bobo, one of those dolls that keeps bouncing up when you knock it down. »

At 18, Ostrovsky became an officer in the Israeli Army.  »I was a Zionist and idealistic, » he says.  »I was taught that we must have purity of arms, we must be clean. » He was in and out of military service for the next 18 years before being recruited by Mossad. As part of his training, he learned of the great feats of Israeli intelligence — foiling a plot by the PLO to kill Golda Meir in 1973, rescuing the hostages on a hijacked Air France plane at Entebbe in 1976. But he was offended, he says, by the corruption of Mossad’s leaders — men who he claims held orgies with young secretaries and ordered the slaughter of PLO suspects. He says he was horrified to discover that Israeli agents knew in advance specific details about the planned terrorist attack on the Beirut Marine barracks in 1983 but gave only vague warnings to their closest ally.

Ostrovsky’s disenchantment was shared by his wife, Bella.

Childhood sweethearts, they have been married for 21 years.  »I read some books about how we treated Arabs, and it opened my eyes, » says Bella.  »I spoke to Vickie and I told him, ‘How could we do this?’  »

Ostrovsky left Mossad in 1986 under circumstances that are unclear. He claims he made enemies of important officials with his impertinent questions; a Mossad source says he was kicked out after bungling an assignment. Ostrovsky denies it. In any case he emigrated to Canada, where he convinced Hoy, author of the 1987 bestseller Friends in High Places, an expose of political intrigue in Canada, to tell his story. An accomplished artist, Ostrovsky, subsidized by book revenue’s can now paint full-time. If he ever tried to return to Israel, he fears, he might be prosecuted for treason. Yet Ostrovsky insists he wrote his book out of loyalty to his early Zionist ideal.  »How could I remain silent? » he asks.  »I am a patriot. » top of page

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Mossad Under Scrutiny
All Things Considered (NPR), 10-09-1997, top of page

LINDA WERTHEIMER, HOST: A member of the government committee investigating Israel’s actions against a Hamas leader in Jordan resigned today, just days after his appointment.

The former head of Israel’s secret service, the Mossad, was accused of bias after he expressed support for the agency’s botched assassination attempt.

And, Israeli foreign minister David Levy is considering resigning. Among other things, Levy said he was not consulted about the Mossad mission, and he was critical of that operation.

NPR’s Linda Gradstein reports.

LINDA GRADSTEIN, NPR REPORTER: It sounds like the plot of a bad made- for-TV movie. Two Israeli agents using false passports target a radial Arab leader for assassination. They sneak up behind him and inject poison into his ear. But they fail to notice his bodyguard, who overcomes them. Four other agents involved in the operation flee to the Israeli embassy.

An embarrassed Israel rushes to Jordan a doctor who saves the life of the man they were trying to kill.

Israeli analysts differ over how much long-term damage there will be to the Mossad. Yosi Melman (ph), a commentator and author of a book on the Mossad, says the failed assassination was the biggest operational failure in the Mossad’s history.

YOSI MELMAN, ANALYST, COMMENTATOR AND AUTHOR, ISRAEL: There is a damage to the prestige and to the public relations and the reputation of the Mossad, which is a serious damage. It deals more with the psychological effect of the organization, but psychology is very important in the field of intelligence.

GRADSTEIN: In addition to the psychological effects, there are practical implications. Melman says the Mossad has had to suspend many of its operations.

MELMAN: Many, many security services in the world, including in friendly countries, are now very suspicious of Israelis, of diplomats, of Israeli diplomats who are suspected of being agents, and they are on alert. And, the Mossad has to take in to consideration and has to lower its posture and its profile.

GRADSTEIN: But other Israeli intelligence experts say the botched operation will soon be forgotten.

Gidon Ezra (ph), Knesset member from the ruling Likud party, was until recently the deputy director of the Shin Bet, the Mossad’s domestic counterpart.

GIDON EZRA, KNESSET MEMBER, FORMER DIRECTOR OF SHIN BET, ISRAEL: One good thing about failure, that you are more careful. You will be more careful in the future.

GRADSTEIN: Ezra also disagrees this is the Mossad’s largest failure. He says the intelligence failure to predict the Yom Kippur War was a far more serious mistake. The Mossad has botched several other operations, including one in which they mistakenly killed a Moroccan waiter in Norway in the 1970s.

But there have also been some impressive successes, including the assassination two years ago of a senior Hamas activist in Gaza, killed when his cellular phone blew up.

Prime Minister Netanyahu brushed off allegations of serious failure, calling the operation a mishap. In a news conference this week, he said the war on terrorism sometimes has failures but it must continue.

BENJAMIN NETANYAHU, PRIME MINISTER OF ISRAEL: The distance between success, great success, and failure could be a centimeter. It could be the distance a bullet travels. It could be the speed in which an explosive is connected to a charge.

GRADSTEIN: Yosi Alfar (ph), a former senior Mossad official and currently the director of the American Jewish Committee in Israel, says that even though the operation failed, it can still act as a deterrent.

YOSI ALFAR, FORMER SENIOR MOSSAD OFFICIAL, DIRECTOR OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE, ISRAEL: Precisely because its operation failed and was publicized and they’ve been put on notice that Israel’s — the long arm of Israeli intelligence — is looking for them, and using some very interesting technological innovations.

GRADSTEIN: Israeli commentators are predicting a shakeup in the Mossad as the result of the botched operation. The big question is whether Mossad head Danny Yatom will be forced to resign.

Linda Gradstein, NPR News, Jerusalem.

Transcribed by Federal Document Clearing House, Inc. under license from National Public Radio, Inc.

Formatting copyright (c) 1997 Federal Document Clearing House, Inc. All rights reserved. No quotes from the materials contained herein may be used in any media without attribution to National Public Radio, Inc. This transcript may not be reproduced in whole or in part without prior written permission.

For further information please contact NPR’s Business Affairs at (202) 414-2954, top of page

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Yossi Melman, Out of the Cold, top of page
Mossad’s Blunders
What is a spy to do when the world around him has changed?
It’s time to re-invent intelligence work
Los Angeles Times, 10-12-1997, pp M-1.
TEL AVIV–Gen. Danny Yatom’s days as head of the Mossad, Israel’s foreign-espionage agency, are numbered. His boss, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, rejected his first offer to resign following the botched assassination of a Hamas leader in Amman, Jordan. The next time, Netanyahu may have no choice but to let him go.

Yatom, upon his nomination, was regarded by some, including Netanyahu, as too cautious, too unimaginative to run the Mossad. Ironically, he may have approved the operation against the Hamas leader, Khaled Meshaal, to show that he could be as daring and imaginative as any of his predecessors. Yatom, in short, wanted to be more Mossad than the Mossad itself.

But the Mossad is no longer the agency of legend. Terrorism, and the fear and sudden death associated with it, have created the impression that the Mossad is merely a kind of hit team that tracks, hunts down and executes Palestinian terrorists. Its intelligence-gathering skills have accordingly suffered. The question is whether today’s Israel needs to reinvent the Mossad or reclaim its original mission.

Israel, on the eve of its 50th anniversary as an independent state, is a totally different society from what it was as recently as two decades ago, when the Mossad was more intelligence gatherer than terrorist hunter. Israelis walk a thin line between secularism and a religious orthodoxy that seeks to thrust them back in time and history. They are a strange mixture of liberalism and fierce narrow-mindedness. The effort to maintain democratic values is increasingly difficult when continued occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip and counterterrorism require security measures that restrict personal freedom and contradict the rule of law.

That conflict has affected the Mossad, whose Hebrew name helps reveal the nature of the problem: Institute for Intelligence and Special Roles.

The Mossad has two assignments, then: to collect information on the military, economic and political capabilities of Israel’s enemies and their preparedness for war, and to carry out, on occasion, special missions, including kidnapping and assassinations.

…With the rise of Palestinian political aspirations on the West Bank and Gaza Strip, the Mossad’s assignments have shifted toward fighting the war against Palestinian guerrillas and terrorism. The results have been painful and traumatic. The intelligence community, for example, failed to anticipate the surprise attack, in October 1973, by Syria and Egypt. Since the late 1970s, moreover, the agency has been slow to grasp the significant accumulation of weapons of mass destructions by Iraq, Syria and Iran.

Instead, the Mossad, reflecting the prevailing mood of Israeli governments and society, has become obsessive about the war against terrorism. Its special units and its departments of operation, code-named Caesaris and Kidon (bayonet), which handles assassinations, have been correspondingly strengthened at the expense of the collection (code-named Tsomet) and research departments.

This shift of emphasis is not the result of any fundamental change in Israel’s security situation. Rather, it has more to do with psychology.

Israelis are impatient and hedonistic. They look for short-cuts, quick satisfaction and immediate results; they desire almost magical solutions to complex political and military problems. The Mossad’s assassination attempt in Jordan was, in part, a response to these societal dynamics.

Yet, by pursuing terrorists, the Mossad has magnified the importance of terrorism–and further whetted Israelis’ desire for easy and fast answers.

Within Mossad, the trend toward special operations has not gone unchallenged. Some Mossad operatives opposed the hunt, ordered by Prime Minister Golda Meir, for the terrorists who murdered 11 Israeli athletes during the 1972 Munich Olympic games. « Eliminations and assassinations have nothing to do with intelligence work, » the dissenters contended. « If these methods are needed in order to create a balance of terror between us and them, to spread fear, to take revenge and obstruct terrorist structures, let’s have the army’s special forces do the job, not the Mossad. »

These officials were muffled, and embarrassing consequences soon followed. In July 1973, in Lillehammer, Norway, six Mossad agents, under various non-Israeli covers, were arrested in connection with the slaying of Ahmed Bouchikhi, a Moroccan waiter mistakenly identified as a master terrorist of the Palestine Liberation Organization. The fiasco was one reason why the Mossad’s pursuit of Palestinian terrorists came to a halt.

But in 1977, Prime Minister Menachem Begin ordered the Mossad back on the terrorist track.

Since then, successive Israeli governments, right and left, have reflexively reacted to terrorist attacks by condoning, if not ordering, the liquidation of terrorist leaders and activists. But Palestinian terrorist organizations have remained undeterred. Only rarely, when the target was a « one-man organization, » did assassination benefit Israel.

The most recent example of this involved Dr. Fathi Shikaki, the leader of a small Islamic Jihad organization believed responsible for several suicidal attacks against Israeli citizens between 1994-96. He was killed by Mossad agents in October 1995, on orders from Prime Minister Yitzak Rabin.

Israel is the only democratic nation to accept the legitimacy of assassination as a tactic to deal with terrorists. The nearly instinctive Israeli proclivity to retaliate to terrorist attacks is the main reason behind the blunder in Jordan, the worst failure in the history of the Mossad. The lack of judgment and sensibility displayed by both Netanyahu and the Mossad in carrying out the attack have exposed the weakness of Israel’s most celebrated agency. Far graver is the possibility that the Mossad, by using poison in its attempt to kill the Hamas leader, has let the world know that Israel is involved in the research and production of biological and chemical weapons at a time when most nations are trying to eliminate them.

The failed assassination attempt also says something about how Israelis have changed. They are different from the Zionist founding fathers and their followers, with their pioneering spirit, idealism, sacrifices and asceticism. The Mossad has always epitomized the prevailing spirit of Israeli society. It still does today: tired, clumsy, less motivated, self-righteousness and complacent.

The surest–and quickest–way to rehabilitate the Mossad is to restore its mission as an intelligence-gathering agency. Chasing terrorists around Europe and the Middle East with exotic means of extermination will not make Israel more secure, nor prepare it for real military threats posed by Syria and Iran.

But Israel will have to change. Israelis must trust the reality that Israel has the strongest military force in the region, that they no longer need to behave like little David. Only then can the Mossad begin to repair the damage to its reputation–and rediscover its purpose–that the assassination attempt in Jordan has produced. top of page

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Mossad agent said held by Swiss Yatom did not report incident to parliamentary subcommittee, top of page Copyright 1998 Jerusalem Post. All Rights Reserved EITAN RABIN, JAY BUSHINSKY, and news agencies, Jerusalem Post, 02-26-1998, pp 01.
At least one Mossad agent was recently arrested in Switzerland in a bugging operation gone awry, Swiss television reported last night.

« The suspect is accused of having conducted espionage with eavesdropping devices, » the report said.

It quoted reliable sources in Berne as saying at least one Mossad operative had been taken into custody last week.

Swiss officials were not available to comment on the report, which did not give any other details.

Swiss Federal Prosecutor Carla Del Ponte’s office said she and Foreign Ministry State Secretary Jakob Kellenberger would brief reporters this morning.

« All I can say is that it involves an espionage case, » a spokesman for Del Ponte said.

Agence France Presse quoted a diplomatic source in Berne as saying that according to one version of events, Mossad agents were caught taking photographs, while another version said that electronic surveillance equipment had been planted in an Iranian mission at the UN center in Geneva.

The source alleged that several agents were arrested and that « the issue of their release is under negotiation between Israel and Switzerland. »

The Mossad was shocked by the foul-up, which is what actually led to Danny Yatom’s resignation as head of Mossad, a government source here said.

The Knesset subcommittee on intelligence heard a report about the foul-up on Monday.

Sources in the committee were angry that Yatom did not report the incident of his own initiative and that the panel’s chairman Uzi Landau (Likud) learned about it from a security source and then asked Yatom, who confirmed the information. Landau disagreed with the critics and accused political and Mossad elements of deliberately leaking the information to try and damage state security.

Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu learned immediately of the foul- up last week, while the Ciechanover Committee report was on his desk, sources said.

They said that he asked the Mossad to investigate.

Netanyahu denied yesterday that he had forced Yatom to step down.

Speaking in the Knesset, Netanyahu said he has not finished reading the Ciechanover report and therefore could not have made up his mind on this issue.

« I gave Danny Yatom my full backing and all the appreciation which I really have for him, » he said. « The decision was his and his alone.

He came to me with a firm decision and I respected it. »

Netanyahu would not comment on the reports of the latest operational failure of the Mossad.

He said he hopes to choose a new director within a few days and does not intend to come out with any « interim announcements » about candidates.

Netanyahu said the director of the Mossad must be « a man who will assure its efficient, successful and secret functioning. »

He said it was important that the Mossad not be damaged because it is central to our existence. « We must avoid creating a situation in which these people, who undertake fateful missions for the sake of our security will take into consideration – the personnel and their commanders – what will happen to them in case of a mishap.

« There are slip-ups and successes the scope of which is impossible to imagine and it is impossible to imagine the contribution made by these successes to our security. »

Local media broadcasts yesterday gave few details about the latest foul-up but made reference to a case in 1991 when four Israelis were arrested during an attempt to bug the Iranian embassy in Nicosia in the dead of night.

The four, widely reported to be Mossad agents, claimed they had been looking for a lavatory. They were released on payment of $1,000 fines.

The Mossad was exposed to further embarrassment last December when one of its former officials, Yehuda Gil, was arrested on suspicion of feeding the agency false information and pocketing money intended for informers.top of page

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Swiss foul-up highlights crisis in Israel’s Mossad
By Paul Holmes, Reuters, February 27, 1998, top of page
JERUSALEM, Feb 27 (Reuters) – Depression, infighting and insanity are not words usually associated with an intelligence agency more frequently famed for ruthless efficiency. But when news trickled out in Israel this week that a spy from the Mossad had been arrested in Switzerland in an illegal bugging attempt, those were terms used to describe symptoms of a deep crisis that is gripping the agency.

Demoralised by a flood of unaccustomed publicity over a swift succession of bungles and now leaderless, the Mossad is ripe for restructuring, Israeli security experts say. They say that whoever succeeds former army general Danny Yatom, who resigned as head of the Mossad on Tuesday, will also have to stem leaks from inside the organisation itself that reflect the foul mood.

« Apparently we have more holes than a Swiss cheese, » Yedioth Ahronoth newspaper quoted a security official as saying. Yatom’s successor has yet to be named but newspapers reported on Friday that Major-General Aviram Levine, the army’s northern commander, was the leading contender. They said Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who served under Levine in an elite commando unit 25 years ago, could present his choice to the cabinet on Sunday.

The Swiss mishap, in which police discovered a suspected Mossad team attempting to wiretap a private house in Berne on February 19, might have been resolved quietly and never come to light if the Mossad had been a happy ship, the experts say.

Switzerland, which has close intelligence ties with Israel, went public with the case only on Thursday after sparse details of the affair, carefully worded to avoid breaking censorship, broke in the Israeli media.

The conventional wisdom in Israel is that a disgruntled source in the Mossad leaked the incident to force out Yatom, who had resisted resignation despite criticism by an official inquiry of his role in a botched attempt to kill a leading Palestinian militant, Khaled Meshal, in Jordan last September.

Four members of the Berne bugging team were released but one remains in custody, his case the focus of news reports around the world and his fate seemingly linked to Swiss demands for an apology Israel is reluctant to offer in public.

« You can’t even begin to assess the damage that has been caused by the leaks regarding this latest affair and it points to the insanity that has recently gripped the Mossad, » a senior diplomatic source told Yedioth Ahronoth. The Meshal fiasco, revelations that a Mossad officer had fed the agency for years with bogus intelligence on Syria and the Swiss bungle, all in the space of six months, have tarnished the Mossad’s image as a chillingly effective espionage machine.

Experts say that renown, founded on the 1960 kidnapping of Nazi fugitive Adolf Eichmann and daring killings of Palestinian guerrillas, is part myth established in times when foul-ups went unreported by a far less intrusive media.

« The Mossad doesn’t need a reputation. It needs to get its job done and if people want to laugh, let them, » said Joseph Alpher, a former senior Mossad official. He argued that news of the Swiss slip-up may even enhance the Mossad’s standing with a public that by and large accepts the philosophy that the agency has a right to act where it wants and how it wants in the interests of Israeli security. « I think it (publicity) reassures the public that our security services are indeed doing their best to protect us. We’re talking about genuine villains out there, » Alpher said. But he said it was « obviously distressing when you have three successive embarrassments » and troubling that the agency appeared to riddled with leaks. « That’s an indication that there’s some kind of distress among the people who are doing the leaks.

Clearly that is something that the next head of the Mossad should make a high priority, » he said. Yatom, an outsider, took over the agency in mid-1996 and, according to news reports, was unpopular from the start. He alienated seasoned department heads by trying to micro-manage operations, generating a command vacuum that filtered down through the ranks, critics say. Two senior Mossad officials, known only as « R » and « H, » recently resigned. Yossi Melman, an expert on the Mossad, wrote in Ha’aretz newspaper this week that Yatom’s successor would now have to reorganise the agency and possibly scale back its global reach. But Melman also suggested in an interview with Reuters that Yatom’ s successor may fare no better in a country rent by deep divisions over everything from the peace process with Palestinians to defining who is a Jew. « It’s true that the Mossad is in a crisis, there are problems facing the organisation, structural problems, problems of leadership,  » Melman said. « After all, the Mossad is just a reflection of Israeli society. It’s no better than the rest of the society and if there are problems facing Israeli society at large obviously it is going to be reflected in the Mossad. » top of page

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Swiss say no early release for jailed Mossad man; six took part
Marcus Kabel, 03-05-1998 top of page
BERN, Switzerland (Reuters) – An alleged Israeli Mossad agent detained in Switzerland after a bungled wiretapping bid would remain in custody while investigators probed the case, the country’s top prosecutor said Thursday. Federal Prosecutor Carla Del Ponte also denied Israeli media speculation that Switzerland would free the unnamed man quickly in return for official Israeli assurances that he would return for trial. « There is no question of releasing the detained agent before the investigation is completed and there are no agreements of any kind,  »

Del Ponte said in a statement. Del Ponte said she had met Israeli Attorney-General Elyakim Rubinstein in Bern on Wednesday to brief him on Swiss procedure but did not discuss details of the investigation. Rubinstein returned to Israel on Thursday, telling reporters there: « We will continue talking to them (Swiss officials) with the hope for a solution as soon as possible. » Diplomatic sources said Rubinstein hoped to arrange for the release of the agent, whose arrest in the late-night spy fiasco at an apartment in Bern on Feb. 19 battered both the name of the once-vaunted Mossad and the usually friendly Israeli-Swiss ties. Del Ponte’s statement said it was too early to tell when her probe would end. « On the basis of the investigation so far, it is certain that six Israeli agents took part in the Mossad action, » it said. De Ponte did not provide any more details about why the number of agents had been raised by one after her previous accounts had referred to five men, all Israelis.

The case unfolded when police, alerted by a watchful neighbor, seized the Israelis as they installed sophisticated wiretapping equipment in the basement of an apartment building. All but one agent were quickly released. The head of a key Swiss parliamentary committee questioned whether the incident was a genuine eavesdropping mission or deliberately staged to end in fiasco. Bernhard Seiler, chairman of the committee that supervises intelligence matters, said his committee wondered whether the flop may have been staged in order to embarrass Mossad chief Danny Yatom, who resigned as a result.

« Was this something serious or was it a game aimed at scoring a point at home in Israel, in other words to get rid of the boss? » Seiler told Reuters. « If so, were any Swiss nationals involved? »

Yatom quit Mossad after the Bern case gave the agency another black eye, its second botched operation on foreign soil following a bungled attempt to kill an Islamist leader in Jordan last year.

Efraim Halevy was named the new Mossad head Wednesday. Seiler said two points of the case made him question whether it had been an authentic exercise. One, he said, was that five agents seemed like an unusually large number to set up a wiretap and another was that one of the possible targets named in media reports — a Lebanese man married to a Swiss woman and registered as living in the building — had not in fact lived there for two or three years. « To put it bluntly, do you need so many people to eavesdrop on somebody who has obviously not lived there for a couple of years? » he said.

Neither Swiss nor Israeli officials have identified the target of the suspected eavesdropping attempt. top of page

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The Mossad’s CIA Spy, Michael Pollard, top of page
Pollard Revisited: Is Mr. X Spying Again in Washington?
Yossi Melman, Yossi Melman, a journalist for the Daily Ha’aretz, specializes in intelligence and terror affairs.
He is coauthor of « Every Spy a Prince: The Complete History of Israel’s Intelligence Community. »

Los Angeles Times, Sunday May 18, 1997, Home Edition, Opinion, Page 2

TEL AVIV–What do they mean when they say « Mega »? Is it an innocent code word used by the Israeli Mossad to describe the CIA? Or is it a sinister cipher referring to an American traitor who works for Israeli intelligence? Since last January, these uncertainties have poisoned the usually good and collaborative relations between the intelligence communities of United States and Israel. They have also revived bad memories of the Pollard affair.

Ironically, the latest espionage scandal began when U.S.-Israeli relations seemed to be back on track. In January, Benjamin Netanyahu’s Cabinet signed off on a U.S.-brokered agreement with the Palestinian Authority. Israeli troops withdrew from Hebron, and handed most of the city over to Yasser Arafat’s police and security forces. As a guarantor, Secretary of State Warren Christopher gave the two sides two different letters spelling out the U.S. commitments. The Clinton administration revealed the content of the two letters in only general terms.

Eager to see the exact wording of the letter given to the Palestinians, Netanyahu asked Israeli Ambassador Eliahu Ben-Elissar to get him a copy. Newly arrived in Washington and lacking good contacts in the capital, Ben-Elissar turned to the chief of the Mossad station at the Israeli Embassy. The chief, whose name Israeli censors refuse to reveal, was reluctant to comply with his request. He called his immediate superior, a senior official and head of the Tevel (universe) unit at Mossad headquarters. Their short conversation was intercepted by listening posts of the National Security Agency. According to the Washington Post, the station chief said: « The ambassador wants me to use Mega to get the letter. » His superior replied: « We do not use Mega for this. »

As a matter of procedure, a translated transcript of the intercepted communication was disseminated by the NSA to the other U.S. intelligence agencies. FBI counterintelligence experts suspected that Mega was a code word for a senior and well-connected administration official with access to the letters, as well as to other Middle East top secrets.

For more than a decade, the bureau and officials at the Department of Justice have been obsessed with the suspicion that Israeli intelligence is running a mole inside the administration. This conviction originated in November 1986, following the arrest of Jonathan J. Pollard at the gates of the Israeli Embassy. Pollard, a U.S. citizen of Jewish origins, worked as an analyst at the counterterrorism center of U.S. Navy intelligence. He was sentenced to life in prison for spying on behalf of a secret Israeli intelligence unit called Lakam, a Hebrew acronym for Scientific Liaison Bureau.

U.S. prosecutors and investigators believed that Pollard and his Israeli handlers were helped by another American, referred to as Mr. X, who probably was a senior administration official. Mr. X provided the reference numbers that helped Pollard pull out requested files from America’s most-secret intelligence computers. But the investigators could not uncover Mr. X. Now, the FBI is eager to determine whether the old Mr.

X of the Pollard affair is Mega.

Israeli officials have denied all. The Mossad has explained to the CIA that Mega is a code word it uses to describe its formal liaison relations with the spy agency. According to Rafi Eitan, a former senior Mossad official and former head of the disbanded Lakam, and who personally handled Pollard, the word Mega was derived from Megawatt. During the ’70s and ’80s, it was the name of an international gathering of representatives from a dozen Western intelligence organizations, including the Mossad and CIA, who exchanged information and assessments of Soviet capabilities and intentions. That body no longer exists.

Yet, the Clinton administration refuses to accept Israeli explanations at face value. Nor does it rule out the possibility that Israeli agents are involved in illegal activities on U.S. soil. The Pollard affair sowed the seeds of this mistrust.

In defense, Israeli officials claim they have learned the lessons of the Pollard case. « We shall never again run agents in the U.S.A. » vows Eitan. He and other intelligence experts also point out that it was not a coincidence that Pollard was handled by Lakam, not the Mossad. The Mossad and the CIA have long enjoyed warm and cordial relations. Mossad operatives are stationed, under diplomatic cover, at the Israeli Embassy in Washington as liaison officers to the CIA. U.S. spies posing as diplomats maintain their contacts with their Israeli counterparts through the U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv.

In the United States, Mossad has not only avoided spying on American targets, but has also refrained from operations against third parties, mainly Arab installations. Nevertheless, Nahum Admoni, the Mossad chief during the ’80s, must have known that Lakam was running Pollard. So must have Israeli Prime Ministers Yitzhak Shamir and Shimon Peres and Defense Ministers Moshe Arens and Yitzhak Rabin.

On the other hand, since the CIA is reluctant to operate against Israel on Israeli soil, it uses other intelligence agencies to obtain information it wants. The late Yitzhak Rabin told me after Pollard’s arrest that Israel had uncovered five American spies operating in sensitive nuclear and industrial facilities in the late ’70s and early ’80s. The spies were questioned but Israel’s flexible legal system made it possible for the government to release and expel them, thereby avoiding conflict with its best ally.

« It is clear to us, » admits a former senior intelligence official, « that both countries, despite their friendship and strategic cooperation, are constantly involved in espionage against each other. The big difference between the U.S. and Israel is in the methods of information gathering. » While Israel has relied more on « humint » (operating agents), the United States has mainly used « sigint » and « comint » (intercepting communication of all sorts and electronic signals). This operational difference is a result of capabilities and priorities.

The aerial forest on the roof of the four-story U.S. Embassy in Tel Aviv is evidence of the NSA’s capabilities and intentions. These antennas intercept virtually every single phone call, fax transmission and other means of communication originating in Israel. But the most impressive coup by the NSA was, probably unwittingly, revealed during the Mega crisis.

All Israeli diplomats and intelligence officers assigned abroad, and especially to the United States, are briefed to act as if their communication was intercepted. But now Israel knows for sure that the United States broke the Mossad code. Israeli code breakers, operating on « worst-case analysis, » assume that other codes, including those of the military and foreign ministry, have also been broken. In such circumstances, concludes an Israeli Cabinet minister, the damage to our national security is far greater than Pollard or maybe other Israeli operations might have wrought in the United States. top of page

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Associated Press Story
Norway wants Mike Harari probed in botched Mossad killing
Jerusalem Post, 11-25-1997, pp 02.
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Norway has asked Israel to interrogate Mike Harari, an ex-Mossad operative suspected of leading a team of assassins who shot and killed an innocent Moroccan waiter, Ahmed Bouchikhi, in Lillehammer in July 1973.

The agents apparently mistook the victim for Hassan Salameh, a PLO intelligence chief suspected of masterminding the killing of 11 athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics.

Five Mossad agents served brief prison terms in connection with the shooting and were pardoned.

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Norway reopens Mossad case of mistaken identity top of page
Patrick Cockburn, Norway reopens Mossad case of mistaken identity.

Independent, 11-26-1997, pp 12.

Almost a quarter of a century ago, Israel’s intelligence agency killed a Moroccan waiter in Norway in the belief that he was a Palestinian leader. Now Norway wants Israel to interrogate the chief suspect.

Patrick Cockburn in Jerusalem examines why thecase has been reopened.

The chief suspect, Mike Harari, was a Mossad veteran who went on to an inglorious career as arms dealer in Latin America and confidant of General Noriega, the dictator of Panama.

It was in July 1973 that a team of Mossad agents arrived in the town of Lillehammer in Norway, believing they had finally tracked down Ali Hassan Salameh, the « Red Prince », whom Israel held responsible for planning the killing of 11 Israeli athletes inMunich a year earlier.

The gunmen followed the supposed Palestinian leader around Lillehammer for several hours on 21 July and then shot him dead in front of a pregnant woman as he returned home from a film. Only later did they learn that the dead man was, in fact, a Moroccanwaiter called Ahmad Bouchiki, and the woman was his Norwegian wife.

The leader of the assassination squad was Mike Harari, according to Israeli books on the attack, now aged 70 and living in Tel Aviv. Norway reopened the investigation into the Bouchiki’s death last month. They made little effort at the time to locate MrHarari, who went on to enjoy a lucrative career as an arms dealer.

Why it has taken Norway so long to act is unclear. The Mossad operation was the most disastrous in the organisation’s history until September this year, when two of its men were arrested in Jordan as they tried to assassinate Khalid Meshal, a leader ofthe Hamas Islamic militants.

Two of those involved in killing Bouchiki in Lillehammer had rented cars under their own names, Dan Ert and Marianne Gladnikoff. They were arrested when they returned them at Oslo airport. Once they had provided the address of an flat used by Mossad,six other agents were arrested. Mr Ert turned out to suffer from claustrophobia and confessed everything to the Norwegian police in return for a larger cell.

The Israeli government paid compensation to the Bouchiki family two years ago, but without admitting responsibility for the killing. Five of the Mossad agents served short terms in prison and were pardoned. Mr Harari and his fellow agent and girlfriendwere almost alone in escaping. Another of the Mossad agents married her Norwegian lawyer. Mr Harari later sold Israeli arms worth about $500m to Latin America in the 1980s.

Now, seeing the statute of limitations running out, the Norwegian police have decided they would like Israel to ask him about what happened in Lillehammer in 1973. top of page

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A HIGHLY PRIZED DOCUMENT:
Mossad Spies love Canadian passports

Barry Came, World: , Maclean’s, 10-13-1997, pp 28.

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Among the cloak-and-dagger crowd, it has long been coveted as the passport of choice. Inoffensive, multi-ethnic and untainted by any past history of imperial sin, the small blue booklet with Canada’s gold coat of arms on its cover has masked a multitude of misdeeds in the shadowy world of international espionage. « Israeli agents are not the only people with a fondness for Canadian passports, » confides a veteran warrior of Canada’s clandestine services. « The Germans use it to document their illegals, the Russians use it to document their illegals, the British have done it for the same reason, even the Americans have been known to use it on more than one occasion. »

There is no mystery about the reasons. « Canadians are the good guys,  » says Alex Morrison, executive director of the Canadian Institute of Strategic Studies. « We’ve never been a colonial power, never declared war on anybody. We’re noted for inventing peacekeeping, for our foreign aid, for our objectivity. It’s all helped to make us one of the world’ s most attractive nationalities, welcome just about anywhere. » Just as importantly, Canada is a nation of immigrants, populated by people of virtually every race and creed. « Our passport’s color-blind, » says Morrison. « Everybody’s got a cousin somewhere. »

Not least in Israel. The bungled assassination attempt in Jordan is not the first time that Israel’s secret service has been caught manipulating Canadian passports. In 1973, Israeli agents travelling on doctored Canadian passports botched another execution attempt in Lillehammer, Norway. A team from Mossad, the Jewish state’s external security service, killed Ahmed Bouchiki, mistaking the Moroccan-born waiter for the Palestinian who planned the murder of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. One member of that hit squad, arrested by Norwegian police, was found to be using the identity of Canadian Patricia Roxborough, a legal secretary whose passport had been stolen months earlier from the desk of her Montreal office.

The following year, 50 blank passports were stolen from the vault of the Canadian Embassy in Vienna.

One of those documents, traced by the registration number, turned up a year later in Nicosia, Cyprus.

It was left behind by a member of a Mossad team that had detonated explosives under the hotel bed of a sleeping Palestinian guerrilla leader, killing him instantly.

In addition to outright theft, Israel’s clandestine services have other means to obtain Canadian documents. It is an open secret that new immigrants to the Jewish state, especially from Canada, are sometimes encouraged to donate passports, both valid and expired, to unidentified bureaucrats in the interests of what is euphemistically known as  » the security of the state. »

There also appears to be a thriving black market in Canadian passports, both genuine and faked.

Canadian officials have no inkling of how large the illicit traffic might be in the 1.3 million passports that are issued annually, but they privately acknowledge that it is happening. As for the forgeries, Mossad defector Victor Ostrovsky, in the 1991 book he co-authored with Canadian journalist Claire Hoy, By Way of Deception, described a secret Israeli factory engaged in the manufacture of forged passports, including a batch of more than 1,000 Canadian documents. Israel’s spies might be embarrassed by the revelation. But, as events in Jordan have clearly demonstrated, not enough to forgo the benefits of posing as the world’s nice guy.

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College Course Claims JFK Conspiracy by ADL

By MICHAEL GRANBERRY, TIMES STAFF WRITER

Los Angeles Times, Thursday August 21, 1997, Part A, Page 1

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The South Orange County Community College District has approved a course that claims a conspiracy was behind the assassination of President John F. Kennedy and has committed $5,000 for flying in four guest speakers, one of whom says the Israeli intelligence agency, Mossad, masterminded the killing.

Last November, Frogue received a bigger endorsement than any other candidate in the district, garnering 128,361 votes in a reelection bid for a decisive 61% to 39% win over his opponent.

Frogue … said during an interview last fall that he believed the Anti-Defamation League played a key role in killing Kennedy.

Calling the Anti-Defamation League « a group of spies that actively keeps files on people . . . people like me, » Frogue added, « I believe Lee Harvey Oswald worked for the ADL. That’s right. . . . I believe the ADL was behind it. »

The author of « Final Judgment: The Missing Link in the JFK Assassination Conspiracy, » Piper explained his views.

The assassination, he said, « was a joint enterprise conducted on the highest levels of the American CIA, in collaboration with organized crime–and most specifically, with direct and profound involvement by the Israeli intelligence service, the Mossad. »

Piper assessed Israel’s motive as having evolved from a dispute between Kennedy and the late David Ben-Gurion, the former Israeli prime minister.

« They were involved in a heated dispute just months before the assassination, » Piper said, « over Kennedy’s refusal to support Israel in its drive to build a nuclear weapon. Other authors have documented that this dispute, as much as anything, caused Ben-Gurion to resign. »

Skolnick said he had written about what he called « an apparent plot » against JFK 2 1/2 weeks before the assassination, in which he claimed Oswald and « an Oswald look-alike » had intended to assassinate the president as he rode in a parade en route to a football game in Chicago. top of page

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Syria Says Damascus Bus Boming Blast Set by Mossad

Reuters, 01-06-1997

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DAMASCUS, Syria (Reuter) – U.S. Ambassador to Syria Christopher Ross has denounced as an « ugly terrorist act » the bombing of a bus in Damascus on New Year’s Eve which killed 11 and wounded 42, officials said Monday. They said the ambassador’s remarks were contained in a message he sent to Foreign Minister Farouq al-Shara. « I was surprised while I was on vacation abroad with reports of the ugly terrorist act which killed innocent people and wounded several,  » officials quoted Ross as saying in his message. « While denouncing this ugly act, may I convey to you and families of the victims deep condolences, and to the wounded best wishes for speedy recovery, » he said. Syria has accused agents of Israel’s intelligence service Mossad of responsibility for the bombing. top of page

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Issam Hamza, Syrian paper accuses Israel of planning bombings

Reuters, 01-06-1997.

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DAMASCUS, Jan 6 (Reuter) – An official Syrian newspaper charged on Monday that Israel was preparing for more attacks against Syria and Lebanon and said a new round of violence would not exclude the Jewish state. Syrian Vice-President Abdel-Halim Khaddam, in remarks published on Monday, also reiterated Damascus’s accusation that Israel was behind a bus blast in Damascus on New Year’s Eve which killed 11 people and wounded 42. Israel has denounced the bombing and described the accusation as « an outright lie. » The official daily Tishreen said the Israeli government of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was planning more bombings in Syria and Lebanon after the Damascus bus blast and an attack on Syrian workers in Lebanon that killed one person last month. « The Netanyahu government would be mistaken if it thinks that it is able to preserve its security by threatening the security and stability of others through committing massacres against innocent civilians, » Mohammed Khair al-Wadi, director-general of Tishreen, wrote. Syria has accused agents of the Israeli intelligence service Mossad of being responsible for the attack with the aim of sabotaging the Middle East peace process. The United States has warned Damascus against making « wild and irresponsible » statements without evidence. « In order to close the door on the peace process completely, the Netanyahu government resorted to ugly crimes against Syrian buses in Syria and Lebanon, » Wadi said. « It has become clear to all that Israel had committed these crimes and is planning to commit new terrorist operations… « With this the Netanyahu government would drag the region into a new cycle of violence, terrorism, tension and the danger of war…This cycle will not exclude Israel, » he said. Khaddam said in remarks published by Kuwait’s Al-Rai Al-Aam newspaper that Damascus was « convinced that Israel is behind that » bombing. Asked if the accusations were based on results of investigations or if they stemmed from « the general Israeli position towards Damascus,  » Khaddam said: « As a matter of fact the matter is based on both aspects. The main target of the bombing is the Syrian policy. The policy of Syria towards the Arab-Israeli conflict. « It is a political bombing. It is not merely a group of people committing a regular crime. This is a political crime in the full sense of the word, » Khaddam said. Khaddam said he did not wish to reveal the findings of the investigation in the bombing. But « when the investigations end they will be published,  » he said. « It (Israel) has carried out similar acts in Lebanon and outside Lebanon and there will be a day when facts will be published in full,  » said Khaddam. Last month there was a machinegun attack against a bus carrying Syrian workers in Lebanon. The Lebanese government said Israeli agents were behind the attack that killed the driver. Syria is the main foreign power broker in Lebanon where it has some 35,000 troops. Israel occupies part of south Lebanon. Ties between Syria and Israel, who have held sporadic peace talks since 1991, deteriorated severely after Netanyahu took office in June last year. Syria has said it will not resume the talks, suspended in March by Israel’s previous government, until Netanyahu changes his policy of refusing to swap occupied Arab land for peace. top of page

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Syria says Israeli agents kill nine in bomb blast
Reuters, 01-02-1997

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DAMASCUS, Syria (Reuter) – Syria said Thursday that Israeli agents planted a bomb on a bus in central Damascus Tuesday, killing nine people and wounding others. « Nine people were killed and 44 others were wounded in the criminal action against a transport bus in Damascus, » an official spokesman told the Syrian news agency SANA. « This terrorist, cowardly and criminal action comes within the framework of threats which were launched recently by Israeli officials that aim at killing the peace process, » he said. « Agents of the (Israeli intelligence agency) Mossad utilized preparations for the New Year celebrations Tuesday 31.12.1996 with people leaving to their towns and planted an explosive device inside the bus which exploded minutes after it left the bus station at noon, » the official said. Earlier a Beirut-based businessman who has just returned from a trip to Damascus told Reuters in Nicosia, Cyprus, that at least 15 people were killed and 50 wounded in the explosion at Al-Intilak Center bus and taxi station as the bus prepared to leave to the northern city of Aleppo.

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Former Israeli Mossad agent charged in drugs case

By Janet Guttsman, Reuters, 03-28-1996.

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JERUSALEM (Reuter) – Israeli authorities have charged a former agent of Israel’s Mossad spy agency with trying to smuggle drugs into Canada, using diplomatic forgeries, a Justice Ministry spokeswoman said Thursday. Israel’s Maariv newspaper, reporting on the case after winning a court order to make details public, said Yaakov Ramon, 46, used spycraft learned in the agency in the alleged attempt to smuggle 160 pounds of cocaine from Venezuela to Canada. Ramon, who left Mossad in 1984, was arrested at an airport in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1992 carrying bogus diplomatic bags containing the drug, the newspaper said. Maariv said Ramon used his espionage expertise to forge diplomatic seals with the stamp of the Israeli Embassy in Caracas. But the newspaper said Ramon apparently botched the job, raising the suspicions of Venezuelan customs agents. He spent 28 months in a Venezuelan prison. The Justice Ministry spokeswoman said Ramon was arrested late last year on his return to Israel and charged with using false documents and transporting dangerous drugs. The charges carry a maximum penalty of 20 years in prison. Maariv said his trial would begin soon.

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Lebanon court rejects appeal by Mossad agent

Eugene Moosa,

Reuters, 07-29-1996

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BEIRUT, July 29 (Reuter) – A Lebanese military court turned down on Monday an appeal by a Lebanese Mossad agent sentenced to death for carrying out a 1994 blast that killed three people in a Beirut suburb. Judge Amin Nassar of the military court rejected in a court session the appeal by Ahmad Hallaq who was found guilty on June 19 of the December 1994 bombing. The court had said Hallaq was instructed by the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad to carry out the bombing which killed Hizbollah security official Fouad Moughneyeh and two others in in the pro-Iranian group’ s stronghold in southern Beirut. The court’s response to the appeal was that « the reasons filed in the appeal do not lead to the annulment of the sentence and the ruling has become irrevocable. » Under the Lebanese law, Hallaq has the right to appeal for a presidential amnesty under which the president can commute or annul the sentence. top of page

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Freedom sought for Israel’s Nuclear Whistle Blower Vanunu

Costas Paris, Reuters, 10-13-1996.

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JERUSALEM (Reuter) – Mordechai Vanunu’s supporters appealed for his freedom Sunday, a decade after Israel jailed him for spilling nuclear secrets to a British newspaper. They gathered for a two-day international conference due to start in Tel Aviv Monday in support of the 42-year-old former nuclear technician jailed as a traitor and spy in Israel but hailed by anti-nuclear activists as a prophet of peace. Organizer Rami Halbrun told Israel Radio they submitted a petition signed by 12,000 Norwegians to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and would seek to visit Vanunu, who is in isolation at Ashkelon prison, southern Israel. Vanunu, who worked at Israel’s top-secret Dimona nuclear reactor for nine years, was sentenced to 18 years in jail for telling London’ s Sunday Times in September 1986 that the Jewish state had produced up to 200 atomic bombs. The Sunday Times said a blonde agent for Israel’s Mossad secret service lured Vanunu to Italy at the time, promising sex. It said he was then drugged, chained and spirited by ship to Israel where his court case was shrouded in secrecy. Taking part in the conference will be anti-nuclear activist Professor Joseph Rotblat, winner of the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize, along with American Daniel Ellsberg who in 1971 blew the whistle on U.S.

Vietnam policy by publishing the Pentagon Papers. Vanunu’s lawyer said he acted out of idealism to awaken Israelis to the dangers of nuclear weapons.

The anti-nuclear movement has never caught on in security conscious Israel. The Jewish state has never admitted holding nuclear weapons although it is widely assumed to have them. It says only that it will not be the first to introduce nuclear weapons into the region. Under Israeli law, Vanunu could be freed for good behavior in November 1998.

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Mossad Caught in Pack of Intelligence Lies

Including Course Called « The Lie As Art » Israel’s dissembling spook is hardly unique…

The CIA for years was awash in mendacity.

By ALEXANDER COCKBURN, Alexander Cockburn writes for the Nation and other publications Los Angeles Times Thursday December 18, 1997, Home Edition, Metro, Page 9

Time magazine a year ago ran a big story, flagged on its cover as « Israel Prepares for War, » about fears of a Syrian attack on the Golan Heights. The supposed crisis began in August 1996, when Syria’s leader Hafez Assad moved his 14th Division from Beirut to the border. There’s no doubt that the Syrian army division was moved forward. Far more questionable was the view of the Israeli high command that an attack might be imminent.

The uproar overshadowed the peace process, then being even further discredited by Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, and suggested that Israel’s suspicions of any process involving the word « peace » might be well-founded. Time’s long story on Dec. 9, 1996, stressed the ill-preparedness and underbudgeted state of Israel’s armed forces, thus furnishing ammunition for increased U.S. aid.

The whole crisis, as ultimately relayed by Time, was fomented by a Mossad officer who was a member of Moledet, a right-wing party hostile to anything resembling a peace process. The 63-year-old officer, Yehuda Gil, retired in 1989 but was still filing intelligence reports to the spy agency because his longtime Syrian mole was regarded as critically important. But there was no such highly placed Syrian source. Gil, noted for his Mossad training course titled « The Lie as Art, » was making everything up and pocketing the money he was meant to be handing over to his agent.

At some point, Gil aroused suspicions, if not in the bosom of his credulous or complicit overseers in Mossad then among other intelligence agencies chided for lacking the superb Damascus contacts of the legendary Mossad.

Gil was finally placed under surveillance by his Mossad colleagues and confronted; he soon confessed and now faces trial. The case has been covered extensively in the Israeli press, but was a one-day item in U.S.

media. In some Israeli papers, heroic efforts were made to put as much space as possible between Gil and his employer, and between Gil and any political agenda.

Like many career officers in intelligence, Gil was certainly a diligent liar. In retirement he volunteered to serve on the water board of his village, Gadara. Not long thereafter, the Gadara water board, wearied by his unceasing deceptions even in this picayune function, gave him the boot. But here was no pensioner who started to crack up only in retirement. By some Israeli press accounts, Gil was drafting politically explosive intelligence assessments a decade before he retired to the semiofficial status that still had him handling Mossad’s « top agent » in Syria.

Prominent in the program of damage control has been the assertion of Mossad’s allies in Israel that this was somehow a unique blot. « In the 46 years of the Mossad’s work, there has never been an instance in which its officials defrauded in terms of the intelligence reports which they conveyed, » wrote Ron Ben-Yishai, a military reporter for Yediot Aharonot.

It’s impossible to read this sort of stuff without laughing, since Mossad’s violent mendacities from its earliest days are by now well-known. As perhaps the most famous example, we have only to read the recent historical excavations of the Lavon affair of the 1950s, in which Mossad undertook an extensive program of provocations against Egypt.

Mossad’s role has always been to misrepresent and exaggerate the threats to Israel’s security and to head off, often by assassination, any human threats to its preferred image of Arab intransigence. Years ago, when he was director of U.S. central intelligence, Adm. Stansfield Turner underwrote an agency report that denounced Mossad’s achievements and reputation as vastly overblown.

As the CIA headed into the Reagan years it was freighted with Yehuda Gils by the hundred, all lying their heads off in the collective effort to inflate the terrible Soviet threat (and of course the Arab threat, too), to be beaten back only by vast new U.S. military expenditures.

Gil is a far more useful emblem of the nature of spying than someone out of Le Carre. In Gil, you have the paradigm of all those intelligence officers whispering their fantasies into eager journalists’ ears down the decades, insisting–to take the latest bout–that Moammar Kadafi’s irrigation scheme in Libya is in fact a sinister military plot, as the New York Times reported. Of course, Kadafi has twice hosted Nelson Mandela and has been mustering increasing international support. Time to take him down a peg or two and reassert his mad-dog status. That’s the function of the Yehuda Gils of this world, and the secret agencies they work for, helped along by the Fourth Estate.

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Top: Jewish References & Documents: Gentiles Speaking About Jews: Benjamin Franklin

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The Franklin Prophecy
Jewish Usenet Discussions

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THE FRANKLIN PROPHECY
Recorded by Charles Coteworth Pinckney
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1787

(This prophecy, by Benjamin Franklin, was made in a « CHIT CHAT AROUND THE TABLE DURING INTERMISSION, » at the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention of 1787. This statement was recorded in the dairy of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, a delegate from South Carolina.)

« I fully agree with General Washington, that we must protect this young nation from an insidious influence and impenetration. The menace, gentlemen, is the Jews.

« In whatever country Jews have settled in any great number, they have lowered its moral tone; depreciated its commercial integrity; have segregated themselves and have not been assimilated; have sneered at and tried to undermine the Christian religion upon which that nation is founded, by objecting to its restrictions; have built up a state within the state; and when opposed have tried to strangle that country to death financially, as in the case of Spain and Portugal.

« For over 1,700 years, the Jews have been bewailing their sad fate in that they have been exiled from their homeland, as they call Palestine. But gentlemen, did the world give it to them in fee simple, they would at once find some reason for not returning. Why? Because they are vampires, and vampires do not live on vampires. They cannot live only among themselves. They must subsist on Christians and other people not of their race.

« If you do not exclude them from these United States, in their Constitution, in less than 200 years they will have swarmed here in such great numbers that they will dominate and devour the land and change our form of government, for which we Americans have shed our blood, given our lives our substance and jeopardized our liberty.

« If you do not exclude them, in less than 200 years our descendants will be working in the fields to furnish them substance, while they will be in the counting houses rubbing their hands. I warn you, gentlemen, if you do not exclude Jews for all time, your children will curse you in your graves.

« Jews, gentlemen, are Asiatics, let them be born where they will nor how many generations they are away from Asia, they will never be otherwise. Their ideas do not conform to an American’s, and will not even thou they live among us ten generations. A leopard cannot change its spots. Jews are Asiatics, are a menace to this country if permitted entrance, and should be excluded by this Constitutional Convention. »

-Benjamin Franklin, 1787, at The Constitutional Convention, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

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Top: Jewish Controlled Press: Newspapers in USA

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USA’s Pro-Zionist-Soviet-Jews Who Own & Monopolize 90% of the Movie Business for Pro-Zionist, Race Mixing, and Anti-Christian Lifestyle Propaganda
Jewish Usenet Discussions

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Monopolist Jewish Pro-Zionist/Pro-Soviet Control of Movie Studios top of page

The largest media conglomerate today is Walt Disney Company, whose chairman and CEO, Michael Eisner, is a Jew. The Disney empire, headed by a man described by one media analyst as « a control freak, » includes several television production companies (Walt Disney Television, Touchstone Television, Buena Vista Television), its own cable network with 14 million subscribers, and two video production companies.

As for feature films, the Walt Disney Picture Group, headed by Joe Roth (also a Jew), includes Touchstone Pictures, Hollywood Pictures, and Caravan Pictures. Disney also owns Miramax Films, run by the Weinstein brothers, who have produced such ultra-raunchy movies such as The Crying Game, Priests, and Kids.

When the Disney Company was run by the Gentile Disney family prior to its takeover by Eisner in 1984, it epitomized wholesome, family entertainment. While it still holds the rights to Snow White, under Eisner the company has expanded into the production of graphic sex and gratuitous violence. In addition to TV and movies, the corporation owns Disneyland, Disney World, Epcot Center, Tokyo Disneyland, and Euro Disney.

Time Warner, Inc., is the second of the international media leviathans. The chairman of the board and CEO, Gerald M. Levin, is a Jew. Time Warner’s subsidiary HBO is the country’s largest pay-TV cable network.

Viacom, Inc., headed by Sumner Redstone (born Murray Rothstein), is the third largest megamedia corporation in the country, with revenues of over $10 billion a year. Viacom, which produces and distributes TV programs for the three largest networks, owns 12 television stations and 12 radio stations. It produces feature films through Paramount Pictures, headed by Jewess Sherry Lansing.

Its publishing division includes Prentice Hall, Simon & Schuster, and Pocket Books. It distributes videos through over 4,000 Blockbuster stores. It is also involved in satellite broadcasting, theme parks, and video games.

Viacom’s chief claim to fame, however, is as the world’s largest provider of cable programming, through its Showtime, MTV, Nickelodeon, and other networks. Since 1989, MTV and Nickelodeon have acquired larger and larger shares of the juvenile television audience. Redstone, who actually owns 76 percent of the shares of Viacom ($3 billion), offers Beavis and Butthead as teen role models and is the largest single purveyor of race-mixing propaganda to White teenagers and sub-teens in America and Europe. MTV pumps its racially mixed rock and rap videos into 210 million homes in 71 countries and is the dominant cultural influence on White teenagers around the world.

With the top three, and by far the largest, media conglomerates in the hands of Jews, it is difficult to believe that such an overwhelming degree of control came about without a deliberate, concerted effort on their part.

What about the other big media companies?

Number four on the list is Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation, which owns Fox Television Network and 20th Century Fox Films. Murdoch is a Gentile, but Peter Chernin, who heads Murdoch’s film studio and also oversees his TV production, is a Jew.

Number five is the Japanese Sony Corporation, whose U.S. subsidiary, Sony Corporation of America, is run by Michael Schulhof, a Jew. Alan J. Levine, another Jew, heads the Sony Pictures division.

Most of the television and movie production companies that are not owned by the largest corporations are also controlled by Jews. For example, New World Entertainment, proclaimed by one media analyst as « the premiere independent TV program producer in the United States, » is owned by Ronald Perelman, a Jew who also owns Revlon cosmetics. The chairman at New World, Brandon Tartikoff (formerly head of entertainment programming at NBC), is also a Jew.

The best known of the smaller media companies, DreamWorks SKG, is a strictly kosher affair. DreamWorks was formed in 1994 amid great media hype by recording industry mogul David Geffen, former Disney Pictures chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg, and film direction Steven Spielberg, all three of whom are Jews. The company produces movies, animated films, television programs, and recorded music. Considering the cash and connections that Geffen, Katzenberg, and Spielberg have, DreamWorks may soon be in the same league as the big three.

Two other large production companies, MCA and Universal Pictures, are both owned by Seagram Company, Ltd. The president and CEO of Seagram, the liquor giant, is Edgar Bronfman, Jr., who is also president of the World Jewish Congress.

It is well known that Jews have controlled the production and distribution of films since the inception of the movie industry in the early decades of this century. This is still the case today.

Films produced by just the five largest motion picture companies mentioned above — Disney, Warner Brothers, Sony, Paramount (Viacom), and Universal (Seagram) — accounted for 74 percent of the total box-office receipts for the year to date (August 1995). top of page

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The Numbers Game
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Over the years, the numbers of « dead » in Auschwitz have changed drastically. Hardly anyone can keep the lie straight any more. Here is a graph to illustrate how « casualties » can fluctuate. At the end of this page is a list of the various numbers that have come and gone over the years.

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The original plaques at Auschwitz – where the Communists lied about the number of dead.
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June 7, 1979. Pope John Paul II praying for the big « 4 million » lie and blessing 2 1/2 million non-existent victims. The Poles bestowed « Holocaust » medals posthumously to non-existent martyrs.

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Pope praying before false plaques
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Gerald Ford, the President of the United States, also paid homage to the lie, as have hundreds of Presidents, Prime Ministers and dignitaries from around the world – for years!

After the second Zündel trial in Canada, the inscriptions on the plaques in Auschwitz were removed. Below is Ernst Zündel pointing out during a visit to Auschwitz where the lying inscriptions used to be.

Revisionism at work

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The Truth Will Set You Free
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The new plaques in Auschwitz now claim deceptively that more than 1.5 million people were killed here.

First the Poles reduced the number of victims to 1 million, then the Jews wanted to have at least 960,000 dead Jews. That did not leave enough room for all the other professional « victims » like Gypsies, Communists, Poles, etc. and therefore the number was increased up to a politically more saleable 1.5 million.

Wheeling and dealing in numbers of dead, like in some Arab bazaar in the Middle East.

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The Numbers Game – once more!
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Over the years, the numbers of « dead » in Auschwitz have changed drastically. Hardly anyone can keep the lie straight any more. Here is a graph to illustrate how « casualties » can fluctuate. At the end of this page is a list of the various numbers that have come and gone over the years.

Dec. 31, 1945 French Research Dept. for Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal 8,000,000
April 20, 1978 Le Monde (One of Frances largest newspapers) 5,000,000
Jan. 23, 1995 Die Welt (One of Germanys largest newspapers) 5,000,000
April 20, 1989 Kogon, Der-SS-Staat (Expert on III Reich) 4,500,000
Oct. 1, 1946 International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg document number 008-USSR 4,000,000
Nov. 24, 1989 Chief Prosecutor Majorowsky, Wuppertal File No. (12 js 1037/89) 4,000,000
July 26, 1990 Germany’s largest Jewish Weekly, « Allgemeine Jüdische Wochenzeitung » 4,000,000
Dec. 08, 1993 ZDF, Germany’s second largest T.V. network 4,000,000
Jan. 25, 1995 German paper « Wetzlaer Neue Zeitung » 4,000,000
Oct. 1, 1946 International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg document number 3868-PS 3,000,000
Jan. 1, 1995 German magazine « Damals » (Magazine about history) 3,000,000
July 18, 1990 The Peninsula Times Tribune, San Fransisco (USA) 2,000,000
July 25, 1990 German newspaper Hamburger Adendblatt 2,000,000
Jan. 27, 1995 German newspaper « Die Welt » 2,000,000
June 11, 1992 Germany’s largest Jewish Weekly, « Allgemeine Jüdische Wochenzeitung » 1,500,000
Oct. 8, 1993 ZDF, Germany’s second largest T.V. network 1,500,000
Jan. 23, 1995 German newspaper « Die Welt » 1,500,000
Sept. 1, 1989 French newspaper « Le Monde » 1,433,000
Feb. 2, 1995 Large German weekly magazine « Bunte » 1,400,000
Jan. 22, 1995 German newspaper « Welt am Sonntag » 1,200,000
Jan. 27, 1995 German newspaper « Die Welt » 1,100,000
Dec. 21, 1994 Institute for Contempory History, Semi-official organ of the German State 1,000,000
Dec. 31, 1989 Jean-Claude Pressac’s book « Auschwitz: Technique and Operation of the Gas Chamber » 928,000
Sept. 27, 1993 German newspaper « Die Welt » 800,000
Jan. 22, 1995 German newspaper « Welt am Sonntag » 750,000
May 1, 1994 Focus newsmagazine. Over 2 million circulation 700,000
Jan. 23, 1995 German newspaper « Die Welt » 700,000
Jan. 31, 1994 Jean-Claude Pressac’s book « The Auschwitz Crematorium » 470,000
Jan. 8, 1948 Allied censored post-war German News Reels (Wochenschau Nr. 137) 300,000
Jan. 6, 1990 Frankfurter Rundschau 74,000
May 31, 1995 Former Director of the Institute for Military History at Freiburg, Hoffmann in his book « Stalins war of Destruction » 74,000

Pick your favourite number – facts don’t matter, truth does not matter, death certificates don’t matter to the Holocaust promoters! Anti-German propaganda is the only thing that seems to matter in this racket!

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Top: Jewish References & Documents: What Gentiles Said About Jews: Adolf Hitler: Quotes

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Hitler on Jews

Not until my fourteenth or fifteenth year did I begin to come across the word ‘Jew,’ with any frequency, partly in connection with political discussions…. For the Jew was still characterized for me by nothing but his religion, and therefore, on grounds of human tolerance, I maintained my rejection of religious attacks in this case as in others. Consequently, the tone, particularly that of the Viennese anti-Semitic press, seemed to me unworthy of the cultural tradition of a great nation. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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I was not in agreement with the sharp anti-Semitic tone, but from time to time I read arguments which gave me some food for thought. At all events, these occasions slowly made me acquainted with the man and the movement, which in those days guided Vienna’s destinies: Dr. Karl Lueger and the Christian Social Party. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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(Note: Karl Lueger (1844-1910) belonged as a member of the anti-Semitic Christian Social Party, he became mayor of Vienna and kept his post until his death.)

The man and the movement seemed ‘reactionary’ in my eyes. My common sense of justice, however, forced me to change this judgment in proportion as I had occasion to become acquainted with the man and his work; and slowly my fair judgment turned to unconcealed admiration. Today, more than ever, I regard this man as the greatest German mayor of all times. -Adolf Hitler speaking about Dr. Karl Lueger (Mein Kampf)

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How many of my basic principles were upset by this change in my attitude toward the Christian Social movement! My views with regard to anti-Semitism thus succumbed to the passage of time, and this was my greatest transformation of all. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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The Jew has always been a people with definite racial characteristics and never a religion. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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Due to his own original special nature, the Jew cannot possess a religious institution, if for no other reason because he lacks idealism in any form, and hence belief in a hereafter is absolutely foreign to him. And a religion in the Aryan sense cannot be imagined which lacks the conviction of survival after death in some form. Indeed, the Talmud is not a book to prepare a man for the hereafter, but only for a practical and profitable life in this world. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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The best characterization is provided by the product of this religious education, the Jew himself. His life is only of this world, and his spirit is inwardly as alien to true Christianity as his nature two thousand years previous was to the great founder of the new doctrine. Of course, the latter made no secret of his attitude toward the Jewish people, and when necessary he even took the whip to drive from the temple of the Lord this adversary of all humanity, who then as always saw in religion nothing but an instrument for his business existence. In return, Christ was nailed to the cross, while our present-day party Christians debase themselves to begging for Jewish votes at elections and later try to arrange political swindles with atheistic Jewish parties– and this against their own nation. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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First, therefore, [the Jew] goes about making up to the people for his previous sins against them. He begins his career as the ‘benefactor’ of mankind. Since his new benevolence has a practical foundation, that the left hand should not know what the right hand giveth; no, whether he likes it or not, he must reconcile himself to letting as many people as possible know how deeply he feels the sufferings of the masses and all the sacrifices that he himself is making to combat them. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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But even more: all at once the Jew also becomes liberal and begins to rave about the necessary progress of mankind. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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If we consider how greatly he has sinned against the masses in the course of the centuries, how he has squeezed and sucked the blood again and again; if furthermore, we consider how the people gradually learned to hate him for this, and ended up by regarding his existence as nothing but punishment of Heaven for the other peoples, we can understand how hard this shift must be for the Jew. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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With satanic joy in his face, the black-haired Jewish youth lurks in wait for the unsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from her people. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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…the personification of the devil as the symbol of all evil assumes the living shape of the Jew. -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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And so he [the Jew] advances on his fatal road until another force comes forth to oppose him, and in a mighty struggle hurls the heaven-stormer back to Lucifer. Germany is today the next great war aim of Bolshevism. It requires all the force of a young missionary idea to raise our people up again, to free them from the snares of this international serpent… -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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Hence today I believe that I am acting in accordance with the will of the Almighty Creator: ‘by defending myself against the Jew, I am fighting for the work of the Lord.’ -Adolf Hitler (Mein Kampf)

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